Questions tagged [dictionary]

A collection of words in (a) specific language(s), often containing usage information.

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Concise IPA dictionary

For decades I have used "A Pronouncing Dictionary of American English" by Kenyon and Knott as a concise and accessible tool in learning the IPA. The fact that it's still in print must mean ...
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1 vote
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What does the double vertical line (‖) mean in this dictionary?

The Williams' Dictionary of the Māori Language uses the symbol ‖ to denote words connected to other words. In this example, "ā" and "tā" are the plural and singular possessives ...
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How a learner of a polysynthetic language like Arapaho would use an electronic or printed dictionary?

Along the lines of this question about agglutinative dictionaries, I just finished reading through the paper "Creating lexical resources for polysynthetic languages — the case of Arapaho, by ...
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-6 votes
2 answers
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What was the first human language (lets call it X) for which there is actually an X-English dictionary?

I have found that Adam and Eve spoke Adamic language. But for that there is no X-English dictionary. Then in the Tower of Babel they said that the first one was Hebrew, which is my guess here. Thank ...
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3 answers
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Why haven't the renowned etymological dictionaries for Indo-European languages been updated?

I'm addled why newer edns. of the books embolded below haven't been published? I'm assuming those authors have died or are too senile. Indisputably, etymological dictionaries probably won't be best-...
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1 answer
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What should go into a dictionary in heavily agglutinative languages?

I would like to build a clean "dictionary" (or some sort of "base word form" collection) for various languages. I am used to English, or even Chinese, because it is analytic and ...
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1 vote
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What is meant by "s/he flies" in Plains Cree dictionary?

The Plains Cree Dictionary has things like this: ᐋᐦᑕᐦᐅᐤ âhtahow VAI-1 s/he flies to another place The VAI (animate intransitive verb) page doesn't have a description. In English we have verbs "...
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Where can I get the complete list of word entries present in Merriam Webster's dictionary?

I can't find any list, github repo, etc to find the total list of entries defined in merriam webster. Any ideas?
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Noun phrases in dictionaries

Today's Oxford English Dictionary word-of-the-day ("ice master") reminded me of a question that's been on my mind for some time: What criteria do dictionary-makers use to decide whether a ...
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2 votes
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What are the essential words?

Take a dictionary. Each word is defined using other words. Take all the words of the dictionary. The words that appear in their definitions is a subset of words of this dictionary (and not the whole ...
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What is the correct way to cite the "Harvard General Inquirer Dictionary" in a paper? [closed]

I would like to cite the Harvard General Inquirer Dictionary in a paper, but I am not able to find the correct reference. Should I cite the homepage, the manual or one of these references available in ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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How to understand the etymology from the American Heritage Dictionary?

I look up the word 'frangible'. Its etymology shows [Middle English, from Old French, from Medieval Latin frangibilis, from Latin frangere, to break; see bhreg- in the Appendix of Indo-European roots....
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1 vote
1 answer
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Is there a website, dataset, API or NLP library which can give me the English meaning, POS and conjugated forms of a word from any major language?

Is there a website or dataset which can give me the following info all at once: (1) English meaning of a word/lexeme (2) part of speech (3) all conjugated forms of the lexeme, whether verb, noun or ...
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0 answers
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Which online sources provide narrow transcriptions for English?

I've tried a dozen of online English dictionaries, and all of them give broad transcriptions. So it's impossible to tell from them, for example, how many aspirated "p"s there are in "appropriate". ...
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1 answer
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Checking Definitions for Self-Consistency and Cycles

I am building a "self-contained" set of definitions, and would like to ensure that the definitions: Do not contain circular definitions (which might include other words within that cycle, not just a ...
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2 votes
1 answer
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Is the Sumerian king list etymologically understood?

While some names in the Sumerian King List contain standard Sumerian words (e.g. "sipad" : shepherd, "dumu" : son, "zid" : true, "en" : king), I haven't found a comprehensive translation/etymological ...
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1 vote
2 answers
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Where to download phonetic word list for Dutch/ Nederlandse fonetische woordenlijst downloaden

I cannot find phonetic word lists / dictionaries online for Dutch. Please provide me with a url. What do you use? What is available?
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Where to download phonetic word list for English

I need phonetic word lists / dictionaries for English. I did not assume that this would be hard to find online. What do you use? What is available?
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Are there any evocative dictionaries?

There are analogical dictionaries which list words and phrases related to a topic. And there are symbolic dictionaries which explain what a thing represents. But I have not found a dictionary that ...
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0 votes
1 answer
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How to interpret the only available Middle Persian dictionary?

I am looking at this: I think this is a verb (some others are even less clear). What does besaz(en)- mean? The parentheses and the hyphen. The M is for Middle Persian, but there is no indication that ...
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3 votes
1 answer
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Cumbrian sources

I'm interested in the cumbrian dialect, but I couldn't find good sources of vocabulary and pontual aspects of its grammar. Also, I was trying to understand the following poem: I'll tell the' We're ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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Spoken Arabic dictionary/corpus?

Is there an existing corpus or dictionary for different spoken Arabic dialects? I'd like to look up a word (in English or MSA or in a spoken dialect) and find where this word or phrase is spoken (and ...
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7 votes
1 answer
106 views

Does a scientific methodology exist for evaluating bilingual dictionaries?

I recently reread What's the difference between the various context dictionaries available for Spanish (e.g., Tatoeba, Reverso, Linguee, …)?. The accepted answer is excellent. But it got me ...
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0 votes
2 answers
277 views

Conventions on sorting phrases with whitespace and punctuation (for an index)

I'm sorry if this is not the correct community to ask this question, if not please suggest a transfer. I'm compiling an index of sorts for a large songbook where all the titles and first lines of the ...
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1 vote
0 answers
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Calculate TF-IDF of Loughran and Bill McDonald dictionary

I am exploring the financial-related dictionary of Loughran and McDonald. I want to calculate the TF-IDF weighting of the words within the dictionary. I use the following formula, based on the paper "...
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8 votes
2 answers
306 views

How often are dictionary etymologies wrong?

How often are the etymologies in dictionaries incorect? Sometimes when reading a dictionary I see a derivation of a word which contradicts my intuition. For example I read that "ball" comes from ...
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4 votes
1 answer
108 views

What language pairs are underserved, and would most benefit from machine-learned bilingual tools?

What language pairs are under-served by current resources — like human translators, bilingual dictionaries, and parallel corpuses — relative to their linguistic importance, economic potential, or ...
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2 votes
2 answers
161 views

glossary/dictionary corpus for NLP task

I am looking for glossary/dictionary corpus in machine readable form. Basically huge file/db which would contain word and its definition. Here is sample: Authenticity: a feature that characterizes ...
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2 votes
2 answers
265 views

Wellsean Syllabification and Recapitulation Symbols in the LPD

Those of you who deal with phonetics and phonology of English, and perhaps other languages as well, will surely have read John C. Wells’s article “Syllabification and allophony”, which you can find ...
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Where can I download dictionary bilingual word list in many languages?

I want to find dictionary bilingual word lists like English-Swedish, English-Danish, English-Hindi, English-Hungarian and many others. I am also interested in English-Multilingual word lists.
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2 votes
1 answer
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Greek: differences between words marked as αρχαιοπρεπής, λόγιος or παλαιότερα

In my dictionary some words are marked with αρχαιοπρεπής (dated, archaic), λόγιος (learned form) and παλαιότερα (more ancient use). What are the differences, if any, between these terms, and what is ...
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Are there dictionaries translating roots from one Indo-European language to another?

Are there dictionaries translating roots from one Indo-European language (family) to another? Such dictionaries would be helpful for translating calques like выставка, Ausstellung, and exhibition. ...
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2 votes
0 answers
86 views

What are some authoritative Vietnamese Dictionaries? …and how do they disambiguate the two pronunciations of <gia>?

What are some authoritative Vietnamese dictionaries? …and how do they disambiguate the two pronunciations of <gia>? (Something with an English or Chinese gloss is preferred.) Wikipedia on the ...
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3 votes
1 answer
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Why do dictionaries use non-standard IPA symbols

"ɛə̯" or "ɛə" can be written as "ea" "ɛː" "ɛ" and "ɛə" in various dictionaries. http://teflpedia.com/IPA_phoneme_/e%C9%99/ I don't see the value as they aren't fixing the non-intuitive nature of ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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Is there any free, single-word wordlist with CLAWS7 part-of-speech tags?

I am looking for a wordlist which includes single-word entries and their part-of-speech tags in UCREL CLAWS7 format. The list must be comprised of scientifically collected data, for example words ...
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2 votes
3 answers
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Does anyone knows a work on Mongolian loanwords in Turkic languages?

Especially in Western branch of Turkic languages.
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1 vote
3 answers
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Are there any equivalent of oxforddictionaries.com/definition/ in Arabic?

I am looking for a website that is equivalent of https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/go In oxforddictionaries, you see it gives all of the meanings of a word with example sentences Are ...
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0 votes
1 answer
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Can anyone recommend a good, free, and online Greek-to-English dictionary? [closed]

A translation service is not being requested in the question since they provide word-to-word mappings instead of word-to-meaning explanations. The dictionary may optionally render the Greek word with ...
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5 votes
1 answer
652 views

Dictionaries with binary semantic features

In lexical semantics, a lot of meaning in individual words, the concept behind the utterance, is captured in ontological relations: is-like for synonymy, is-a for a hypernym hierarchy. But this doesn'...
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4 answers
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Any free, good and extensive word lists for languages other than English?

After considerable search on the Internet, I found a free, good and extensive word list for English that IMHO contains all words (nouns and verbs with their endings as separate entries) one would ever ...
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2 votes
1 answer
745 views

Financial Slang and NLP for Sentiment Analysis

I am working on a Sentiment-Analysis/Opinion-Mining of Tweets, focused on Finance related tweets. One of the biggest issue I am facing is the unability of my algorithm to detect equivalent entities (...
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5 votes
1 answer
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Is there a name for this idea relating to word abstractness/complexity based on dictionary definition self-reference?

First, let me give the caveat that I have never taken a linguistics class, nor read a linguistics book. I am coming from a degree in math. Please give your answers at a level I can understand. There'...
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1 vote
1 answer
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List of English words with usage samples

For my learning tool project I need a free English word list with the usage sample of each word and/or its definition. For example: /word/ Apple /phrase/ This apples are big and red. /definition/ ...
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3 votes
1 answer
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Is there a programmatically accessible/structured (JSON, XML, etc) dictionary that includes IPA

Thus far I have the CMU Pronouncing Dictionary, which uses a custom set of phonemes represented in ASCII text. Just the words and pronunciations is nice, but it would be great to have actual IPA ...
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0 votes
1 answer
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Looking for a list of English words that are morphologically similar, semantically different? [closed]

I need a list of English words that are morphologically similar, but when it comes to meaning, they should be completely different.
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2 votes
1 answer
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Dictionary used by WordNet for word senses

What dictionary does WordNet use for the various senses it lists for each word?
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1 vote
0 answers
61 views

an open source lexicographical framework

I am looking for a lightweight open source framework for lexicographical experiments: building vocabularies, converting from one type to another, merging, dealing with multilingual issues, ... google ...
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2 votes
1 answer
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French Pronunciation Dictionary

Is there a French pronunciation dictionary on the web like CMU English dictionary? Thanks.
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1 answer
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Where can I find free dictionaries for various languages? [closed]

Inspired by this xkcd comic, I'm trying to write a computer program that can generate random sentences to be used as pass phrases. However, I think that the pass phrases might be easier to remember if ...
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4 votes
4 answers
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How many of all possible English words are actually in use (have meaning)?

If we consider that there are phonological observations as to what is an English word and what probably isn't, one could come up with a dictionary of "all possible" English words, i.e. all words that ...
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