Questions tagged [affixes]

A grammatical morpheme that must be attached to a host word of an appropriate kind.

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6
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1answer
126 views

Where did Irish “-acht” come from?

Modern Irish has a suffix -acht (allomorphs -ocht, -eacht, -cht, probably others) that forms abstract nouns. For example, beo "alive" → beocht "life, vital spirit". Since we also see Scottish Gaelic -...
2
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1answer
98 views

is there “i” suffix that makes verb from noun, in latin or its ancestors? etymology of tio(n) suffix [closed]

Wiktionary says on PIE -h₃onh₂-: Descendants Italic: ... Latin: -iō (from *-i-h₃onh₂-) (e.g. legiō (“group of selected people”)) Latin: -ō (e.g. Nāsō (“having a conspicuous nose”), poss. ...
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1answer
231 views

Are the inflectional endings in English known to have evolved from separate words or do they go too far back into PIE to know?

English isn't a highly inflected language, but it did evolve from one and still has at least: -s, -es; -ed, -ing; -er, -est; for nouns, verbs, and adjectives. Do we know if these all evolved from ...
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0answers
79 views

Is the difference between analytic and agglutinative languages superficial? [duplicate]

Say you have a theoretical language which has verbs that are never inflected. If that verb appears, it will only appear in one form. Tense and such things are marked with particles that follow the ...
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0answers
54 views

Determining formative list of -ian and -ism

I'm new to Distributive Morphology and cannot find any resources of how to construct formative lists for morphemes. I know they're meant to be the feature bundles of the morphemes, but I don't really ...
5
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1answer
227 views

What are some of the most prefixing languages?

Turkish is commonly cited as an example of a language which is, with only one or two quirky exceptions, exclusively suffixing. Cross-linguistically, suffixing is much commoner than prefixing and I ...
0
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1answer
221 views

Do “shew” and “eschew” come from the same root?

If so, are they antonyms or did one undergo a lexical shift to become the other? Also, is the /es-/ prefix used as a negator in any other English words, or is this case an exception?
5
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3answers
2k views

Is the {-ing} of the gerund a verbal inflectional suffix?

Is the {-ing} of a gerund a verbal inflectional suffix or a nominal derivational one? For instance, in the sentence Swimming is a great hobby. , swimming is a gerund and it has the syntactical role of ...
4
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1answer
263 views

verbal or adjectival suffix -ed in the word “excited”

is the suffix -ed verbal or adjectival in the sentence: I was excited about my new job. Would the answer be different if the sentence was: I was excited by my new job. Maybe by indicates that ...
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1answer
346 views

Do each intensive prefix intensify a verb uniquely and differently from other intensive prefixes?

Please feel free to emend this if I have not described my question cogently. Though knowing little of Latin, I have exemplified with it because I have encountered it more than Ancient Greek. For ...
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2answers
296 views

What explains the differences between doublet verbs that differ by a prefix?

The differences in meanings of doublet verbs such as 3-6 below: Are there any resources that investigate the big picture behind them? I abhor to memorise, and prefer to understand, such differences. ...
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1answer
66 views

Does '-ous' imply no interruption, and '-al' the possibility of interruption?

I already know that 'continuous' is stronger than continual, but that both derive from the same Latin etymon continuus. These answers on ELU evidence this difference, but does not explain the cause. ...
1
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1answer
189 views

How did the prefix 'be-' function in 'behind'?

behind (adv.) Old English behindan "behind, after," from bi "by" + hindan "from behind" (see hind (adj.)). hindan already meant "from behind", and It doesn't make sense to say: by from ...
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1answer
107 views

How did the prefix 'ob-' function in Latin 'opprobare'? [closed]

opprobrious (adj.) [...] from Latin opprobare "to reproach, taunt," from ob "against" (see ob-) + probrum "reproach, infamy." Etymological sense is "disgrace attached to conduct considered shameful."...
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1answer
111 views

How to learn more about contradictory or superfluous affixes efficiently?

Instead of questioning each word's prefixes, how can I learn more productively? E.g. I was researching the etymology of the French verb 'accabler': [I quoted Wiktionary in French; the English ...
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4answers
307 views

Are there languages that form noun singulars by adding suffixes to plurals, rather than vice versa?

In languages that express grammatical number in nouns with suffixes, usually there is either a suffix added to an unsuffixed singular to form the plural (cat—cats), or the suffix (or inflectional ...
-1
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1answer
47 views

Deceptive affix changes?

I exemplify with the following, but I ask this in general. How can I learn more about affixes that change meaning, especially those that are 'upended into' their antonyms? For example, I was ...
1
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1answer
420 views

In case of Derivational nouns, what is the difference between affix polysemy and affix homonymy?

For derivational nouns, if we look at various properties of affixes, I understand they exhibit both affix polysemy and affix homonymy. By polysemy I understand that the the same affix is used in ...
1
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1answer
2k views

Can the prefix re- be added to nouns?

I am a little confused about what affix to add first to the stem "elect". The word is re-election. If I add the suffix -ion first, then it turns the verb into a noun. The affix 're-' attaches best to ...
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3answers
183 views

What is an affix called that is interlocked?

Wikipedia mentions 4 subgroups of affixes: prefix, the affix is in front of the word suffix, the affix is behind the word infix, the affix is within the word circumfix, the afix is separated into ...
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1answer
98 views

Do affixes and clitics belong to an own part of speech, part of sentence or another category ?

Birds, flowers, children belong to the part of speech of nouns, to fish, to pick, to play to verbs, swift, smelly, nice to adjectives those are the easy ones, what about clitics and affixes and such ...
6
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1answer
176 views

-anus vs. -inus in (Classical) Latin

Latin has some suffixes that turn nouns into adjectives. But there doesn't seem to be much rhyme or reason to which suffixes get applied to which nouns. For example: felis->felinus canis->caninus ...
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3answers
875 views

Are Japanese honorific お and ご prefixes, particles, or both?

In Japanese there are two morphemes which are used before certain nouns as part of the honorific system: お (o) ご (go) Which terms can be used to refer to these out of "prefix" and "particle"? I ...
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2answers
337 views

suffixoid vs null interfix

As written in Kremer, 1997 and Štekauer, 1995 words like ‘cat-like’ or ‘congressman’ etc. have what they call suffixoids or semiaffixes. IMO, it’s kind of a dull idea, because they look like ...
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2answers
1k views

Agglutinative vs. Analytic. What's the difference?

First of all, I understand that these typological distinctions are not absolute and almost all languages show signs of almost all morphological strategies but most display a certain tendency towards ...
6
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1answer
135 views

What is the postfix that makes “figurine” diminutive of “figure”?

"figurine" means "little figure". From etymonline: figurine (n.) [Look up figurine at Dictionary.com] 1854, from French figurine (16c.), from Italian figurina, diminutive of figura, from ...
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2answers
334 views

What exactly is the “i” in iPad, iPhone, iMac etc. linguistically speaking?

You might ask now: What does the "i" stand for? Well, according to the following article http://www.iphonejd.com/iphone_jd/2009/01/the-i-in-iphone.html the "i" was originally meant to stand for "...
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5answers
2k views

Can words be formed by deriving from just prefix(es) and suffix(es) with no actual root morpheme between?

I was just looking at a Zulu word entry in Wiktionary that implied it was made from a prefix and a suffix, but there was nothing between them. Now this could just be sloppy editing of Wiktionary but ...
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0answers
156 views

Which prefixing language has the most speakers?

Most if not all national or widely spoken languages with an inflecting or agglutinating typology do all of their inflecting at the end of the word. These are called "suffixing languages". This is ...
5
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1answer
163 views

Specifically in terms of nepomorpha, nepidae and further taxonomic classifications

I believe that the meaning of morpha is "form, like, kind". But where does the nepo prefix originate from? I seem to get a lot of terms like 'nepotism' in my searches, but I wonder how purely aquatic ...
10
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3answers
3k views

What is the function of “-ter” in words “laughter” and “daughter”?

Because there exists a word "laugh" but "*daugh", while the forms are alike to each other. I can't find the function of the morpheme "-ter" here, which is maybe irrelevant to the "-ter" in "enter" or ...
4
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4answers
204 views

Is there any language that observe root changes in response to the addition of affixes?

If yes, what are the examples? What change patterns are exhibited? *modified from Area51
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3answers
4k views

What are the criteria that distinguish clitics/particles from affixes?

This question inspired me to finally ask a question that has been bothering me for years: how does one distinguish clitics and/or particles from affixes, especially when those clitics are ...