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Questions tagged [dictionary]

A collection of words in (a) specific language(s), often containing usage information.

4
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2answers
176 views

How often are dictionary etymologies wrong?

How often are the etymologies in dictionaries incorect? Sometimes when reading a dictionary I see a derivation of a word which contradicts my intuition. For example I read that "ball" comes from ...
3
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1answer
82 views

What language pairs are underserved, and would most benefit from machine-learned bilingual tools?

What language pairs are under-served by current resources — like human translators, bilingual dictionaries, and parallel corpuses — relative to their linguistic importance, economic potential, or ...
3
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2answers
54 views

glossary/dictionary corpus for NLP task

I am looking for glossary/dictionary corpus in machine readable form. Basically huge file/db which would contain word and its definition. Here is sample: Authenticity: a feature that characterizes ...
2
votes
2answers
91 views

Wellsean Syllabification and Recapitulation Symbols in the LPD

Those of you who deal with phonetics and phonology of English, and perhaps other languages as well, will surely have read John C. Wells’s article “Syllabification and allophony”, which you can find ...
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0answers
182 views

Where can I download dictionary bilingual word list in many languages?

I want to find dictionary bilingual word lists like English-Swedish, English-Danish, English-Hindi, English-Hungarian and many others. I am also interested in English-Multilingual word lists.
2
votes
1answer
71 views

Greek: differences between words marked as αρχαιοπρεπής, λόγιος or παλαιότερα

In my dictionary some words are marked with αρχαιοπρεπής (dated, archaic), λόγιος (learned form) and παλαιότερα (more ancient use). What are the differences, if any, between these terms, and what is ...
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0answers
32 views

Are there dictionaries translating roots from one Indo-European language to another?

Are there dictionaries translating roots from one Indo-European language (family) to another? Such dictionaries would be helpful for translating calques like выставка, Ausstellung, and exhibition. ...
2
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0answers
38 views

What are some authoritative Vietnamese Dictionaries? …and how do they disambiguate the two pronunciations of <gia>?

What are some authoritative Vietnamese dictionaries? …and how do they disambiguate the two pronunciations of <gia>? (Something with an English or Chinese gloss is preferred.) Wikipedia on the ...
4
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1answer
234 views

Why do dictionaries use non-standard IPA symbols

"ɛə̯" or "ɛə" can be written as "ea" "ɛː" "ɛ" and "ɛə" in various dictionaries. http://teflpedia.com/IPA_phoneme_/e%C9%99/ I don't see the value as they aren't fixing the non-intuitive nature of ...
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0answers
39 views

Is there any free, single-word wordlist with CLAWS7 part-of-speech tags?

I am looking for a wordlist which includes single-word entries and their part-of-speech tags in UCREL CLAWS7 format. The list must be comprised of scientifically collected data, for example words ...
3
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3answers
94 views

Does anyone knows a work on Mongolian loanwords in Turkic languages?

Especially in Western branch of Turkic languages.
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2answers
67 views

Are there any equivalent of oxforddictionaries.com/definition/ in Arabic?

I am looking for a website that is equivalent of https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/go In oxforddictionaries, you see it gives all of the meanings of a word with example sentences Are ...
0
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1answer
289 views

Can anyone recommend a good, free, and online Greek-to-English dictionary? [closed]

A translation service is not being requested in the question since they provide word-to-word mappings instead of word-to-meaning explanations. The dictionary may optionally render the Greek word with ...
6
votes
1answer
266 views

Dictionaries with binary semantic features

In lexical semantics, a lot of meaning in individual words, the concept behind the utterance, is captured in ontological relations: is-like for synonymy, is-a for a hypernym hierarchy. But this doesn'...
3
votes
4answers
235 views

Any free, good and extensive word lists for languages other than English?

After considerable search on the Internet, I found a free, good and extensive word list for English that IMHO contains all words (nouns and verbs with their endings as separate entries) one would ever ...
2
votes
1answer
260 views

Financial Slang and NLP for Sentiment Analysis

I am working on a Sentiment-Analysis/Opinion-Mining of Tweets, focused on Finance related tweets. One of the biggest issue I am facing is the unability of my algorithm to detect equivalent entities (...
5
votes
1answer
70 views

Is there a name for this idea relating to word abstractness/complexity based on dictionary definition self-reference?

First, let me give the caveat that I have never taken a linguistics class, nor read a linguistics book. I am coming from a degree in math. Please give your answers at a level I can understand. There'...
1
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1answer
31 views

List of English words with usage samples

For my learning tool project I need a free English word list with the usage sample of each word and/or its definition. For example: /word/ Apple /phrase/ This apples are big and red. /definition/ ...
3
votes
1answer
168 views

Is there a programmatically accessible/structured (JSON, XML, etc) dictionary that includes IPA

Thus far I have the CMU Pronouncing Dictionary, which uses a custom set of phonemes represented in ASCII text. Just the words and pronunciations is nice, but it would be great to have actual IPA ...
0
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1answer
61 views

Looking for a list of English words that are morphologically similar, semantically different? [closed]

I need a list of English words that are morphologically similar, but when it comes to meaning, they should be completely different.
2
votes
1answer
28 views

Dictionary used by WordNet for word senses

What dictionary does WordNet use for the various senses it lists for each word?
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0answers
48 views

an open source lexicographical framework

I am looking for a lightweight open source framework for lexicographical experiments: building vocabularies, converting from one type to another, merging, dealing with multilingual issues, ... google ...
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1answer
253 views

French Pronunciation Dictionary

Is there a French pronunciation dictionary on the web like CMU English dictionary? Thanks.
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votes
1answer
68 views

Where can I find free dictionaries for various languages? [closed]

Inspired by this xkcd comic, I'm trying to write a computer program that can generate random sentences to be used as pass phrases. However, I think that the pass phrases might be easier to remember if ...
3
votes
4answers
871 views

How many of all possible English words are actually in use (have meaning)?

If we consider that there are phonological observations as to what is an English word and what probably isn't, one could come up with a dictionary of "all possible" English words, i.e. all words that ...
2
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0answers
22 views

Does Merriam Webster dictionary list word senses based on their historical occurrence?

I have noticed that, unlike other dictionaries, MW seems to list word senses based on the order they have appeared throughout history. Was this just a coincidence, or is this true for MW.
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2answers
197 views

dictionary with the smallest number of circularly defined words

Motivation: words in a dictionary are defined in terms of other words, but at some point it becomes circular: words defined by other words that have also been defined using some of the same words. ...
6
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3answers
1k views

Online etymology dictionaries for French, beyond CNTRL?

Are there etymology dictionaries for French available on the Internet? To wit, what's a French equivalent of http://etymonline.com/? I already know about TLF informatisé (TLFi), but often, it does ...
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votes
2answers
601 views

Any suggestion for Classical Arabic language online dictionary or PDF?

Can anybody suggest me the websites or PDFs from where I can get the meaning and etymology of Classical Arabic terms or any online dictionary of Classical Arabic language or any PDF of that dictionary?...
2
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2answers
89 views

Should common short words be left out of a concordance?

I'm writing a program which will be designed to take a text file, and parse all the words into a Concordance, e.g., a sort of dictionary list of all the words sorted in order, with a total count of ...
2
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0answers
177 views

Early Modern English spelling variations dictionary

I am building a web application that allows users to transcribe, word by word, Early Modern English manuscripts. I want to tell users when a word they transcribed may be a new spelling variant of ...
1
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1answer
105 views

Making a balanced word list systematically using COCA and CMUdict

I am trying to find words in English that mirror the conditioning environments for spirantization of /b, d, g/ in Spanish. I am balancing for proceeding phone, lexical stress, word-internal vs. word-...
1
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0answers
56 views

What electronic resources are available that categorize nouns by countability?

Most electronic dictionaries I've found only categorize words into noun / verb / adjective / adverb / etc. (such as WordNet). They don't further refine parts of speech into subcategories like count/...
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1answer
150 views

Old Norse: Noun declension gen. sg. -s or -ar?

I am using A Concise Dictionary of Old Icelandic and An Introduction to Old Norse (by E. V. Gordon) as my resoources. In An Introduction, it is said that: Some nouns declined otherwise as ...
4
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3answers
8k views

What's the largest dictionary in the world?

I'm curious to know: what is the largest dictionary in the world? The English and Malgache Wiktionaries are surely not far of with 3.8M and 3.5M entries but I found a blog post talking about a Chinese-...
2
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0answers
136 views

German/Swedish dictionary to download as a text file

I am looking for a dictionary that I can download as a text file which specifies the grammatical gender of nouns in both languages. Basically, I would like something like: https://archive.org/details/...
7
votes
2answers
411 views

Help me find an early Old Norse dictionary (or even a grammar)

For some time I've been looking for a dictionary of Old Norse that reflects an early situation in the language; this kind of resource has been amazingly hard to find, for some reason. Most ...
1
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1answer
294 views

Online Modern Greek dictionary that puts imperfective and (“dependent”) perfective verb stems together?

Does anyone know of a good online Modern Greek dictionary that puts imperfective and perfective (also called "dependent") verb stems together? For instance, the present perfective of βλέπω /'vlepo/ "...
4
votes
2answers
442 views

Is there an open source English dictionary that isn't too fine-grained in defining a word?

I'm creating a multilingual online dictionary and I need an open source English dictionary to work off of. Wordnet is the obvious choice, as it's extremely complete and its license is permissive of ...
7
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5answers
12k views

Online etymology dictionary for Latin

Is there an etymology dictionary for Latin that is available on the Internet? For example, I know of http://etymonline.com/, which is a great resource for English etymology, but I have not been able ...
3
votes
2answers
219 views

What is a good way to represent data in a multilingual dictionary? Wordnet alternatives or extensions?

I'm not a linguist so forgive my misuse of terminology... I'm looking for a data structure to represent dictionary entries. A dictionary would have words translated to other languages along with links ...
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0answers
970 views

What are the advantages of using a morpheme-based dictionary in a speech recognition system?

What are the advantages of using a morphologically-based / lemma-based dictionary in a speech recognition system as opposed to a dictionary of 'Orthography' + 'transcription' or other types (which I ...
4
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0answers
286 views

Dictionary with real IPA and English sandhi rules?

I don't like English dictionaries that use pseudo-IPA to indicate pronunciation. I've seen none indicating that most plosives should be aspirated, but when they're in "sp", "st" and other combinations ...
3
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1answer
267 views

How did a logographic orthography like Chinese organize its word-stock before any type of phonetic notation?

Let's say you were to to pick up a dictionary and look up a word in Chinese before the advent of any type of phonetic notation system such as Pinyin or Bopomofo. How would words in that dictionary be ...
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1answer
127 views

Pronunciation Dictionary for Portuguese

Is there any comprehensive pronunciation dictionary for Portoguese language like CMU dictionary for English? Thanks.
2
votes
1answer
333 views

How can a multi-language dictionary be made? [closed]

Let's pretend we are producing four-language cross-dictionary. To be more difficult, let it be a Russian-English-Japanese-Sanskrit dictionary. By "cross-dictionary" I mean that the person using it ...
4
votes
1answer
421 views

How to explore the meaning of a concept (like “friendship”)?

I am trying to extract all components ("atoms") of meaning of the concept "friendship" in a certain language (actually in Russian). By components of meaning I mean, for example: "girl"="human"+"female"...
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1answer
139 views

How are dictionaries produced

What are the steps invoked in producing a dictionary? I am primarily interested in understanding the role software plays in the production process. Obviously a corpus for the language is first ...
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1answer
141 views

How is the dependency of corpus size and observed ngrams?

I would like to know how the relation of corpus size to observed ngrams is(especially unigrams). Since the word frequency follows a Zipf distribution, i would expect some kind of logarithmic relation ...
2
votes
1answer
193 views

Dictionaries for machine translation

I am doing research on machine translation in prolog and I am wondering if there are any suitable dictionaries available in text/xml format for machine translation. With suitable for machine ...