Questions tagged [dependency-grammar]

Dependency grammar, often abbreviated as DG, is a particular approach to the syntax of natural languages. DGs view words as directly linked to each other, whereby the links are directed. Phrases consist of a head/root word and its dependents.

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Which syntactic dependency parsers perform best on search query phrases?

Lots of NLP libraries contain syntactic dependencies parsers (e.g. spaCy, NLTK, Stanford NLP, Spark NLP...). As I understand it (please correct me if I'm wrong), these are mostly designed to parse ...
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Is there a Chinese translation of Tesniere's Elements of Syntactic Structure?

Is there a Chinese version of Elements of Syntactic Structure written by Tesniere? Has anyone ever translated it into Chinese?
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Do all frameworks of syntax view the string following an inverted auxiliary verb in English as the complement of the auxiliary?

This is a follow-up question of an earlier question titled: In X bar theory, is the first auxiliary the head of an interrogative clause and the remainder the complement? In that question, I had this ...
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To what extent was Chomsky influenced by Tesnière?

Kind of a question about the meta-history of linguistics as a discipline. Chomsky released 'Syntactic Structures' in the US in 1957; Tesnière released Éléments de syntaxe structurale posthumously ...
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Why is the subject outside the VP in most theories of syntax?

I'm trying to understand why in most theories of syntax, the subject of a sentence is the sister of the verb, and not the child eg: S -> NP VP instead of VP -> NP V (NP...) The latter feels more ...
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What exactly is the Structure-Dependency Principle

Could someone explain what structure-dependency is in layman terms, and why it's so important? Resources I've found on the internet weren't of much help so I'm asking on here. Thanks!
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Relationship between the complexity of text analysis and the dependency distance

According to (Liu, 2008), a text is more complex if it has longer dependency distance. Does this automatically mean that complex text analyses entail relating different words at a greater dependency ...
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1answer
97 views

How to determine grammatical complexity using quantitative features?

I'm doing a research on defining the complexity of language used in technical documentations for technologies (libraries and modules) used in data science and machine learning engineering. And I'm ...
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91 views

How can one best formalize dependency structures in terms of rules?

I am looking for guidance in forming mathematically-inspired rules for dependency syntax. I know about the rewrite rules for dependency structures produced by Hays (1964), but I am wondering whether ...
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128 views

Do formal language theory have concepts corresponding to dependency grammars?

If I am correct, phrase structure grammars in linguistics are the grammars for recursively enumerable languages. Do formal language theory have concepts corresponding to dependency grammars, the ...
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52 views

removing modifiers but still keep the meaning of sentence

I have been running through some examples of DG and from those, I have realized that we can safely remove modifiers from a sentence and still preserve the meaning of the sentence. For Example, ...
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140 views

Dependency Trees of types of clauses

I have been trying to learn linguistics, mainly English. Recently I have been studying clauses and dependency trees. I have been wondering - Whether can we assume a rough tree structure for every ...
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119 views

Non-projective tree sentences

I'm trying to generate the non-projective tree of the sentence: "A hearing is scheduled on the issue today." But with the Stanford Core NLP tool (https://corenlp.run/), I obtain a projective ...
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153 views

Syntax trees associated with Prepositional Phrases as subject

Whenever we have a Prepositional Phrase as a subject, how should the dependency relations hold? Specifically, consider the following sentence: Before Wednesday does not work for me. One dependency ...
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64 views

The Meaning <=> Text Theory (MTT)

I have recently read about "The Meaning <=> Text Theory" approach to syntax and would like to know more about it. Specifically, What are the main differences between this theory and the phrase ...
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117 views

How to draw the NP "so little" in "He said so little" in a tree diagram?

He said so little. includes the NP so little, which doesn't include any noun. In the X-bar theory style tree diagram, how do you go about describing the NP? Do you have N' below the NP? Do you have ...
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Stance Detection with Dependencies Tree and POS Tagging

I'm working on a thing at the moment and I'm trying to do what's basically written on the title of this post. Disclaimer: I'm not trying to get my job done by others. Just share ideas and gathering ...
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81 views

In these sentences, are these direct objects and oprds?

I read about oprd (object predicative: https://www.thoughtco.com/object-predicative-grammar-1691446) and I was thinking about the following sentences. Am I correctly identifying the direct object and ...
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85 views

Completely schematic construction?

I'm trying to understand what is a completely schematic construction in cognitive grammar. I found an example: VP --> V NP So, is that a construction that can be easily described by a general rule ...
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215 views

SVO triple in case of missing S or V or O?

hi I'm new to phrase/dependency structure. For a project of mine I want to extract from any sentence a meaningful structure with 3 items i.e. triple. In general case the Subject-Verb-Object is ideal....
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201 views

Where does supplementation fit in?

As far as I can see, the structure of supplementary constructions like Karen, being ill, was unable to go or John – her father – was unable to walk her down the aisle or maybe a washer-dryer ...
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How to extract example sentences from linguistics papers

Does anyone know of a good tool to grab all example sentences used in a paper so they could be processed via an NLP pipeline? I have udpipe in mind especially: I'd like to take sentences from one or ...
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Why does matching any root of a question to any root of potential answers gives better text understanding results?

I'm trying to find a way to prevent Intelligent Agents with Reading Comprehension and Question Answering abilities to answer question from documents from a given dataset. After dependency parsing we ...
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Specification of Dependency Grammar

My understanding is that, while natural languages aren't completely context-free, you can get a good approximation of a specification of English in Backus-Naur form, in that if you look at a given ...
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Which other languages have discontinuous dependencies and how are cross or long ones managed in them?

Discontinuous dependencies are a part of English syntatic rules and also are something which linguists are still trying to deal with. My question: which other languages have this problem and how does ...
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What features are good for dependency parsing?

I am trying to implement a graph based dependency parser. Since I come from a computer engineering perspective, I have trouble finding the features. Assuming that we have a (head,dependent) relation ...
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What constitutes a Long Distance Dependency, and how can it be quantified?

To come to a computational and statistical analysis of some machine translated texts, a colleague of mine wants to quantify Long Distance Dependencies. The problem is, that we cannot seem to find ...
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Adjunct domain and Argument domain

I am attempting a problem with anaphora resolution. I need help with some terms in the Lappin and Leass' paper. In the paper, it is mentioned A pronoun P is non-coreferential with a (non-...
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121 views

In what ways might dependency grammar be a better fit for free word order languages?

I believe it is often cited that dependency grammars are more adequate for free word order languages. How actually, is dependency grammar more descriptive or less limited, than constituency grammar, ...
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German Dependency Parsing - question about dependencies between "sich ____ lassen"

I'm working on project regarding German dependency parsing, and came across something I'm a bit unsure about. Using a parser, when given an input (whether it be in a sentence or just the verbs) which ...
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706 views

How to interpret the dependency parse tree of an English Slot Grammar?

I am reading the paper titled Deep parsing in Watson (DOI: 10.1147/JRD.2012.2185409) and need help understanding this figure: This is the paragraph that describes the tree in the figure above: An ...
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Induction of semantics for grammars of natural languages (as opposed to syntax)

I am learning about combinatory categorial grammars and the formal semantics of natural language, course by Partee http://people.umass.edu/partee/MGU_2005/MGU05_formal_semantics.htm (especially ...
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Treatment of copular verb in dependency parse of Google Natural Language API vs Stanford CoreNLP parser

Basically my question is what is the correct treatment of copular verbs in the following sentence: "The car is red." According to Google Natural Language API, the root is the verb "is" and the "car" ...
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Governors of adjectives in dependency grammars

In some dependency treebanks for Germanic languages, nouns in subject position are assigned the governors of their corresponding predicative adjectives, as opposed to the copular verb connecting the ...
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Computational model of dependency parsing

I come from a computer science perspective and am trying to understand dependency parsing. What is the formal (computational) model for dependency parsing? The computational model for constituency ...
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162 views

X-bar theory without movement

Are there any theories out there that use X-bar theory but deny movement (like Dependency Syntax can)?
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323 views

Mapping Minipar dependencies to Stanford Parser dependencies

I am trying to use the algorithm in Qiu et al., 2011, "Opinion Word Expansion and Target Extraction through Double Propagation" for my research. However, in the paper, they use Minipar for dependency ...
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How should "at some time" be tagged in Universal Dependencies framework?

I want to tag a sentence Jones was unemployed at some time before he graduated. with UD tags. I'm not sure how to tag at some time. Stanford parser suggests the reading: case (time-6, at-4) det (...
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Using (e.g.) Stanford NLP for retrieving specific “indirect” objects

I am a computer scientist using Stanford NLP for extracting a Semantic Graph from plain text. Through this tool I am already getting the universal dependencies but now I want to get all the possible ...
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214 views

How to build a neural network dependency parser with a dynamic oracle?

I'm curruntly trying to improve the results of my dependency parser (arc-standard) when I found this article: that uses a dynamic oracle. https://www.aclweb.org/anthology/Q/Q13/Q13-1033.pdf The ...
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336 views

Convert a non projective dependency tree to a projective one

I'm trying to build a dependency parser and I want it to construct only projective trees. Do you know any tool that converts Non-projective trees (CONLL-U format) to projective ones?
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775 views

How do you draw a Dependency tree diagram of a verbless clause such as "Me too"?

In Constituency Grammar (CG), I guess that you would consider "Me" the subject and "too" the predicate. Hence, no problem drawing a tree diagram out of "Me too" in CG. On the other hand, Dependency ...
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179 views

Is there a grammar of syntax that takes into account inherent syntactic ambiguity in natural languages?

Natural languages necessarily have certain inherent ambiguity. If there were a natural language without inherent ambiguity, then one could have easily adopted such a natural language and used it as a ...
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how to train parser using maltparser?

i have developed a small dependency treebank and now i want to run maltparser on it.i am working on urdu which is written in right-to-left (RTL) form. when i try to train parser it gives following ...
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What are the upsides of using dependency parsing over constituency parsing?

I am looking for an exhaustive list of upsides of using dependency parsing over constituency parsing (if possible, with references for each upside).
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"Toy" Tools for Dependency Parsing?

I plan to work with dependency parsing, as an intermediate step in a text understanding problem. I'm also still trying to understand the terminology and methods. Any pointers (or providers) of tools (...
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389 views

Maltparser vs Freeling for Spanish dependency parser

I need to parse a Spanish corpus with syntactic dependencies. I have tried both Freeling and Maltparser, they both give similar results, but with some divergence. I need the highest accuracy possible, ...
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What are the syntactic functions in this example of Dutch cross-serial dependencies?

Sentences like the following occur frequently as examples for cross-serial dependencies in Dutch. Ik dacht dat Jan Piet Marie zag helpen lezen. Often the dependencies are depicted only as arcs ...
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how does a dependency grammar finds a root?

The verb is used an a root in dependency structure.What if we have multiple verbs in a sentence, which one will be the root of sentence. also what will be the dependency relation between two verbs ???
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335 views

Evidence for/against Lexical integrity principle

Some (mostly lexicalist) theories of syntax assume that there's a 1-to-1 relationship between the words in a sentence and the nodes in its syntax tree. It seems pretty obvious to me. Is there ...