5

In Russian, class 10 contains only a handful of verbs ending in either -олоть or -ороть.

On the other hand, looking at the list in Wiktionary, class 6 contains only one verbs in -рать (орать) and none in -лать, except some ending in -брать, -драть, -срать, etc.

Am I correct in thinking that these two classes both belonged to class III in Proto-Slavic (consonant + j + thematic vowel), and the difference arose only in that in class 10 the preceding consonant is a liquid?

2

Yes, you are correct. This is the way how ъ vowel morphed in Modern Russian comparing to Proto-Slavic:

 P.Sl | Modern Ru | Example
 ъла  |  оло      | г(ъ)лас-голос, х(ъ)ладъ-холод
 ъле  |  оло      | м(ъ)леко-молоко (but: млечный), м(ъ)ладой-молодой, г(ъ)лас-голос
 ъра  |  оро      | г(ъ)радъ-город, в(ъ)рата-ворота, к(ъ)раткий-короткий
                  | ст(ъ)ража-сторож, з(ъ)лато-золото
 ъре  |  ере      | б(ъ)рег-берег (but: прибрежный)

This rule is not exhaustive, e.g. in some cases ъ has reduced at all:

 ч(ъ)резмѣрный - чрезмерный

…or expanded into a full-featured о or е:

 п(ъ)рег(ъ)радить – перегородить

The grammar rules for verb conjugation retained, so you may safely consider verbs with -оло- equivalent to those with -ла-, and so on.

See Wikipedia article for Полногласие.
Note that even the word "полногласие" itself has reduced vowel that hasn't been morphed: гласголос.

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