Questions tagged [english]

A Germanic language, which originated from England, and is considered the leading language in international communication.

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20 views

How to make sense of this table of “TEX hyphenation patterns combos”? [migrated]

I'm confused by this: http://tug.org/tex-hyphen/#languages There is a " en-gb", meaning "English in Great Britain", a "en-us", meaning "English in the USA"... but there is no "English in Australia"...
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In what circumstances is d devoiced in English?

I have noticed that speakers of languages which have /d/ and (unaspirated) /t/ as distinct consonants are sometimes unsure whether my natural pronunciation of the English name "Dan" starts with a /d/ ...
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Fundamental questions about natural classes in phonology [closed]

Could you help me with these questions? Thank you in advance!
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If our requirement says that the only thing that isn’t a phrase in an NP is the N itself, why a problem?

Andrew Carnie. Syntax A Generative Introduction (3 ed, 2012). p 209. Pls see red underline. I don't see what is problem?
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Characteristics or Preferences of Age Groups When Learning/Acquiring a Language [migrated]

I've been looking for some research studies to get into more depth about the characteristics of age groups when learning a language. My main focus is on ages of 17 and 18 (basically, when teenagers ...
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Why hasn't English borrowed more words from China? [closed]

Why hasn't English (or Latin/Greek/others from which English arrived) borrowed more words from China? I am looking at Wikipedia and there's probably only 30 words there out of the millions of words ...
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Are words classified (PoS) according to their use in a sentence, or does classification precede usage?

This is a rather broad question, so I'd like to limit this to verbs, at least in this explication of the question. Verbs take many forms and roles in sentences. Present participles can take the role ...
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103 views

/ɹəʊd/ vs /ɹoʊd/ etc

For words with the vowel sound in road and coal, Wiktionary: https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/road#English https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/coal#English lists the British pronunciation of the vowel as ...
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Case in English phrase “friend of mine”

In English phrases like Jesse is a friend of mine/*of me the case of the word "mine" is not the oblique ("me") which usually occurs with prepositions ("That's a part of me that you don't see too ...
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Automated Verb Correction for Subject Agreement Using Penn Treebank Tags

I'm working on a software method to correct the verb in an English sentence based on the subject count (singular or plural) and using a corpus of verbs tagged with their Penn Treebank Tags. (I have ...
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120 views

Cumbrian sources

I'm interested in the cumbrian dialect, but I couldn't find good sources of vocabulary and pontual aspects of its grammar. Also, I was trying to understand the following poem: I'll tell the' We're ...
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3answers
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What is a “Phonetic Language”?

Once I've spoke with a friend of mine and I've asked him why in the french language there are so many discrepancies (or incongruities, inconformities...) between the written and the spoken words and ...
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209 views

GVS similarity in cognate words other Germanic Languages

I am no professional Linguist (nor have I ever studied it) so there might be a straightforward explanation to this which I could't find searching in ordinary places. I was analysing a few words from ...
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The schwa in [meɪkəθ] for *maketh* in KJV English

This Wiki article seems to suggest that words like makes had lost their final syllable schwa in normal speech already by Chaucer's time (palmeres > palmers is the example they give). The rule, as ...
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Does this sentence violate Principle A of Binding Theory?

In the sentence John(i) wanted to buy himself(i) a pair of shoes. With (i) to mark co-indexation. Is the anaphor "himself" bound in its binding domain? Or is the binder in a separate domain ...
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Corpus of English sentences written by non-native speakers?

I am working on a hobby project which tends to help the non-native speakers figure out if the sentences they write are good enough and sounds like written by English native speakers. Any relevant info ...
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1answer
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How to numerically rate the beauty of the word? [closed]

On the Internet we can find lists like "The 100 most beautiful words in English". How could I create an algorithm to rate the beauty of any given English word, so that I could run this algorithm and ...
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How do we distinguish a preposition from an adverb?

Huddleston and Pullum analyze the final word in each of these as a preposition, where traditional grammar would define them as adverbs. How can we tell which is the correct analysis? the sky above ...
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Searching for an English Whats-app Corpus

I am searching an English Whats-app Corpus in order to analyse a linguistic phenomena. I had some difficulties to find one and maybe some of you can help me out. It is only for corpus driven study and ...
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1answer
124 views

Why does anger has something to do with spleen in both Chinese and English?

The English word spleen has two meanings in Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary, an organ near the stomach which produces and cleans the body's blood. a feeling of anger and disagreement. ...
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Some “LINGUISTIQUE formulas” to translate French texts into English?

I am not sure is it correct to ask my question here or not! I've asked this question here (in MathStackExchange) before! Maybe it is better to see the question there, because it was written ...
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1answer
118 views

Why is it “untenable” and not “untainable” in English?

I am aware that words like "obtain," "retain," and "contain" are related to the root "tenere" meaning "to have." What (if anything) determines if the "ten" goes to "tain" in English? We have words ...
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Is there a term for syntactically and semantically linked modifying phrases?

What I'm talking about is when a string of prepositional phrases take the object of the previous one as their antecedent, and where the entire string is linked back to the original antecedent, a noun ...
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Subcategorisation Frame with DPs

I want to construct a subcatagorisation frame for some words, for example that take a DP complement. Take the preposition "between" as example. I arrive at this point: Form: "...
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3answers
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From Old French -iss into English -ish

I have read this information on the word perish: "mid-13c., from periss- present participle stem of Old French perir" And this comment is below a question of mine on English Language & Usage ...
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Diacope Confusion

I'm a little confused by diacope as a rhetorical feature. All examples I can find are short simple sentences "drill baby drill" for example. I'm trying to work out what the correct term would be to ...
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Are there any unattested, reconstructed Middle English words?

Are there any unattested Middle English words that were attested in Early Modern English? I'm asking this because, on Wiktionary, I saw that there are only 2 words: the F word and halibut that have ...
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The difference betWeen the writting and pronunciation [duplicate]

Why is English "W" written as two "V" but pronounced as "double U"?
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How to understand “otherwise experience very largely” in the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis? [closed]

I’m a Chinese and can’t understand a classic text from The Status Of Linguistics As A Science (1929) by Edward Sapir. We see and hear and otherwise experience very largely as we do because the ...
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1answer
85 views

Does understanding in Russian imply understanding in English? [closed]

I am a native Russian speaker. There is a Past Continuous as well as a Past Simple tense in Russian, does that mean that my brain understands how the tenses work in English too? (English is not my ...
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1answer
93 views

What are the semantic functions of a complementizer phrase (CP)

What does semantic functions mean? and what are they for a CP? Thank you
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Nouns used as verbs.What is this process called?

I am milking the cow He is watering the garden In English many nouns can be used as verbs.some languages I know , for example, Hindi, does not have this facility. What is the process of nouns ...
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Is it unusual that English uses possessive for past tense?

When learning some basic French, I was somewhat surprised to learn that phrases of the form "I have found the cat" generally translate almost word-for-word from English (J'ai trouvé le chat). To me, ...
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Usage of the implicit object-subordinate clause in Italian (i.e. Usage of the implicit objective subordinate clause in English - part II)

In a sense, the following question is a sequel of this one: Usage of the implicit objective subordinate clause in English. In that question I asked some information about the usage of the implicite ...
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Why do adjectives come before nouns in English?

Why does the attributive adjective come before a noun in English? In most languages, the adjective comes always after a noun. For example, white car is written as the equivalent of car white in Latin ...
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Is to always a preposition? [closed]

[1] I am looking forward to seeing you. [2] I want to see you. In the sentence [1] we say that to is a preposition. followed by a gerund. In [2] we say to is a particle ...
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Why do English transliterations of Arabic names have so many Qs in them?

I remember when the Muslim holy book was the Koran when I was in middle school, but now it's the Quran. But it's always been Qatar and Iraq (but still Kuwait.) Who decided that 'Q' was going to be ...
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2answers
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How many sound-to-letter sequence mapping rules does English have compared to other languages?

In English (I haven't really thought too much about English yet), there are tons of what-seem-like one-off patterns. (the "oo" sound) tool /tul/ two /tu/ to /tu/ through /θɹu/ blue /blu/ queue /ku/ (...
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Which option should I use if I want to learn theories that will account for as much English sentence's structure as possible

Option 1: "Cambridge English Grammar Language" by Geoffrey Pullum or Option 2: a site which, i think, is based on government and binding theory: https://www.ling.upenn.edu/~beatrice/syntax-textbook/ ...
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Does pre-fortis clipping only operate within a syllable? If not, what is its actual scope?

English is known to have a phenomenon of "pre-fortis clipping": in certain contexts, vowel and sonorant phonemes before a fortis/voiceless consonant are realized with shorter duration than the same ...
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State of the art in controlled english languages?

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Controlled_natural_language lists some controlled languages, of which Attempto Controlled English seems to be the most recent. However, are there any Attempto extensions, ...
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Usage of the implicit objective subordinate clause in English

I'm not a fluent english speaker. While speaking this language, we usually prefer the implicit objective subordinate clauses (with subject in the accusative case, if it exists) to the corresponding ...
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What aspects of a conceptual metaphor can be compared cross-culturally? [closed]

I'm interested to do a cross-cultural study of a conceptual metaphor 'Love is food' between English and Thai. I would like to compare the use of this metaphor in the two languages to find similarities ...
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1answer
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Is _ing a derivational suffix in the noun “reading” (as in the event--e.g. a poetry reading)?

Clearly there is a difference between the gerund form of the verb "read" and the noun "reading." Is the word-formation process of the latter different in that its -ing suffix is derivational?
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big english word frequency list [duplicate]

I'm in need of English 100,000 frequency word list. I hope you tell me about a free option (if available) or an inexpensive one.
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Is English tonal for some words, like “permit”?

I have heard the difference between tone and intonation described in the following way: Tone is when the pitch of a word determines its meaning. Intonation is when the pitch of a word conveys its ...
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2answers
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Is it possible to speak like a native speaker of English by mastering the phonology?

I know some professors of phonetics teach phonetics(in a country like India) in a laboratory almost similar to that of the native speakers.But when they come out of the class their pronunciation does ...
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Do linguistics academics adhere to arbitrary rules of English prescriptive grammar in their writing?

I'm specifically curious about passive voice and how it's often said to be a weak writing style. Since linguists ostensibly might view scorning passive voice as maybe a meaningless rule, would it be ...
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Is future tense in English really a myth?

Does English really have two tenses - present and past? Some linguists argue that it is a Latinate fallacy to think that English has three tenses. Some English professors and even some native ...
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Slip of the tongue

Just now, I had a slip of the tongue which resulted in a silly grammatical error. I said "if I had, I would not commented on it". I added "have" afterwards. My question is "do natives make such ...