Skip to main content

Questions tagged [dictionary]

A collection of words in (a) specific language(s), often containing usage information.

Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
2 votes
1 answer
351 views

Accuracy of Этимологический словарь иранских языков (Etymological Dictionary of Iranian Languages) by Rastorgueva and Edelman

I have been studying these books with the help of Google Translate. In the third volume on page 176, the authors seem to derive the Persian درنا (crane) from an Iranian root. This is obviously ...
0 votes
1 answer
84 views

The etymological dictionary of Persian by Mohammad Hassandust

I'm considering purchasing this book, but it's not available in ebook format, and the price is rather steep. Therefore, I'm eager to ensure its scientific accuracy. I've noticed numerous papers citing ...
0 votes
0 answers
28 views

How to find free, readable language-to-language dictionaries

A group of friends and I are working on a project that requires access to downloadable "language-to-language" dictionaries, where words and their corresponding definitions are written in the ...
-2 votes
1 answer
55 views

Schrader O., Reallexikon der indogermanischen Altertumskunde:

I' m very sorry, does anyone have Schrader O., Reallexikon der indogermanischen Altertumskunde, 1917? Is it copyright free?
1 vote
0 answers
36 views

Sample consent statement for basic online dictionary project?

Does anyone have an example of a very simple consent statement that could be used on a webpage that collects linguistic (primarily lexical) data? A guy I know is doing some basic dialectical research ...
3 votes
0 answers
34 views

Kindle version of Crystal's Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics, 7th ed. -- usable?

Is the Kindle version of Crystal's Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics usable? For example, do special symbols, tables and graphics display properly? How is the search feature? I've owned hard-...
0 votes
2 answers
70 views

The differences between writing definitions in the native language vs. writing definitions in a non-native language?

I am looking currently at Tibetan definitions from THLib and they appear really detailed in comparison to what I'm used to seeing on places like vocabulary.com or oxford definitions on Google. For ...
-1 votes
1 answer
79 views

Replace bad spelling with correct spelling

I have a large old text, written in language A but according to the spelling rules of language B. Words are understandable, but I need to make spelling correct according to the rules of A. How this ...
-1 votes
2 answers
107 views

How to represent and distinguish between inflected and related words in English dictionary?

In English we have these words: create created creates creating creator creation creationism creativity creative I am unsure which one is an inflection, and which one is a new word. Created and ...
1 vote
1 answer
85 views

When designing a dictionary for multiple languages, what should be a single "entry" (focusing on languages like English)?

I am looking at this dictionary guide and just looked up homophones to see how you might handle unrelated words with same spelling and pronunciation and part of speech. Google has basically separate ...
0 votes
2 answers
114 views

How to interpret the only available Middle Persian dictionary?

I am looking at this: I think this is a verb (some others are even less clear). What does besaz(en)- mean? The parentheses and the hyphen. The M is for Middle Persian, but there is no indication that ...
-2 votes
2 answers
58 views

Can "words" ever have multiple parts of speech?

I am considering the design of database schemas for various word types, and wondering how the properties work. For example, it appears that a wordnet entry has 1 partOfSpeech and 1 lemma. But I don't ...
-4 votes
1 answer
93 views

Why are there top-level words in Akkadian dictionary, all of which are unpronounceable directly?

I have been digging into the Oracc RINAP dataset, which includes lots of "grammatical entries" in a huge JSON file, an example entry which looks like this: { "headword": "...
-3 votes
3 answers
108 views

How accurate are interlinear texts, or linguistic glosses?

Here are 2 examples of interlinear texts: Quran (Arabic) Bible (Greek) And here is a term γινώσκω, which is defined shortly as "to come to know, recognize, perceive", but in one word as &...
1 vote
0 answers
64 views

Impact of spell checkers on prescriptive language reform

I had a story about prescriptive language reform, specifically about the Real Academia Española and its decision to change the spelling of puzzle (pronounced /ˈpuθle/ in Spain) in the 21st edition (...
6 votes
1 answer
101 views

How to look up a sign language sign in a dictionary

The other day, I was watching the weather channel, and, saw a sign language presenter signing. The specific sign language was known to me (as, most likely, was the one corresponding to the language ...
-4 votes
3 answers
149 views

Why haven't the renowned etymological dictionaries for Indo-European languages been updated?

I'm addled why newer edns. of the books embolded below haven't been published? I'm assuming those authors have died or are too senile. Indisputably, etymological dictionaries probably won't be best-...
0 votes
0 answers
25 views

Downloadable Norwegian dictionary with verb conjugations?

Apologies as this doesn't perfectly fit into linguistics but there isn't a Norwegian Stack Exchange site where I think this would be a more appropriate question. Is anyone aware of a downloadable ...
3 votes
1 answer
152 views

Concise IPA dictionary

For decades I have used "A Pronouncing Dictionary of American English" by Kenyon and Knott as a concise and accessible tool in learning the IPA. The fact that it's still in print must mean ...
1 vote
3 answers
227 views

What is meant by "s/he flies" in Plains Cree dictionary?

The Plains Cree Dictionary has things like this: ᐋᐦᑕᐦᐅᐤ âhtahow VAI-1 s/he flies to another place The VAI (animate intransitive verb) page doesn't have a description. In English we have verbs "...
1 vote
0 answers
76 views

What does the double vertical line (‖) mean in this dictionary?

The Williams' Dictionary of the Māori Language uses the symbol ‖ to denote words connected to other words. In this example, "ā" and "tā" are the plural and singular possessives ...
1 vote
3 answers
110 views

Are there any equivalent of oxforddictionaries.com/definition/ in Arabic?

I am looking for a website that is equivalent of https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/go In oxforddictionaries, you see it gives all of the meanings of a word with example sentences Are ...
4 votes
1 answer
445 views

How a learner of a polysynthetic language like Arapaho would use an electronic or printed dictionary?

Along the lines of this question about agglutinative dictionaries, I just finished reading through the paper "Creating lexical resources for polysynthetic languages — the case of Arapaho, by ...
-6 votes
2 answers
126 views

What was the first human language (lets call it X) for which there is actually an X-English dictionary?

I have found that Adam and Eve spoke Adamic language. But for that there is no X-English dictionary. Then in the Tower of Babel they said that the first one was Hebrew, which is my guess here. Thank ...
10 votes
5 answers
10k views

Online etymology dictionaries for French, beyond CNTRL?

Are there etymology dictionaries for French available on the Internet? To wit, what's a French equivalent of http://etymonline.com/? I already know about TLF informatisé (TLFi), but often, it does ...
0 votes
1 answer
167 views

What should go into a dictionary in heavily agglutinative languages?

I would like to build a clean "dictionary" (or some sort of "base word form" collection) for various languages. I am used to English, or even Chinese, because it is analytic and ...
1 vote
1 answer
101 views

Is there any free, single-word wordlist with CLAWS7 part-of-speech tags?

I am looking for a wordlist which includes single-word entries and their part-of-speech tags in UCREL CLAWS7 format. The list must be comprised of scientifically collected data, for example words ...
0 votes
1 answer
316 views

Where can I get the complete list of word entries present in Merriam Webster's dictionary?

I can't find any list, github repo, etc to find the total list of entries defined in merriam webster. Any ideas?
3 votes
0 answers
86 views

Noun phrases in dictionaries

Today's Oxford English Dictionary word-of-the-day ("ice master") reminded me of a question that's been on my mind for some time: What criteria do dictionary-makers use to decide whether a ...
0 votes
3 answers
3k views

Any suggestion for Classical Arabic language online dictionary or PDF?

Can anybody suggest me the websites or PDFs from where I can get the meaning and etymology of Classical Arabic terms or any online dictionary of Classical Arabic language or any PDF of that dictionary?...
2 votes
0 answers
97 views

What are the essential words?

Take a dictionary. Each word is defined using other words. Take all the words of the dictionary. The words that appear in their definitions is a subset of words of this dictionary (and not the whole ...
-1 votes
1 answer
219 views

What is the correct way to cite the "Harvard General Inquirer Dictionary" in a paper? [closed]

I would like to cite the Harvard General Inquirer Dictionary in a paper, but I am not able to find the correct reference. Should I cite the homepage, the manual or one of these references available in ...
1 vote
1 answer
99 views

How to understand the etymology from the American Heritage Dictionary?

I look up the word 'frangible'. Its etymology shows [Middle English, from Old French, from Medieval Latin frangibilis, from Latin frangere, to break; see bhreg- in the Appendix of Indo-European roots....
1 vote
1 answer
120 views

Is there a website, dataset, API or NLP library which can give me the English meaning, POS and conjugated forms of a word from any major language?

Is there a website or dataset which can give me the following info all at once: (1) English meaning of a word/lexeme (2) part of speech (3) all conjugated forms of the lexeme, whether verb, noun or ...
1 vote
0 answers
67 views

Which online sources provide narrow transcriptions for English?

I've tried a dozen of online English dictionaries, and all of them give broad transcriptions. So it's impossible to tell from them, for example, how many aspirated "p"s there are in "appropriate". ...
0 votes
1 answer
65 views

Checking Definitions for Self-Consistency and Cycles

I am building a "self-contained" set of definitions, and would like to ensure that the definitions: Do not contain circular definitions (which might include other words within that cycle, not just a ...
3 votes
2 answers
9k views

A comprehensive list of conceptual metaphors

Is there a comprehensive list of conceptual metaphors? (Either man-made, crowdsourced or based on data-mining / corpora analysis.) By a conceptual metaphor I mean a relation in the spirit of George ...
1 vote
2 answers
269 views

Where to download phonetic word list for Dutch/ Nederlandse fonetische woordenlijst downloaden

I cannot find phonetic word lists / dictionaries online for Dutch. Please provide me with a url. What do you use? What is available?
3 votes
1 answer
145 views

Is the Sumerian king list etymologically understood?

While some names in the Sumerian King List contain standard Sumerian words (e.g. "sipad" : shepherd, "dumu" : son, "zid" : true, "en" : king), I haven't found a comprehensive translation/etymological ...
0 votes
2 answers
136 views

Are there any evocative dictionaries?

There are analogical dictionaries which list words and phrases related to a topic. And there are symbolic dictionaries which explain what a thing represents. But I have not found a dictionary that ...
2 votes
1 answer
308 views

Where to download phonetic word list for English

I need phonetic word lists / dictionaries for English. I did not assume that this would be hard to find online. What do you use? What is available?
3 votes
1 answer
157 views

Cumbrian sources

I'm interested in the cumbrian dialect, but I couldn't find good sources of vocabulary and pontual aspects of its grammar. Also, I was trying to understand the following poem: I'll tell the' We're ...
1 vote
1 answer
130 views

Spoken Arabic dictionary/corpus?

Is there an existing corpus or dictionary for different spoken Arabic dialects? I'd like to look up a word (in English or MSA or in a spoken dialect) and find where this word or phrase is spoken (and ...
9 votes
6 answers
23k views

Online etymology dictionary for Latin

Is there an etymology dictionary for Latin that is available on the Internet? For example, I know of http://etymonline.com/, which is a great resource for English etymology, but I have not been able ...
7 votes
1 answer
113 views

Does a scientific methodology exist for evaluating bilingual dictionaries?

I recently reread What's the difference between the various context dictionaries available for Spanish (e.g., Tatoeba, Reverso, Linguee, …)?. The accepted answer is excellent. But it got me ...
0 votes
2 answers
439 views

Conventions on sorting phrases with whitespace and punctuation (for an index)

I'm sorry if this is not the correct community to ask this question, if not please suggest a transfer. I'm compiling an index of sorts for a large songbook where all the titles and first lines of the ...
6 votes
3 answers
13k views

What's the largest dictionary in the world?

I'm curious to know: what is the largest dictionary in the world? The English and Malgache Wiktionaries are surely not far off with 3.8M and 3.5M entries but I found a blog post talking about a ...
9 votes
3 answers
737 views

Help me find an early Old Norse dictionary (or even a grammar)

For some time I've been looking for a dictionary of Old Norse that reflects an early situation in the language; this kind of resource has been amazingly hard to find, for some reason. Most ...
1 vote
0 answers
195 views

Calculate TF-IDF of Loughran and Bill McDonald dictionary

I am exploring the financial-related dictionary of Loughran and McDonald. I want to calculate the TF-IDF weighting of the words within the dictionary. I use the following formula, based on the paper "...
9 votes
2 answers
398 views

How often are dictionary etymologies wrong?

How often are the etymologies in dictionaries incorect? Sometimes when reading a dictionary I see a derivation of a word which contradicts my intuition. For example I read that "ball" comes from ...