I am asked to do some NLP tasks on a language which is agglutinative. I am finding these terms difficult to understand since my background is different. I am looking for some nice books that give a good introduction on these terms.
In order to understand basic linguistic terminology, you might consult The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics.
In contrast to isolating languages with one morpheme per word, words in agglutinative languages have multiple morphemes per word. The challenge for NLP when working with agglutinative languages is detecting morpheme boundaries within words. Instead of a syntactic parser, a morphological parser becomes more crucial.
You could first start by
Yule, G., 2014. The study of language. Cambridge University Press. A more refined and specific introduction to linguistics would be
Fromkin, V., Rodman, R. and Hyams, N., 2013. An introduction to language. Cengage Learning. also if you have hard time understanding linguistic terms you could take a look at the book
Trask, R.L., 2013. A dictionary of grammatical terms in linguistics. Routledge.
In the end if you have enough time to read 500+ pages you could read
O'grady, O.W., Archibald, J., Aronoff, M. and Rees-Miller, J., 1989. Contemporary linguistics: An introduction.
The NLP content in this book needs updating, but there is a simple linguistics primer inside Foundations of Natural Language Processing by Hinrich Schütze and Chris Manning.