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Questions tagged [dictionary]

A collection of words in (a) specific language(s), often containing usage information.

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Does Turkish have strict rules for which suffixes can be placed where, greatly limiting the number of possible combinations forming a word?

Taking Turkish as an example of an agglutinative language (or Inuktitut, Navajo, perhaps Finnish to some degree, etc.), there seems to be about 600-1000 possible suffixes. The longest Turkish word is ...
Lance's user avatar
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Dependency grammar based dictionary

A presupposition of constructing the dependency semantic structure of a sentence is the knowledge of semantic features of all sentence's semantemes (actants, semantemes' nature as predicate or name ...
SK_'s user avatar
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1 answer
358 views

Accuracy of Этимологический словарь иранских языков (Etymological Dictionary of Iranian Languages) by Rastorgueva and Edelman

I have been studying these books with the help of Google Translate. In the third volume on page 176, the authors seem to derive the Persian درنا (crane) from an Iranian root. This is obviously ...
KamranNef's user avatar
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How to find free, readable language-to-language dictionaries

A group of friends and I are working on a project that requires access to downloadable "language-to-language" dictionaries, where words and their corresponding definitions are written in the ...
Mailbox's user avatar
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1 answer
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The etymological dictionary of Persian by Mohammad Hassandust

I'm considering purchasing this book, but it's not available in ebook format, and the price is rather steep. Therefore, I'm eager to ensure its scientific accuracy. I've noticed numerous papers citing ...
KamranNef's user avatar
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1 answer
56 views

Schrader O., Reallexikon der indogermanischen Altertumskunde:

I' m very sorry, does anyone have Schrader O., Reallexikon der indogermanischen Altertumskunde, 1917? Is it copyright free?
HungarianMan's user avatar
1 vote
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Sample consent statement for basic online dictionary project?

Does anyone have an example of a very simple consent statement that could be used on a webpage that collects linguistic (primarily lexical) data? A guy I know is doing some basic dialectical research ...
Chala's user avatar
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3 votes
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Kindle version of Crystal's Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics, 7th ed. -- usable?

Is the Kindle version of Crystal's Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics usable? For example, do special symbols, tables and graphics display properly? How is the search feature? I've owned hard-...
Chala's user avatar
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2 answers
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The differences between writing definitions in the native language vs. writing definitions in a non-native language?

I am looking currently at Tibetan definitions from THLib and they appear really detailed in comparison to what I'm used to seeing on places like vocabulary.com or oxford definitions on Google. For ...
Lance's user avatar
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1 answer
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Replace bad spelling with correct spelling

I have a large old text, written in language A but according to the spelling rules of language B. Words are understandable, but I need to make spelling correct according to the rules of A. How this ...
artemious's user avatar
-1 votes
2 answers
111 views

How to represent and distinguish between inflected and related words in English dictionary?

In English we have these words: create created creates creating creator creation creationism creativity creative I am unsure which one is an inflection, and which one is a new word. Created and ...
Lance's user avatar
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When designing a dictionary for multiple languages, what should be a single "entry" (focusing on languages like English)?

I am looking at this dictionary guide and just looked up homophones to see how you might handle unrelated words with same spelling and pronunciation and part of speech. Google has basically separate ...
Lance's user avatar
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Can "words" ever have multiple parts of speech?

I am considering the design of database schemas for various word types, and wondering how the properties work. For example, it appears that a wordnet entry has 1 partOfSpeech and 1 lemma. But I don't ...
Lance's user avatar
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-4 votes
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Why are there top-level words in Akkadian dictionary, all of which are unpronounceable directly?

I have been digging into the Oracc RINAP dataset, which includes lots of "grammatical entries" in a huge JSON file, an example entry which looks like this: { "headword": "...
Lance's user avatar
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64 views

Impact of spell checkers on prescriptive language reform

I had a story about prescriptive language reform, specifically about the Real Academia Española and its decision to change the spelling of puzzle (pronounced /ˈpuθle/ in Spain) in the 21st edition (...
Henry's user avatar
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-3 votes
3 answers
108 views

How accurate are interlinear texts, or linguistic glosses?

Here are 2 examples of interlinear texts: Quran (Arabic) Bible (Greek) And here is a term γινώσκω, which is defined shortly as "to come to know, recognize, perceive", but in one word as &...
Lance's user avatar
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6 votes
1 answer
104 views

How to look up a sign language sign in a dictionary

The other day, I was watching the weather channel, and, saw a sign language presenter signing. The specific sign language was known to me (as, most likely, was the one corresponding to the language ...
Joselin Jocklingson's user avatar
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0 answers
26 views

Downloadable Norwegian dictionary with verb conjugations?

Apologies as this doesn't perfectly fit into linguistics but there isn't a Norwegian Stack Exchange site where I think this would be a more appropriate question. Is anyone aware of a downloadable ...
Grant Curell's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
152 views

Concise IPA dictionary

For decades I have used "A Pronouncing Dictionary of American English" by Kenyon and Knott as a concise and accessible tool in learning the IPA. The fact that it's still in print must mean ...
William Odom's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
77 views

What does the double vertical line (‖) mean in this dictionary?

The Williams' Dictionary of the Māori Language uses the symbol ‖ to denote words connected to other words. In this example, "ā" and "tā" are the plural and singular possessives ...
Joundill's user avatar
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4 votes
1 answer
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How a learner of a polysynthetic language like Arapaho would use an electronic or printed dictionary?

Along the lines of this question about agglutinative dictionaries, I just finished reading through the paper "Creating lexical resources for polysynthetic languages — the case of Arapaho, by ...
Lance's user avatar
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-6 votes
2 answers
127 views

What was the first human language (lets call it X) for which there is actually an X-English dictionary?

I have found that Adam and Eve spoke Adamic language. But for that there is no X-English dictionary. Then in the Tower of Babel they said that the first one was Hebrew, which is my guess here. Thank ...
Jan's user avatar
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3 answers
150 views

Why haven't the renowned etymological dictionaries for Indo-European languages been updated?

I'm addled why newer edns. of the books embolded below haven't been published? I'm assuming those authors have died or are too senile. Indisputably, etymological dictionaries probably won't be best-...
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0 votes
1 answer
169 views

What should go into a dictionary in heavily agglutinative languages?

I would like to build a clean "dictionary" (or some sort of "base word form" collection) for various languages. I am used to English, or even Chinese, because it is analytic and ...
Lance's user avatar
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1 vote
3 answers
228 views

What is meant by "s/he flies" in Plains Cree dictionary?

The Plains Cree Dictionary has things like this: ᐋᐦᑕᐦᐅᐤ âhtahow VAI-1 s/he flies to another place The VAI (animate intransitive verb) page doesn't have a description. In English we have verbs "...
Lance's user avatar
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0 votes
1 answer
328 views

Where can I get the complete list of word entries present in Merriam Webster's dictionary?

I can't find any list, github repo, etc to find the total list of entries defined in merriam webster. Any ideas?
Alireza's user avatar
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3 votes
0 answers
87 views

Noun phrases in dictionaries

Today's Oxford English Dictionary word-of-the-day ("ice master") reminded me of a question that's been on my mind for some time: What criteria do dictionary-makers use to decide whether a ...
Nathaniel Mishkin's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
99 views

What are the essential words?

Take a dictionary. Each word is defined using other words. Take all the words of the dictionary. The words that appear in their definitions is a subset of words of this dictionary (and not the whole ...
bixiou's user avatar
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-1 votes
1 answer
221 views

What is the correct way to cite the "Harvard General Inquirer Dictionary" in a paper? [closed]

I would like to cite the Harvard General Inquirer Dictionary in a paper, but I am not able to find the correct reference. Should I cite the homepage, the manual or one of these references available in ...
DanielTheRocketMan's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
100 views

How to understand the etymology from the American Heritage Dictionary?

I look up the word 'frangible'. Its etymology shows [Middle English, from Old French, from Medieval Latin frangibilis, from Latin frangere, to break; see bhreg- in the Appendix of Indo-European roots....
user8314628's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
123 views

Is there a website, dataset, API or NLP library which can give me the English meaning, POS and conjugated forms of a word from any major language?

Is there a website or dataset which can give me the following info all at once: (1) English meaning of a word/lexeme (2) part of speech (3) all conjugated forms of the lexeme, whether verb, noun or ...
forgodsakehold's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
67 views

Which online sources provide narrow transcriptions for English?

I've tried a dozen of online English dictionaries, and all of them give broad transcriptions. So it's impossible to tell from them, for example, how many aspirated "p"s there are in "appropriate". ...
user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
65 views

Checking Definitions for Self-Consistency and Cycles

I am building a "self-contained" set of definitions, and would like to ensure that the definitions: Do not contain circular definitions (which might include other words within that cycle, not just a ...
Teknophilia's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
148 views

Is the Sumerian king list etymologically understood?

While some names in the Sumerian King List contain standard Sumerian words (e.g. "sipad" : shepherd, "dumu" : son, "zid" : true, "en" : king), I haven't found a comprehensive translation/etymological ...
Abhimanyu Pallavi Sudhir's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
279 views

Where to download phonetic word list for Dutch/ Nederlandse fonetische woordenlijst downloaden

I cannot find phonetic word lists / dictionaries online for Dutch. Please provide me with a url. What do you use? What is available?
lode's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
322 views

Where to download phonetic word list for English

I need phonetic word lists / dictionaries for English. I did not assume that this would be hard to find online. What do you use? What is available?
lode's user avatar
  • 175
0 votes
2 answers
136 views

Are there any evocative dictionaries?

There are analogical dictionaries which list words and phrases related to a topic. And there are symbolic dictionaries which explain what a thing represents. But I have not found a dictionary that ...
WaterBearer's user avatar
0 votes
2 answers
115 views

How to interpret the only available Middle Persian dictionary?

I am looking at this: I think this is a verb (some others are even less clear). What does besaz(en)- mean? The parentheses and the hyphen. The M is for Middle Persian, but there is no indication that ...
Lance's user avatar
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3 votes
1 answer
158 views

Cumbrian sources

I'm interested in the cumbrian dialect, but I couldn't find good sources of vocabulary and pontual aspects of its grammar. Also, I was trying to understand the following poem: I'll tell the' We're ...
Ergative Man's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
131 views

Spoken Arabic dictionary/corpus?

Is there an existing corpus or dictionary for different spoken Arabic dialects? I'd like to look up a word (in English or MSA or in a spoken dialect) and find where this word or phrase is spoken (and ...
VirtualValentin's user avatar
7 votes
1 answer
114 views

Does a scientific methodology exist for evaluating bilingual dictionaries?

I recently reread What's the difference between the various context dictionaries available for Spanish (e.g., Tatoeba, Reverso, Linguee, …)?. The accepted answer is excellent. But it got me ...
aparente001's user avatar
0 votes
2 answers
457 views

Conventions on sorting phrases with whitespace and punctuation (for an index)

I'm sorry if this is not the correct community to ask this question, if not please suggest a transfer. I'm compiling an index of sorts for a large songbook where all the titles and first lines of the ...
Louis Somers's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
197 views

Calculate TF-IDF of Loughran and Bill McDonald dictionary

I am exploring the financial-related dictionary of Loughran and McDonald. I want to calculate the TF-IDF weighting of the words within the dictionary. I use the following formula, based on the paper "...
HJA24's user avatar
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9 votes
2 answers
400 views

How often are dictionary etymologies wrong?

How often are the etymologies in dictionaries incorect? Sometimes when reading a dictionary I see a derivation of a word which contradicts my intuition. For example I read that "ball" comes from ...
Metamorphic's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
116 views

What language pairs are underserved, and would most benefit from machine-learned bilingual tools?

What language pairs are under-served by current resources — like human translators, bilingual dictionaries, and parallel corpuses — relative to their linguistic importance, economic potential, or ...
Jim DeLaHunt's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
174 views

glossary/dictionary corpus for NLP task

I am looking for glossary/dictionary corpus in machine readable form. Basically huge file/db which would contain word and its definition. Here is sample: Authenticity: a feature that characterizes ...
user1700890's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
308 views

Wellsean Syllabification and Recapitulation Symbols in the LPD

Those of you who deal with phonetics and phonology of English, and perhaps other languages as well, will surely have read John C. Wells’s article “Syllabification and allophony”, which you can find ...
Joseph's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
115 views

Greek: differences between words marked as αρχαιοπρεπής, λόγιος or παλαιότερα

In my dictionary some words are marked with αρχαιοπρεπής (dated, archaic), λόγιος (learned form) and παλαιότερα (more ancient use). What are the differences, if any, between these terms, and what is ...
nyg's user avatar
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2 votes
0 answers
45 views

Are there dictionaries translating roots from one Indo-European language to another?

Are there dictionaries translating roots from one Indo-European language (family) to another? Such dictionaries would be helpful for translating calques like выставка, Ausstellung, and exhibition. ...
Chill2Macht's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
90 views

What are some authoritative Vietnamese Dictionaries? …and how do they disambiguate the two pronunciations of <gia>?

What are some authoritative Vietnamese dictionaries? …and how do they disambiguate the two pronunciations of <gia>? (Something with an English or Chinese gloss is preferred.) Wikipedia on the ...
Kevin Li's user avatar
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