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Questions tagged [clauses]

A level of syntactic structure that contains a predicate, its arguments and possibly modifiers of the predicate. It is a smaller constituent than a sentence, but larger than a verb phrase or noun phrase.

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One usage of infinitive clause

My question is about the sentence A few opportunities exist to get a better education in the U.S.(1) Some people said: "It is a correct sentence." However, I don't think so and will explain why. ...
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What do introductory non-finite clauses modify?

The introductory non-finite clauses below (in bold) Speeding down the road, Peter ran a red light. Discouraged by his losing record, the boxer quit boxing what, if anything, do they modify? Do ...
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Formal semantics (Montague, type-theoretical) of noun clauses

Partee has nice summary about the formal semantics of relative clause http://people.umass.edu/partee/MGU_2005/MGU05Lec10.pdf (subordinate adjectival clause). E.g. At least one boy who Mary loves is ...
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Formal semantics (Montague, type-theoretical) of adverbial clauses

Partee has nice summary about the formal semantics of relative clause http://people.umass.edu/partee/MGU_2005/MGU05Lec10.pdf (subordinate adjectival clause). E.g. At least one boy who Mary loves is ...
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Are there languages that don't allow sub-clauses?

In the Language Construction Kit 2, the author makes the assertion that sub-clauses, in particular center-embedded clauses, add complexity. That is obviously true, but he claims that you can make do ...
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What does “argument sharing” mean in terms of co-ordination?

According to my professor, argument sharing under co-ordination only seems possible when an argument in the transitive is in ABS or NOM. What is meant by argument sharing? Could you give an example?
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What's the name of the elements used to extend otherwise basic clauses?

Given the following sentence: "He wrote a love letter at night for his girlfriend". "He wrote a love letter" is the basic SVO clause, but what is the "at night" and "for his girlfriend" part called? ...
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How do you assign Case to sentences with an infinitval clause?

Look at this example: For the butler to attack the robber would be surprising. Here, the butler and the robber are assigned accusative Case. Is 'For' assigning case to the butler and 'to attack' ...
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Looking for the name of research area *my brother helps me (to) translate*

In the sentence: my brother helps me translate the subject of the dependent clause surfaces as an object pronoun. In generative grammar there have been several approaches to analyzing this ...
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Relative Clauses or Appositives?

Relative clauses usually involve the movement of an operator, either overt (wh-operator) or covert (silent operator) The person who1 t1 killed Mary has been caught. The dog Op1 that the cat clawed t1 ...
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Why do so many grammars divide a clause into Subject and Verb instead of Subject and Predicative?

I used to start learning a few languages, admittingly my interest ,stamina and brain force didn't last for more than a couple of days each. Nethertheless, I noticed , that the different grammars ...
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Overt Subjects of Non-Finite Clauses and Accusative Case

How do overt subjects of non-finite clauses such as the gerund clause below obtain accusative case despite there being no accusative case or ECM assigner? Me arriving late is a sure thing I think I ...
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Why can the Internal Argument of “Matter” NOT Raise?

The internal arguments of unaccusative verbs in English must raise to subject position to obtain case and satisfy the EPP. For example, verbs like melt, fall, die, arrive, etc.must have their internal ...
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1answer
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Are examples of double-embedded content clause subjects attested?

Have you ever come across an example of a dually embedded content clause functioning as subject, such as That that it works is obvious is disputed.
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Conditional IF vs. non-conditional IF

Using regular expressions, I'm trying to detect conditional clauses in sentences. In cases where the sentences starts with the conditional clause and the comma is correctly present (e.g., "If I see a ...
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1answer
266 views

I'm having trouble with my syntax tree and wanted some help for a project! [closed]

I have to include null complementizers if they exist as well as any mission NP covert subjects. This is my sentence: The woods, always a menace even in the past, had triumphed in the end. i've been ...
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1answer
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What is the difference between a subordinate clause and an embedded clause?

This article, http://www.christianlehmann.eu/publ/linkage.pdf , alluded to something called an adjoined clause, which is subordinate, but not embedded. What is the difference between a subordinate ...
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Average number of independent clauses in a compound sentence

I'm working on a NLP project, where we analyze large text samples (think a novel), and produce some metrics that help us answer interesting questions about the text. One of these metrics is average ...
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Why are infinitive complements analysed as separate clauses?

Why is the sentence John wants to read. normally analysed as consisting of 2 clauses? (John wants, PRO to read) I understand the idea of PRO but why must to read be a completely different clause? ...
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1answer
2k views

Complex sentence without a subordinating conjunction?

Here's the sentence that's been confusing me: Compared to dogs, cats showed more enthusiasm. I feel this should be a complex sentence because there's one independent clause and one dependent ...
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1answer
105 views

Criteria to distinguish finite from nonfinite complement clauses?

What are the differences between finite and nonfinite complement clause? Typologically speaking, what are the criteria I could use to distinguish one from the other two? While I am not really asking ...
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1answer
185 views

Phrases and clauses used as an adverb, and hence don't take a preposition

He had been in precarious situations his entire life. I know here in this sentence his entire life is used as an adverbial phrase and, hence there was no need of placing a preposition before that ...
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284 views

Word classes “which is why”

What are the word classes of the adverbial "[...] which is why [...]"? is cannot be a lexical verb, can it? I thought which is a relative pronoun, and why is an adverb of reason.
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Clauses in sentences with questioning verbs, using “if”/“whether”

A friend who is a Spanish native speaker said something like this to me recently (in English) *He told her if she was Asian That sentence would be fine if the verb were "ask", but "tell" cannot ...
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1answer
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Do some isolating languages have something other than accusative morpho-syntactic alignment?

In R.M.W. Dixon's book, "Ergativity," I read that ergative-absolutive marking is generally morphological. IIRC, that goes for split-S alignment and fluid-S alignment as well. For those who came ...
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Semantic Variability of Clause Chaining?

my question concerns languages with clause chaining - that form sentences composed of a string of non-finite medial clauses followed by a finite final clause, or a finite initial clause followed by a ...
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1answer
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What do you call the phrase/clause after a quotation in a novel?

Often in novels or reported speech, we have the quotation marked by opening and closing quotation mark. And before or after the quotation we have a phrase that states, <somebody> said or said &...
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Aside from coordination, subordination, and clause-chaining, how else do natural languages create multi-clause sentences?

Most of us know that sentences and clauses can be coordinated, and that subordinating clauses can modify nouns (see restrictive relative clauses), modify verbs (see adverbial clauses) and serve as ...
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1answer
288 views

Do clause chaining languages have complement clauses? If so, what syntactic roles can they play?

Do clause chaining languages have complement clauses? If so, what syntactic roles can they play? If not, what structures do clause chaining languages have that are commonly translated into English ...
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1answer
152 views

How are relationships between clauses marked in languages that lack sentential embedding?

I have heard that there are a few languages that lack sentential embedding. If this is the case, what grammatical devices do they use instead of adverbial clauses, complement clauses, and noun-...