Questions tagged [clusivity]

For questions about the distinction inclusive/exclusive made on the first person plural (mostly in pronouns, but also in verb forms).

Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
20 votes
9 answers

Languages with different words for 'we'

Are there any languages that make a distinction between the following: We (you and I) We (them and I, but not you) We (all of us) I don't think any of the Germanic languages do. Also, what is this ...
  • 311
1 vote
2 answers

Are there examples of inclusive and exclusive "our"?

I'm aware of inclusive and exclusive examples of "we", but I'm not sure if the languages with clusivity extend it to our first person plural pronouns, like "our" for example. Does anyone know of such ...
6 votes
0 answers

Is there any dialect of English with clusivity?

What it says on the tin. The closest thing that I'm aware of is in Tok Pisin, a creole language which involved English in its creation, which distinguishes “we without you” (mipela) from “we with you” ...
1 vote
0 answers

Are there languages that have different forms of "we"? [duplicate]

I find the pronoun "we" to be lacking due to its ambiguity regarding whether or not the listener and/or a 3rd party is included. Are there languages which address this by having either multiple forms ...
  • 111
0 votes
1 answer

Inclusive pronouns—can there be more than one?

Many languages have two forms of the pronoun "we": an inclusive one and an exclusive one. In the examples I am aware of, there is just one inclusive we, meaning "i/we and you (sg./pl.)". Are there ...
1 vote
0 answers

Inclusive/Exclusive Pronouns and Agreement Mismatch

The following data (taken from Adger's Core Syntax) show that certain forms cause mismatching agreement. The dual, in Hopi, triggers both singular and plural agreement. Puma ta?taq-t wari Those man-...
  • 1,477
44 votes
9 answers

Is there any language that uses different pronouns for "we" depending on whether the spoken to person is included in the group?

As in "we are going out tonight" using a different word for "we" depending on whether you mean "me and some other people" or "you and me (and potentially other people as well)".
8 votes
4 answers

Why are "first-person inclusive" forms called "first-person"?

"First-person inclusive" forms are ones that refer to both the first and second person. In that case, why call them "first-person" anything? Wouldn't it be equally logical to call them "second-person ...
  • 10.5k
7 votes
1 answer

Are there languages with PCC effects and a more developed person system?

The Person-Case Constraint (PCC) is a constraint on which arguments can co-occur in a construction such as a causative/applicative/ditransitive. It might cause a combination of persons to be ...
's user avatar
8 votes
2 answers

How do clusive forms arise?

Most non-European languages exhibit a clusivity (exclusive/inclusive) distinction. What are the common ways of developing new clusive forms and which clusivity is tied more tightly to the first person ...