Questions tagged [computational-linguistics]

A branch of science that uses computers and mathematical methods to construct and investigate linguistic theory. Its technological and algorithmic implementation is called NLP.

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22
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4answers
4k views

Is there a linguistics equivalent to Turing completeness?

In computer science, programming languages can be described in terms of "Turing completeness", basically, whether a programming language is capable of expressing any* algorithm. A non-Turing-complete ...
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6answers
12k views

Convert audio recording of word to IPA representation

Are the any open source tools/software libraries to convert an audio clip to its IPA representation? If so, are they accurate? If not, why not? Here is a Gaelic word I wish to convert: Ogg format: ...
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7answers
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Looking for a good beginners reference to learn computational linguistics

Recently in my work I came across the Backus–Naur Form (BNF), one way of describing a context-free grammar. Since then, I've been interested in learning how to deconstruct and parse not only computing ...
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3answers
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Why don't you get back the original text when you use translation software to translate something into another language and then back into English?

I translated "How to use Web?" into some other language using machine translation, but after I translated the result back into English, it is not the same as the first text I put into the translator. ...
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6answers
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What are the fundamental differences between Natural Language Processing and Computational Linguistics?

I have a vague knowledge regarding those two fields, but I admit there are some fundamental concepts that I lack. So, if we had to write down the actual differences between these two fields, what ...
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4answers
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Automated French/Italian/German to IPA transcription

I'm looking for a website or software that will take text written in a source language and produce a transcription in IPA. The languages I am interested in are French, Italian and German, but if you ...
6
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2answers
207 views

Dataset/Database similar to WALS in Vowel/Phonology

I am wondering if there is any database similar to The World Atlas of Language Structures (WALS)(https://wals.info/). In the case that it is specifically more geared towards phonological aspects of ...
5
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2answers
2k views

Locating a sentence's topic

I am trying to get the topic of a sentence, i.e what a sentence is talking about (not the grammatical subject which may be different). So far I have got: OpenNLP in Java which is giving me sentence ...
2
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1answer
352 views

Can the entropy per word be caculated precisely?And relation among information theory, semantics, and pragmatics

What we have gotten about the expected per word entropy of random yet grammatical text is just some upper bound of the the expected per word entropy, because we have not found the exact way to compute ...
2
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2answers
586 views

Automatic sentence segmentation of recorded speech with text

Given recorded speech with known text, is there an automated way to find the start/end time points of each sentence within the recording? Google Cloud Speech API does not appear to return any time ...
18
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1answer
13k views

What do WordNet::Similarity scores mean?

I am using WordNet Interface in NLTK, which facilitates computation of a number of similarity metrics: Path similarity Leacock-Chodorow Similarity Wu-Palmer Similarity Resnik Similarity Jiang-Conrath ...
16
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2answers
3k views

Is there a well-established metric to measure the effectiveness of a parsing algorithm?

My understanding that 100% accurate parsing (analyzing a text and creating a syntactic tree) is an impossible task for computational linguistics at this moment. However, there are many heuristics or ...
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3answers
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How to test if a string of words is a grammatical sentence

Is there a way to test to see if a string of words forms a complete sentence? For example: The dog jumped over the fence == Good The cat square seven the triangle == BAD I was thinking the type ...
9
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3answers
7k views

Non-Projective Example

I'm looking for an example sentence with a non-projective dependency parse. It doesn't have to be in English, though such an example would be nice.
11
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2answers
3k views

What is the entropy per word of random yet grammatical text?

It has been suggested that to construct an uncrackable yet memorable passphrase with 256-bits of entropy, the passphrase should be manifested as a poem. The answerer made an estimation of the entropy ...
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2answers
2k views

Are there any statistics or web services for n-grams of frequent English words?

I found this for six common subjects. But it doesn't contain the complete statistics about all common English words.
4
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1answer
14k views

How to calculate the co-occurrence between two words in a window of text?

I want to build a keyword extractor based on the TextRank model as explained in RMPT04. But I don't understand how to calculate the co-occurrence between two words in a window of text explained in the ...
4
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1answer
4k views

Filling in incomplete sentences using NLP and Python

I am trying to leverage NLTK and Python to perform some sentence completion. The sentences I'm working with are incomplete and pretty much just read as garbage. An example sentence would be something ...
4
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1answer
560 views

What is the most comprehensive context-free grammar for English?

I realize how hard it is to develop a CFG to model an arbitrary English sentence. Some valid discussion points for this topic can be found here: Is there an EBNF that covers all of English? However, ...
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3answers
2k views

What is the relationship between lambda calculus and logical form?

I was first introduced to lambda calculus as a way to use syntax to compose the semantic value of a phrase from the semantic values of the components of that phrase. Lambda calculus does more than ...
12
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2answers
614 views

Bar-Hillel's critique of machine translation 50 years later

More than fifty years ago, philosopher Yehoshua Bar-Hillel wrote wrote an influential paper about computerized translation entitled: A Demonstration of the Nonfeasibility of Fully Automatic High ...
10
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1answer
5k views

How to identify character names in a body of text?

I'm trying to research methods of identifying or pattern matching names of characters in a novel or a general body of text, but so far my search has been unsuccessful, since "character" refers to ...
8
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4answers
1k views

What are the current hurdles to automatic audio to IPA transcription?

I have heard several people tell me that automatic segmentation and transcription to (narrow) IPA of fieldwork-quality audio is impossible at the moment, and even from laboratory-quality audio ...
5
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1answer
82 views

What types of errors arise when converting consistency parse trees to dependency parse trees?

I wonder what types of errors arise when automatically converting consistency parse trees to dependency parse trees, and how frequent they are.
5
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2answers
346 views

Can we simulate the pronunciation of sounds that we can't make?

There's certain non-filled places in the IPA chart because we physically can't pronounce them. For example, a velar trill or glottal trill. Using computers, is it possible that we could simulate how ...
10
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6answers
456 views

Does the P versus NP conjecture in computer science have any direct relevance to linguistics?

From Wikipedia: The P versus NP problem is a major unsolved problem in computer science. Informally, it asks whether every problem whose solution can be quickly verified by a computer can also be ...
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5answers
954 views

Is there a way to prove one language is more efficient than another language for science?

English is widely regarded as the global language of science now. In China, we use simplified Chinese to write scientific textbooks, teach courses and do almost everything. Let's take the simplest ...
5
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1answer
4k views

Word Co-occurrence and collocation difference?

This Wikipedia page says, "In contrast to collocation, co-occurrence assumes interdependency of the two terms". But I'm not really sure what that means by interdependency of the two terms. Can someone ...
4
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1answer
1k views

Where can I find a vowel analyzer app or program?

I'm looking for a smartphone app or computer program that will listen to me pronouncing a vowel and will tell me where exactly the vowel is located in the IPA vowel chart. Does anyone know of apps or ...
4
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2answers
236 views

dictionary with the smallest number of circularly defined words

Motivation: words in a dictionary are defined in terms of other words, but at some point it becomes circular: words defined by other words that have also been defined using some of the same words. ...
4
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1answer
428 views

Is there a standard corpus against which to benchmark mechanical parsers?

I was wondering if there is a published standard corpus of English sentences which are confounding for mechanical parsers. I am looking over sentences given here, and I have the following (very short) ...
2
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0answers
158 views

Combinatory Categorial Grammar developments and lexicon for German language?

I am trying to apply Cornell Semantic Parsing framework (implementation of Combinatory Categorial Grammars CCG) to the German language. This framework takes natural language texts, learns grammar and ...
2
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2answers
979 views

Linguistics concept about meaning of words according to a context

Several linguistics questions about the meaning in context of words: How is called in linguistics the fact some words have a meaning only with other words? How is it called when a word changes ...
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1answer
2k views

What are the most useful programming languages for computational linguists? [closed]

What programming languages should aspiring computational linguists learn? Why? Thanks!
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1answer
97 views

How to determine grammatical complexity using quantitative features?

I'm doing a research on defining the complexity of language used in technical documentations for technologies (libraries and modules) used in data science and machine learning engineering. And I'm ...
0
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2answers
295 views

How to represent a dative verb in first order logic?

I understand that the representation of an intransitive verb, V in lambda calculus would be lambda x. V(x), where x is the subject. How do I represent an intransitive verb followed by a ...
7
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0answers
168 views

Combinatory Categorial Grammar (комбинаторная категориальная грамматика) developments and lexicon for Russian language?

I am trying to apply Cornell Semantic Parsing framwork https://github.com/cornell-lic/spf (implementation of Combinatory Categorial Grammars CCG) to Russian language. This framework takes natural ...
4
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1answer
2k views

Is there a computational method to syllabify English words?

There are straightforward ways to convert English words to phonemes via a dictionary that contains such information. However, is there a way to automatically convert English text into syllables? I.e., ...
4
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3answers
335 views

Anguish Languish to English Language metric

Anguish Languish is a silly linguistics exercise to replace all words in a sentence with phonemically similar counterparts with no regards for semantics or meaning. The intent is that the original ...
4
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1answer
390 views

Combine dictionary lemmatization with stemmer

I'm doing lemmatization as part of a classifier right now. My question is, if it makes sense to first use a dictionary lookup, to find the lemmas (wordnet) and after that additionally, to apply a (...
4
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2answers
785 views

Is the commutative CFG in the mathematical linguistics literature?

I am shocked that Linguists have not given a reasonably small canonical computationally precise representation of any natural language yet, so I wrote a recent EL&U post to explain how one does ...
3
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1answer
681 views

Software to measure F-Score (formality) in English

Francis Heylighen and Jean-Marc Dewaele defined a measure of language formality called "F-Measure" in a paper published in 1999 titled "Formality of Language: definition, measurement and behavioral ...
3
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3answers
537 views

Relationship between complexity of a sentence and the average distance between the tokens in which we relate

I am a PhD student in Statistics and I need more understandings in Linguistics for my PhD research. Say we are given two sentences of SAME LENGTH -- sentence A and B. Sentence A is simple (simple ...
3
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2answers
346 views

What causes relative frequency of consonants?

So, can you point me to some research, what causes the relative frequency of consonants in various languages?The fact that vowels are more common than consonants is obviously caused by phonotactics, ...
2
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1answer
649 views

What is the difference between Speech Act and Dialog Act?

I'm having some trouble finding a publication or paper that will define the difference between Speech Act and Dialog Act. The overlap between the used terms in different papers seems to correlate to ...
2
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1answer
54 views

What is the term for the formation of word groups with single meaning/function (e.g. “in relation to which”) in lingustics

Clearly - pharases "in relation to which" (subordinating conjunction) function as one word. How such process is named in linguistics. It would also be interesting to know how such formation is ...
2
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1answer
1k views

Computationally differentiating between CVC, VCV and CV syllables

I want to develop a program which can differentiate between CVC, VCV, and CV syllable types. I'm having trouble knowing when vowel has ended in CVC and CV syllables. I want to read more about it. ...
2
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2answers
934 views

annotation tool to work with XML Schema

Is there an annotation tool which can create annotation tasks automatically using an XML schema? The desirable annotation markup may be specified with an XML schema file. I'd like to be able to ...
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1answer
44 views

Is there any tool where I can effectively find some examples of a specific sound change in world's languages?

For example, I have once read about an example of the sound change g > dʐ. I need it now but I cannot find it. Is there anything like "sound change corpus" where I can effectively find ...
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1answer
127 views

what does broken formal languages mean?

I am learning Stanford CS224N: natural language processing with Deep Learning. Chris said "a little bit broken formal languages" in Lecture 1. what does that mean? can any one give a concrete ...