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Questions tagged [dictionary]

A collection of words in (a) specific language(s), often containing usage information.

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Online etymology dictionaries for French, beyond CNTRL?

Are there etymology dictionaries for French available on the Internet? To wit, what's a French equivalent of http://etymonline.com/? I already know about TLF informatisé (TLFi), but often, it does ...
user avatar
9 votes
6 answers
23k views

Online etymology dictionary for Latin

Is there an etymology dictionary for Latin that is available on the Internet? For example, I know of http://etymonline.com/, which is a great resource for English etymology, but I have not been able ...
sashoalm's user avatar
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9 votes
2 answers
398 views

How often are dictionary etymologies wrong?

How often are the etymologies in dictionaries incorect? Sometimes when reading a dictionary I see a derivation of a word which contradicts my intuition. For example I read that "ball" comes from ...
Metamorphic's user avatar
9 votes
1 answer
244 views

How are dictionaries produced

What are the steps invoked in producing a dictionary? I am primarily interested in understanding the role software plays in the production process. Obviously a corpus for the language is first ...
Baz's user avatar
  • 1,082
9 votes
3 answers
737 views

Help me find an early Old Norse dictionary (or even a grammar)

For some time I've been looking for a dictionary of Old Norse that reflects an early situation in the language; this kind of resource has been amazingly hard to find, for some reason. Most ...
Darkgamma's user avatar
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7 votes
2 answers
3k views

Sumerian cuneiform dictionary?

Is there a single, unified place where one can look up cuneiform signs for Sumerian words? Unicode now supports cuneiform, but every source I've found has only transliterations, not actual cuneiform. ...
Joe's user avatar
  • 2,156
7 votes
1 answer
113 views

Does a scientific methodology exist for evaluating bilingual dictionaries?

I recently reread What's the difference between the various context dictionaries available for Spanish (e.g., Tatoeba, Reverso, Linguee, …)?. The accepted answer is excellent. But it got me ...
aparente001's user avatar
7 votes
3 answers
998 views

Are there dictionaries like Collins COBUILD for other languages than English? [closed]

Let me explain what I'm after: monolingual all examples are taken from a large corpus of contemporary text (the COBUILD series is now using Bank of English) the senses for each entry are sorted by ...
6 votes
3 answers
13k views

What's the largest dictionary in the world?

I'm curious to know: what is the largest dictionary in the world? The English and Malgache Wiktionaries are surely not far off with 3.8M and 3.5M entries but I found a blog post talking about a ...
the's user avatar
  • 243
6 votes
3 answers
200 views

Looking for bi-/tri-lingual dictionaries or corpora

I will be attempting to solve the problem of automatic language identification/detection (and later translation), and I'm in a need of free digital dictionaries or corpora. I'm looking for ...
Howie's user avatar
  • 163
6 votes
1 answer
101 views

How to look up a sign language sign in a dictionary

The other day, I was watching the weather channel, and, saw a sign language presenter signing. The specific sign language was known to me (as, most likely, was the one corresponding to the language ...
Joselin Jocklingson's user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
217 views

How are meanings of a word ordered in a dictionary?

What base does vocabulary.com use for its hierarchy of meanings of a word? For example see http://www.vocabulary.com/dictionary/sound. Are top levels (numbered list) all homonyms? What structure do ...
Real Dreams's user avatar
5 votes
2 answers
530 views

Is there an open source English dictionary that isn't too fine-grained in defining a word?

I'm creating a multilingual online dictionary and I need an open source English dictionary to work off of. Wordnet is the obvious choice, as it's extremely complete and its license is permissive of ...
Matt Fisher's user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
799 views

Dictionaries with binary semantic features

In lexical semantics, a lot of meaning in individual words, the concept behind the utterance, is captured in ontological relations: is-like for synonymy, is-a for a hypernym hierarchy. But this doesn'...
Mitch's user avatar
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5 votes
1 answer
86 views

Is there a name for this idea relating to word abstractness/complexity based on dictionary definition self-reference?

First, let me give the caveat that I have never taken a linguistics class, nor read a linguistics book. I am coming from a degree in math. Please give your answers at a level I can understand. There'...
abnry's user avatar
  • 151
5 votes
0 answers
332 views

Dictionary with real IPA and English sandhi rules?

I don't like English dictionaries that use pseudo-IPA to indicate pronunciation. I've seen none indicating that most plosives should be aspirated, but when they're in "sp", "st" and other combinations ...
Joe Pineda's user avatar
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4 votes
1 answer
685 views

Why do dictionaries use non-standard IPA symbols

"ɛə̯" or "ɛə" can be written as "ea" "ɛː" "ɛ" and "ɛə" in various dictionaries. http://teflpedia.com/IPA_phoneme_/e%C9%99/ I don't see the value as they aren't fixing the non-intuitive nature of ...
user2617804's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
116 views

What language pairs are underserved, and would most benefit from machine-learned bilingual tools?

What language pairs are under-served by current resources — like human translators, bilingual dictionaries, and parallel corpuses — relative to their linguistic importance, economic potential, or ...
Jim DeLaHunt's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
445 views

How a learner of a polysynthetic language like Arapaho would use an electronic or printed dictionary?

Along the lines of this question about agglutinative dictionaries, I just finished reading through the paper "Creating lexical resources for polysynthetic languages — the case of Arapaho, by ...
Lance's user avatar
  • 4,360
4 votes
4 answers
2k views

How many of all possible English words are actually in use (have meaning)?

If we consider that there are phonological observations as to what is an English word and what probably isn't, one could come up with a dictionary of "all possible" English words, i.e. all words that ...
tmh's user avatar
  • 191
4 votes
1 answer
568 views

How to explore the meaning of a concept (like "friendship")?

I am trying to extract all components ("atoms") of meaning of the concept "friendship" in a certain language (actually in Russian). By components of meaning I mean, for example: "girl"="human"+"female"...
Alex.rft's user avatar
4 votes
2 answers
362 views

What is a good way to represent data in a multilingual dictionary? Wordnet alternatives or extensions?

I'm not a linguist so forgive my misuse of terminology... I'm looking for a data structure to represent dictionary entries. A dictionary would have words translated to other languages along with links ...
yǝsʞǝla's user avatar
4 votes
2 answers
334 views

dictionary with the smallest number of circularly defined words

Motivation: words in a dictionary are defined in terms of other words, but at some point it becomes circular: words defined by other words that have also been defined using some of the same words. ...
Hugh Mungus's user avatar
3 votes
4 answers
2k views

Any free, good and extensive word lists for languages other than English?

After considerable search on the Internet, I found a free, good and extensive word list for English that IMHO contains all words (nouns and verbs with their endings as separate entries) one would ever ...
Mok-Kong Shen's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
312 views

How did a logographic orthography like Chinese organize its word-stock before any type of phonetic notation?

Let's say you were to to pick up a dictionary and look up a word in Chinese before the advent of any type of phonetic notation system such as Pinyin or Bopomofo. How would words in that dictionary be ...
RECURSIVE FARTS's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
145 views

Is the Sumerian king list etymologically understood?

While some names in the Sumerian King List contain standard Sumerian words (e.g. "sipad" : shepherd, "dumu" : son, "zid" : true, "en" : king), I haven't found a comprehensive translation/etymological ...
Abhimanyu Pallavi Sudhir's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
576 views

Is there a programmatically accessible/structured (JSON, XML, etc) dictionary that includes IPA

Thus far I have the CMU Pronouncing Dictionary, which uses a custom set of phonemes represented in ASCII text. Just the words and pronunciations is nice, but it would be great to have actual IPA ...
David Michaels's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
220 views

Dictionaries for machine translation

I am doing research on machine translation in prolog and I am wondering if there are any suitable dictionaries available in text/xml format for machine translation. With suitable for machine ...
Mark's user avatar
  • 31
3 votes
2 answers
9k views

A comprehensive list of conceptual metaphors

Is there a comprehensive list of conceptual metaphors? (Either man-made, crowdsourced or based on data-mining / corpora analysis.) By a conceptual metaphor I mean a relation in the spirit of George ...
Piotr Migdal's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
152 views

Concise IPA dictionary

For decades I have used "A Pronouncing Dictionary of American English" by Kenyon and Knott as a concise and accessible tool in learning the IPA. The fact that it's still in print must mean ...
William Odom's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
157 views

Cumbrian sources

I'm interested in the cumbrian dialect, but I couldn't find good sources of vocabulary and pontual aspects of its grammar. Also, I was trying to understand the following poem: I'll tell the' We're ...
Ergative Man's user avatar
  • 1,446
3 votes
1 answer
47 views

Dictionary used by WordNet for word senses

What dictionary does WordNet use for the various senses it lists for each word?
Neal Goldfarb's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
34 views

Kindle version of Crystal's Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics, 7th ed. -- usable?

Is the Kindle version of Crystal's Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics usable? For example, do special symbols, tables and graphics display properly? How is the search feature? I've owned hard-...
Chala's user avatar
  • 41
3 votes
0 answers
86 views

Noun phrases in dictionaries

Today's Oxford English Dictionary word-of-the-day ("ice master") reminded me of a question that's been on my mind for some time: What criteria do dictionary-makers use to decide whether a ...
Nathaniel Mishkin's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
351 views

Accuracy of Этимологический словарь иранских языков (Etymological Dictionary of Iranian Languages) by Rastorgueva and Edelman

I have been studying these books with the help of Google Translate. In the third volume on page 176, the authors seem to derive the Persian درنا (crane) from an Iranian root. This is obviously ...
KamranNef's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
174 views

glossary/dictionary corpus for NLP task

I am looking for glossary/dictionary corpus in machine readable form. Basically huge file/db which would contain word and its definition. Here is sample: Authenticity: a feature that characterizes ...
user1700890's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
115 views

Greek: differences between words marked as αρχαιοπρεπής, λόγιος or παλαιότερα

In my dictionary some words are marked with αρχαιοπρεπής (dated, archaic), λόγιος (learned form) and παλαιότερα (more ancient use). What are the differences, if any, between these terms, and what is ...
nyg's user avatar
  • 198
2 votes
1 answer
453 views

How can a multi-language dictionary be made? [closed]

Let's pretend we are producing four-language cross-dictionary. To be more difficult, let it be a Russian-English-Japanese-Sanskrit dictionary. By "cross-dictionary" I mean that the person using it ...
hijarian's user avatar
  • 123
2 votes
3 answers
245 views

Does anyone knows a work on Mongolian loanwords in Turkic languages?

Especially in Western branch of Turkic languages.
me and's user avatar
  • 21
2 votes
1 answer
308 views

Where to download phonetic word list for English

I need phonetic word lists / dictionaries for English. I did not assume that this would be hard to find online. What do you use? What is available?
lode's user avatar
  • 175
2 votes
2 answers
306 views

Wellsean Syllabification and Recapitulation Symbols in the LPD

Those of you who deal with phonetics and phonology of English, and perhaps other languages as well, will surely have read John C. Wells’s article “Syllabification and allophony”, which you can find ...
Joseph's user avatar
  • 21
2 votes
2 answers
156 views

Should common short words be left out of a concordance?

I'm writing a program which will be designed to take a text file, and parse all the words into a Concordance, e.g., a sort of dictionary list of all the words sorted in order, with a total count of ...
Phrancis's user avatar
  • 131
2 votes
1 answer
551 views

Online Modern Greek dictionary that puts imperfective and ("dependent") perfective verb stems together?

Does anyone know of a good online Modern Greek dictionary that puts imperfective and perfective (also called "dependent") verb stems together? For instance, the present perfective of βλέπω /'vlepo/ "...
Owen_AR's user avatar
  • 203
2 votes
0 answers
97 views

What are the essential words?

Take a dictionary. Each word is defined using other words. Take all the words of the dictionary. The words that appear in their definitions is a subset of words of this dictionary (and not the whole ...
bixiou's user avatar
  • 21
2 votes
0 answers
45 views

Are there dictionaries translating roots from one Indo-European language to another?

Are there dictionaries translating roots from one Indo-European language (family) to another? Such dictionaries would be helpful for translating calques like выставка, Ausstellung, and exhibition. ...
Chill2Macht's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
90 views

What are some authoritative Vietnamese Dictionaries? …and how do they disambiguate the two pronunciations of <gia>?

What are some authoritative Vietnamese dictionaries? …and how do they disambiguate the two pronunciations of <gia>? (Something with an English or Chinese gloss is preferred.) Wikipedia on the ...
Kevin Li's user avatar
  • 331
2 votes
1 answer
747 views

Financial Slang and NLP for Sentiment Analysis

I am working on a Sentiment-Analysis/Opinion-Mining of Tweets, focused on Finance related tweets. One of the biggest issue I am facing is the unability of my algorithm to detect equivalent entities (...
ylnor's user avatar
  • 121
2 votes
0 answers
39 views

Does Merriam Webster dictionary list word senses based on their historical occurrence?

I have noticed that, unlike other dictionaries, MW seems to list word senses based on the order they have appeared throughout history. Was this just a coincidence, or is this true for MW.
modarwish's user avatar
  • 121
2 votes
0 answers
254 views

Early Modern English spelling variations dictionary

I am building a web application that allows users to transcribe, word by word, Early Modern English manuscripts. I want to tell users when a word they transcribed may be a new spelling variant of ...
U r s u s's user avatar
  • 121
1 vote
3 answers
227 views

What is meant by "s/he flies" in Plains Cree dictionary?

The Plains Cree Dictionary has things like this: ᐋᐦᑕᐦᐅᐤ âhtahow VAI-1 s/he flies to another place The VAI (animate intransitive verb) page doesn't have a description. In English we have verbs "...
Lance's user avatar
  • 4,360