Of the languages I know about, most of them (not Chinese, Japanese, etc.) only have characters or character groups for specific sounds, and also can have a single specific sound generated by placing two or more characters together, such as (in English) 'sh', 'th', 'ch', 'oo', and long vowel sounds caused by an 'e' at the end of the word/syllable.
Also, some characters can represent multiple sounds put together, such as 'x', which in English sounds like 'ks' (or in some cases 'z'). Also, many characters can have multiple sounds, such as 'c' — it can have a hard 'k' or soft 's' sound. Most languages that use characters for sounds have these rules where sound can change depending on other characters paired/near the affected character, and I have not heard of any of these types of languages that has a large set of sounds they use and a single character for each sound that cannot be affected.
I don't know any languages where the sounds created by pairing a character with an 'h' (ex. 'ch', 'sh', 'th', 'ph'...) have a single character that represents them, or a character for all vowel sounds (ex. 'oo', 'ee', 'uh'...). For example, let's say that 'u' represents the 'oo' sound, 'i' represents the 'ee' sound, 'a' represents the 'ah' sound, 'o' represents the 'oh' sound (without the 'oo' drop at the end) and ☺ represents the 'ch' sound. (Some letters have multiple mouth positions, such as 'o', where you move your lips closer together while saying its sound — I am talking about a character for every mouth position, so this letter would become two letters put together, 'ou'.)
We would spell some words differently, such as "hi" --> "hai", "cockroach" --> cacrou☺, and "bone" --> "boun". Are there any languages that work this way, with a single independent character for every single sound made in that language? This would make it possible to always pronounce a word correctly just by reading it. If no languages such as the one I have described exist, then why? Is it because of the incorporation of words from other languages or the changing of dialect over time, or is it just a question of origin? It would be very interesting if someone could explain this to me (since I don't know much about linguistics).