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Questions tagged [dependency-grammar]

Dependency grammar, often abbreviated as DG, is a particular approach to the syntax of natural languages. DGs view words as directly linked to each other, whereby the links are directed. Phrases consist of a head/root word and its dependents.

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Why is constituency needed, since dependency gets the job done more easily and economically?

I do dependency grammar (DG), and my personal view is that dependency gets the job done more efficiently than constituency by far. The average constituency parse (= phrase structure parse) contains ...
Tim Osborne's user avatar
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Why is the subject outside the VP in most theories of syntax?

I'm trying to understand why in most theories of syntax, the subject of a sentence is the sister of the verb, and not the child eg: S -> NP VP instead of VP -> NP V (NP...) The latter feels more ...
nathan's user avatar
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Government versus Agreement

Taking English as an example, as I understand things, the case of a pronominal Subject is governed by the verb—it must be nominative: She loves elephants. *Her loves elephants. (ungrammatical) ...
Araucaria - him's user avatar
7 votes
2 answers
680 views

What is dependency grammar and what are the possible relationships?

I have just started studying dependency grammar and I am really struggling with the relationship types and trees. I have only ever drawn classic syntactic trees so I keep getting confused. Could you ...
Anonymous's user avatar
7 votes
2 answers
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German Dependency Parsing - question about dependencies between "sich ____ lassen"

I'm working on project regarding German dependency parsing, and came across something I'm a bit unsure about. Using a parser, when given an input (whether it be in a sentence or just the verbs) which ...
roughosing's user avatar
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3 answers
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What constitutes a Long Distance Dependency, and how can it be quantified?

To come to a computational and statistical analysis of some machine translated texts, a colleague of mine wants to quantify Long Distance Dependencies. The problem is, that we cannot seem to find ...
Bram Vanroy's user avatar
6 votes
1 answer
211 views

To what extent was Chomsky influenced by Tesnière?

Kind of a question about the meta-history of linguistics as a discipline. Chomsky released 'Syntactic Structures' in the US in 1957; Tesnière released Éléments de syntaxe structurale posthumously ...
Khove's user avatar
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Where can I find a good primer of dependency grammar?

I found a good phrase structure grammar primer, namely "Beginning Syntax" by Thomas, which has been recommended by more than one person on this exchange. However, when I looked for any similarly ...
James Grossmann's user avatar
6 votes
3 answers
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Is there a paradigmatic formalism for dependency grammars?

When looking on the web, wikipedia for example, at the concept of constituent, it is associated with the concept of phrase structure, and rather quickly with context-free languages (as the ...
babou's user avatar
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5 votes
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Analysis of relative pronouns in dependency grammar

A dependency grammar represents the structure of a clause as a set of pairs of words, such that the first "depends" on the second. My question is ultimately how loops are prevented in such a ...
Alazon's user avatar
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Maltparser vs Freeling for Spanish dependency parser

I need to parse a Spanish corpus with syntactic dependencies. I have tried both Freeling and Maltparser, they both give similar results, but with some divergence. I need the highest accuracy possible, ...
MGN's user avatar
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What features are good for dependency parsing?

I am trying to implement a graph based dependency parser. Since I come from a computer engineering perspective, I have trouble finding the features. Assuming that we have a (head,dependent) relation ...
Tokugava's user avatar
4 votes
2 answers
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dependency or constituency treebank?

Most Treebank conversion which I found in the web are from constituency treebank to dependency treebank, I wonder why there is little works in the opposite direction? Does it mean that nowadays ...
Ahmad's user avatar
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1 answer
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In what ways might dependency grammar be a better fit for free word order languages?

I believe it is often cited that dependency grammars are more adequate for free word order languages. How actually, is dependency grammar more descriptive or less limited, than constituency grammar, ...
matanox's user avatar
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2 answers
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"Toy" Tools for Dependency Parsing?

I plan to work with dependency parsing, as an intermediate step in a text understanding problem. I'm also still trying to understand the terminology and methods. Any pointers (or providers) of tools (...
Anon's user avatar
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Dependency Grammar constraints

I study dependency grammar, DG and I have a question regarding constraints of DG. I do understand why do we need constituency grammars, CG and DG, however I don't completely understand the ...
user16168's user avatar
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Subject control or object control?

In the recent paper “Universal Dependencies” by de Larneffe, Manning, Nivre and Zeman, published in Computational Linguistics in 2021, page 277 the following example is given: and it is said that ...
yannis's user avatar
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Using (e.g.) Stanford NLP for retrieving specific “indirect” objects

I am a computer scientist using Stanford NLP for extracting a Semantic Graph from plain text. Through this tool I am already getting the universal dependencies but now I want to get all the possible ...
jackb's user avatar
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Kuryłowicz on cases and prepositions

I've read Kuryłowicz's classic paper "Le problème du classement des cas" and I'm not sure how to interpret what he says about the difference between case affixes and prepositions. Does he in effect ...
user avatar
3 votes
2 answers
193 views

X-bar theory without movement

Are there any theories out there that use X-bar theory but deny movement (like Dependency Syntax can)?
ella's user avatar
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3 votes
1 answer
81 views

Name for ongoing syntactic dependencies after a word

Consider the sentence "I love my dog." There are three syntactic dependencies in this sentence: (a) the subject dependency from "I" to "love," (b) the modifier dependency ...
Mitch Ohriner's user avatar
3 votes
3 answers
154 views

Computational model of dependency parsing

I come from a computer science perspective and am trying to understand dependency parsing. What is the formal (computational) model for dependency parsing? The computational model for constituency ...
Holden Lee's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
892 views

How do you draw a Dependency tree diagram of a verbless clause such as "Me too"?

In Constituency Grammar (CG), I guess that you would consider "Me" the subject and "too" the predicate. Hence, no problem drawing a tree diagram out of "Me too" in CG. On the other hand, Dependency ...
JK2's user avatar
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1 answer
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How does a dependency grammar generate strings?

Theoretically speaking, if I were to use a rule-based approach to generate grammatically correct strings for a language L, I would implement a phrase structure grammar G = (V, T, R, S) consisting of ...
player.mdl's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
98 views

Governors of adjectives in dependency grammars

In some dependency treebanks for Germanic languages, nouns in subject position are assigned the governors of their corresponding predicative adjectives, as opposed to the copular verb connecting the ...
player.mdl's user avatar
3 votes
2 answers
149 views

Do formal language theory have concepts corresponding to dependency grammars?

If I am correct, phrase structure grammars in linguistics are the grammars for recursively enumerable languages. Do formal language theory have concepts corresponding to dependency grammars, the ...
Tim's user avatar
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How to interpret the dependency parse tree of an English Slot Grammar?

I am reading the paper titled Deep parsing in Watson (DOI: 10.1147/JRD.2012.2185409) and need help understanding this figure: This is the paragraph that describes the tree in the figure above: An ...
mauna's user avatar
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1 answer
233 views

Dependency Trees of types of clauses

I have been trying to learn linguistics, mainly English. Recently I have been studying clauses and dependency trees. I have been wondering - Whether can we assume a rough tree structure for every ...
Aditya Rustagi's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
55 views

Specification of Dependency Grammar

My understanding is that, while natural languages aren't completely context-free, you can get a good approximation of a specification of English in Backus-Naur form, in that if you look at a given ...
lightning's user avatar
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3 votes
0 answers
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How should "at some time" be tagged in Universal Dependencies framework?

I want to tag a sentence Jones was unemployed at some time before he graduated. with UD tags. I'm not sure how to tag at some time. Stanford parser suggests the reading: case (time-6, at-4) det (...
tadek's user avatar
  • 31
3 votes
2 answers
315 views

What are the syntactic functions in this example of Dutch cross-serial dependencies?

Sentences like the following occur frequently as examples for cross-serial dependencies in Dutch. Ik dacht dat Jan Piet Marie zag helpen lezen. Often the dependencies are depicted only as arcs ...
Kilian's user avatar
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1 answer
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The Meaning <=> Text Theory (MTT)

I have recently read about "The Meaning <=> Text Theory" approach to syntax and would like to know more about it. Specifically, What are the main differences between this theory and the phrase ...
Roger V.'s user avatar
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1 answer
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Convert a non projective dependency tree to a projective one

I'm trying to build a dependency parser and I want it to construct only projective trees. Do you know any tool that converts Non-projective trees (CONLL-U format) to projective ones?
HatemB's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
215 views

Is there a grammar of syntax that takes into account inherent syntactic ambiguity in natural languages?

Natural languages necessarily have certain inherent ambiguity. If there were a natural language without inherent ambiguity, then one could have easily adopted such a natural language and used it as a ...
JK2's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
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Do all frameworks of syntax view the string following an inverted auxiliary verb in English as the complement of the auxiliary?

This is a follow-up question of an earlier question titled: In X bar theory, is the first auxiliary the head of an interrogative clause and the remainder the complement? In that question, I had this ...
JK2's user avatar
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2 votes
2 answers
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how does a dependency grammar finds a root?

The verb is used an a root in dependency structure.What if we have multiple verbs in a sentence, which one will be the root of sentence. also what will be the dependency relation between two verbs ???
nudrat's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
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How can one best formalize dependency structures in terms of rules?

I am looking for guidance in forming mathematically-inspired rules for dependency syntax. I know about the rewrite rules for dependency structures produced by Hays (1964), but I am wondering whether ...
Tim Osborne's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
286 views

Non-projective tree sentences

I'm trying to generate the non-projective tree of the sentence: "A hearing is scheduled on the issue today." But with the Stanford Core NLP tool (https://corenlp.run/), I obtain a projective ...
pairon's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
300 views

Where does supplementation fit in?

As far as I can see, the structure of supplementary constructions like Karen, being ill, was unable to go or John – her father – was unable to walk her down the aisle or maybe a washer-dryer ...
user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
77 views

How to extract example sentences from linguistics papers

Does anyone know of a good tool to grab all example sentences used in a paper so they could be processed via an NLP pipeline? I have udpipe in mind especially: I'd like to take sentences from one or ...
Nathaniel Christen's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
202 views

What are the upsides of using dependency parsing over constituency parsing?

I am looking for an exhaustive list of upsides of using dependency parsing over constituency parsing (if possible, with references for each upside).
Franck Dernoncourt's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
344 views

Evidence for/against Lexical integrity principle

Some (mostly lexicalist) theories of syntax assume that there's a 1-to-1 relationship between the words in a sentence and the nodes in its syntax tree. It seems pretty obvious to me. Is there ...
user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
1k views

Dependency tree with "seem"

Could someone please tell me what's the dep. tree of "John seemed to fall asleep"? The problem is I don't know if "John" depends on "seem" or "fall".
user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
923 views

What it the best algorithm for dependency parsing?

There are quite a few statistical parsers but I'm interested in rule-based dependency parsing. I have a lexicon, i.e., a list of words with lemmas, POS, and morphological features. What is the best ...
user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
35 views

How do different grammar theory (e.g. PSG, FG) explain word order in different language? [closed]

In typology, how do different types of grammar theories (such as phrase structure grammar, functional grammar, etc.) explain different linear word order in different languages? I know that dependency ...
Rongrong's user avatar
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2 votes
0 answers
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What exactly is the Structure-Dependency Principle

Could someone explain what structure-dependency is in layman terms, and why it's so important? Resources I've found on the internet weren't of much help so I'm asking on here. Thanks!
Denisof's user avatar
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0 answers
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Treatment of copular verb in dependency parse of Google Natural Language API vs Stanford CoreNLP parser

Basically my question is what is the correct treatment of copular verbs in the following sentence: "The car is red." According to Google Natural Language API, the root is the verb "is" and the "car" ...
Amir's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
346 views

Mapping Minipar dependencies to Stanford Parser dependencies

I am trying to use the algorithm in Qiu et al., 2011, "Opinion Word Expansion and Target Extraction through Double Propagation" for my research. However, in the paper, they use Minipar for dependency ...
simichi's user avatar
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2 votes
3 answers
411 views

How do dependency grammars account for information structure

In phrase structure grammars, discourse functions (topic, focus) have structural positions (cf. topicalization in English, right-edge focus in Russian, clause-initial focus in Welsh, preverbal focus ...
user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
405 views

Syntax trees associated with Prepositional Phrases as subject

Whenever we have a Prepositional Phrase as a subject, how should the dependency relations hold? Specifically, consider the following sentence: Before Wednesday does not work for me. One dependency ...
Barun Patra's user avatar