Linked Questions

1 vote
3 answers
2k views

Difference between particle and adverb in English

Some dictionaries such as Cambridge Online Dictionary defines the word particle as a word or a part of a word that has a grammatical purpose but often has little or no meaning: In the sentence "I ...
Rathony's user avatar
  • 119
1 vote
1 answer
2k views

How are to-infinitive clauses treated in x-bar syntax trees?

For example: The man refused to send any letters to that place. This is what I have so far from the Syntax Tree Generator. What should replace the X there?
MHH's user avatar
  • 21
6 votes
1 answer
460 views

Why in English can't two NPs in a relative clause be relativized?

John Ross's CNPC (Complex NP Constraint) describes the fact of English that after extracting one NP, corresponding to the relative pronoun from a relative clause, no other NP can be extracted from ...
Greg Lee's user avatar
  • 12.5k
6 votes
1 answer
307 views

Is 'raising' an outdated concept in modern linguistics?

Here's a paragraph from this EFL Magazine article "SUBJECT RAISING: DO YOU HAPPEN TO KNOW?" (2015): Not long ago, most linguists believed there really was a set of processes in our brains ...
JK2's user avatar
  • 782
2 votes
1 answer
532 views

Can we build semantic mappings for CFG same as we do in CCG?

In CFG we "simply" have production rules. Whereas in Combinatory Categorial Grammar (CCG) on the other hand, we have both composition rules over categories, and a mapping from syntax to semantics (...
matanox's user avatar
  • 299
8 votes
1 answer
190 views

Pro-drop and V2

I have a question about languages that say "this thing must be the second element in the sentence. For example, German says that in a statement, the finite verb must be the second thing. If you ...
Omar and Lorraine's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
228 views

Can a VP be defined to include a subject in subject-verb inversion?

In this wiki on "Subject–verb inversion in English", there are two approaches suggested to dealing with subject-verb inversion. (1) Maintaining the traditional subject-predicate division of ...
JK2's user avatar
  • 782
4 votes
2 answers
97 views

Is a quote a kind of parenthetical? How do we deal with direct quotes in syntax?

I'm working with discourse data that has a lot of dirct quotes in it. There are a lot of examples look like the following (this is a translation of a part of the discourse): Then they said, ‘‘What ...
Wangana's user avatar
  • 152
1 vote
3 answers
213 views

Help with constituency?

I am learning syntactic theory from the book "English Syntax and Argumentation." I got decent understanding of S, NP, VP, I. I do not use DP or TP because the textbook does not use it. However, I have ...
user2840286's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
253 views

The Correct Research Methodology To Substantiate If an Expression is an Idiom?

Related: - Does linguistics have a concept of "set phrase" with a meaning differing from "idiom"? - In the Gospels, Can “Day of:” the Passover - be Interpreted Idiomatically? 1. ...
elika kohen's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
184 views

Are all grammar formalisms either dependency or constituency grammars?

Can a grammar formalism be something that's neither a dependency grammar nor a constituency grammar?
Quora Feans's user avatar