Questions tagged [dictionary]

A collection of words in (a) specific language(s), often containing usage information.

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5answers
6k views

Online etymology dictionaries for French, beyond CNTRL?

Are there etymology dictionaries for French available on the Internet? To wit, what's a French equivalent of http://etymonline.com/? I already know about TLF informatisé (TLFi), but often, it does ...
0
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1answer
84 views

What should go into a dictionary in heavily agglutinative languages?

I would like to build a clean "dictionary" (or some sort of "base word form" collection) for various languages. I am used to English, or even Chinese, because it is analytic and ...
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2answers
76 views

What is meant by “s/he flies” in Plains Cree dictionary?

The Plains Cree Dictionary has things like this: ᐋᐦᑕᐦᐅᐤ âhtahow VAI-1 s/he flies to another place The VAI (animate intransitive verb) page doesn't have a description. In English we have verbs "...
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1answer
73 views

Is there any free, single-word wordlist with CLAWS7 part-of-speech tags?

I am looking for a wordlist which includes single-word entries and their part-of-speech tags in UCREL CLAWS7 format. The list must be comprised of scientifically collected data, for example words ...
0
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1answer
36 views

Where can I get the complete list of word entries present in Merriam Webster's dictionary?

I can't find any list, github repo, etc to find the total list of entries defined in merriam webster. Any ideas?
3
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0answers
61 views

Noun phrases in dictionaries

Today's Oxford English Dictionary word-of-the-day ("ice master") reminded me of a question that's been on my mind for some time: What criteria do dictionary-makers use to decide whether a ...
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3answers
2k views

Any suggestion for Classical Arabic language online dictionary or PDF?

Can anybody suggest me the websites or PDFs from where I can get the meaning and etymology of Classical Arabic terms or any online dictionary of Classical Arabic language or any PDF of that dictionary?...
2
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0answers
71 views

What are the essential words?

Take a dictionary. Each word is defined using other words. Take all the words of the dictionary. The words that appear in their definitions is a subset of words of this dictionary (and not the whole ...
-1
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1answer
75 views

What is the correct way to cite the “Harvard General Inquirer Dictionary” in a paper? [closed]

I would like to cite the Harvard General Inquirer Dictionary in a paper, but I am not able to find the correct reference. Should I cite the homepage, the manual or one of these references available in ...
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1answer
75 views

How to understand the etymology from the American Heritage Dictionary?

I look up the word 'frangible'. Its etymology shows [Middle English, from Old French, from Medieval Latin frangibilis, from Latin frangere, to break; see bhreg- in the Appendix of Indo-European roots....
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1answer
49 views

Is there a website, dataset, API or NLP library which can give me the English meaning, POS and conjugated forms of a word from any major language?

Is there a website or dataset which can give me the following info all at once: (1) English meaning of a word/lexeme (2) part of speech (3) all conjugated forms of the lexeme, whether verb, noun or ...
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0answers
32 views

Which online sources provide narrow transcriptions for English?

I've tried a dozen of online English dictionaries, and all of them give broad transcriptions. So it's impossible to tell from them, for example, how many aspirated "p"s there are in "appropriate". ...
0
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1answer
54 views

Checking Definitions for Self-Consistency and Cycles

I am building a "self-contained" set of definitions, and would like to ensure that the definitions: Do not contain circular definitions (which might include other words within that cycle, not just a ...
4
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2answers
7k views

A comprehensive list of conceptual metaphors

Is there a comprehensive list of conceptual metaphors? (Either man-made, crowdsourced or based on data-mining / corpora analysis.) By a conceptual metaphor I mean a relation in the spirit of George ...
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2answers
64 views

Where to download phonetic word list for Dutch/ Nederlandse fonetische woordenlijst downloaden

I cannot find phonetic word lists / dictionaries online for Dutch. Please provide me with a url. What do you use? What is available?
2
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1answer
79 views

Is the Sumerian king list etymologically understood?

While some names in the Sumerian King List contain standard Sumerian words (e.g. "sipad" : shepherd, "dumu" : son, "zid" : true, "en" : king), I haven't found a comprehensive translation/etymological ...
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2answers
124 views

Are there any evocative dictionaries?

There are analogical dictionaries which list words and phrases related to a topic. And there are symbolic dictionaries which explain what a thing represents. But I have not found a dictionary that ...
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1answer
91 views

Where to download phonetic word list for English

I need phonetic word lists / dictionaries for English. I did not assume that this would be hard to find online. What do you use? What is available?
3
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1answer
141 views

Cumbrian sources

I'm interested in the cumbrian dialect, but I couldn't find good sources of vocabulary and pontual aspects of its grammar. Also, I was trying to understand the following poem: I'll tell the' We're ...
0
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1answer
60 views

How to interpret the only available Middle Persian dictionary?

I am looking at this: I think this is a verb (some others are even less clear). What does besaz(en)- mean? The parentheses and the hyphen. The M is for Middle Persian, but there is no indication that ...
1
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1answer
71 views

Spoken Arabic dictionary/corpus?

Is there an existing corpus or dictionary for different spoken Arabic dialects? I'd like to look up a word (in English or MSA or in a spoken dialect) and find where this word or phrase is spoken (and ...
10
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6answers
19k views

Online etymology dictionary for Latin

Is there an etymology dictionary for Latin that is available on the Internet? For example, I know of http://etymonline.com/, which is a great resource for English etymology, but I have not been able ...
6
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1answer
91 views

Does a scientific methodology exist for evaluating bilingual dictionaries?

I recently reread What's the difference between the various context dictionaries available for Spanish (e.g., Tatoeba, Reverso, Linguee, …)?. The accepted answer is excellent. But it got me ...
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2answers
194 views

Conventions on sorting phrases with whitespace and punctuation (for an index)

I'm sorry if this is not the correct community to ask this question, if not please suggest a transfer. I'm compiling an index of sorts for a large songbook where all the titles and first lines of the ...
5
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3answers
12k views

What's the largest dictionary in the world?

I'm curious to know: what is the largest dictionary in the world? The English and Malgache Wiktionaries are surely not far off with 3.8M and 3.5M entries but I found a blog post talking about a ...
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3answers
660 views

Help me find an early Old Norse dictionary (or even a grammar)

For some time I've been looking for a dictionary of Old Norse that reflects an early situation in the language; this kind of resource has been amazingly hard to find, for some reason. Most ...
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0answers
96 views

Calculate TF-IDF of Loughran and Bill McDonald dictionary

I am exploring the financial-related dictionary of Loughran and McDonald. I want to calculate the TF-IDF weighting of the words within the dictionary. I use the following formula, based on the paper "...
7
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2answers
266 views

How often are dictionary etymologies wrong?

How often are the etymologies in dictionaries incorect? Sometimes when reading a dictionary I see a derivation of a word which contradicts my intuition. For example I read that "ball" comes from ...
4
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1answer
100 views

What language pairs are underserved, and would most benefit from machine-learned bilingual tools?

What language pairs are under-served by current resources — like human translators, bilingual dictionaries, and parallel corpuses — relative to their linguistic importance, economic potential, or ...
2
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1answer
391 views

Online Modern Greek dictionary that puts imperfective and (“dependent”) perfective verb stems together?

Does anyone know of a good online Modern Greek dictionary that puts imperfective and perfective (also called "dependent") verb stems together? For instance, the present perfective of βλέπω /'vlepo/ "...
2
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1answer
85 views

Greek: differences between words marked as αρχαιοπρεπής, λόγιος or παλαιότερα

In my dictionary some words are marked with αρχαιοπρεπής (dated, archaic), λόγιος (learned form) and παλαιότερα (more ancient use). What are the differences, if any, between these terms, and what is ...
3
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4answers
591 views

Any free, good and extensive word lists for languages other than English?

After considerable search on the Internet, I found a free, good and extensive word list for English that IMHO contains all words (nouns and verbs with their endings as separate entries) one would ever ...
2
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2answers
146 views

glossary/dictionary corpus for NLP task

I am looking for glossary/dictionary corpus in machine readable form. Basically huge file/db which would contain word and its definition. Here is sample: Authenticity: a feature that characterizes ...
2
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2answers
251 views

Wellsean Syllabification and Recapitulation Symbols in the LPD

Those of you who deal with phonetics and phonology of English, and perhaps other languages as well, will surely have read John C. Wells’s article “Syllabification and allophony”, which you can find ...
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0answers
352 views

Where can I download dictionary bilingual word list in many languages?

I want to find dictionary bilingual word lists like English-Swedish, English-Danish, English-Hindi, English-Hungarian and many others. I am also interested in English-Multilingual word lists.
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0answers
40 views

Are there dictionaries translating roots from one Indo-European language to another?

Are there dictionaries translating roots from one Indo-European language (family) to another? Such dictionaries would be helpful for translating calques like выставка, Ausstellung, and exhibition. ...
2
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0answers
78 views

What are some authoritative Vietnamese Dictionaries? …and how do they disambiguate the two pronunciations of <gia>?

What are some authoritative Vietnamese dictionaries? …and how do they disambiguate the two pronunciations of <gia>? (Something with an English or Chinese gloss is preferred.) Wikipedia on the ...
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1answer
517 views

Why do dictionaries use non-standard IPA symbols

"ɛə̯" or "ɛə" can be written as "ea" "ɛː" "ɛ" and "ɛə" in various dictionaries. http://teflpedia.com/IPA_phoneme_/e%C9%99/ I don't see the value as they aren't fixing the non-intuitive nature of ...
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2answers
87 views

Are there any equivalent of oxforddictionaries.com/definition/ in Arabic?

I am looking for a website that is equivalent of https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/go In oxforddictionaries, you see it gives all of the meanings of a word with example sentences Are ...
2
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1answer
701 views

Financial Slang and NLP for Sentiment Analysis

I am working on a Sentiment-Analysis/Opinion-Mining of Tweets, focused on Finance related tweets. One of the biggest issue I am facing is the unability of my algorithm to detect equivalent entities (...
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3answers
175 views
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2answers
335 views

What is a good way to represent data in a multilingual dictionary? Wordnet alternatives or extensions?

I'm not a linguist so forgive my misuse of terminology... I'm looking for a data structure to represent dictionary entries. A dictionary would have words translated to other languages along with links ...
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3answers
2k views

Sumerian cuneiform dictionary?

Is there a single, unified place where one can look up cuneiform signs for Sumerian words? Unicode now supports cuneiform, but every source I've found has only transliterations, not actual cuneiform. ...
0
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1answer
1k views

Can anyone recommend a good, free, and online Greek-to-English dictionary? [closed]

A translation service is not being requested in the question since they provide word-to-word mappings instead of word-to-meaning explanations. The dictionary may optionally render the Greek word with ...
5
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1answer
559 views

Dictionaries with binary semantic features

In lexical semantics, a lot of meaning in individual words, the concept behind the utterance, is captured in ontological relations: is-like for synonymy, is-a for a hypernym hierarchy. But this doesn'...
2
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1answer
279 views

French Pronunciation Dictionary

Is there a French pronunciation dictionary on the web like CMU English dictionary? Thanks.
5
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1answer
78 views

Is there a name for this idea relating to word abstractness/complexity based on dictionary definition self-reference?

First, let me give the caveat that I have never taken a linguistics class, nor read a linguistics book. I am coming from a degree in math. Please give your answers at a level I can understand. There'...
2
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1answer
419 views

How can a multi-language dictionary be made? [closed]

Let's pretend we are producing four-language cross-dictionary. To be more difficult, let it be a Russian-English-Japanese-Sanskrit dictionary. By "cross-dictionary" I mean that the person using it ...
4
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1answer
179 views

How are meanings of a word ordered in a dictionary?

What base does vocabulary.com use for its hierarchy of meanings of a word? For example see http://www.vocabulary.com/dictionary/sound. Are top levels (numbered list) all homonyms? What structure do ...
5
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2answers
518 views

Is there an open source English dictionary that isn't too fine-grained in defining a word?

I'm creating a multilingual online dictionary and I need an open source English dictionary to work off of. Wordnet is the obvious choice, as it's extremely complete and its license is permissive of ...