Questions tagged [english]

A Germanic language, which originated from England, and is considered the leading language in international communication. For non-linguistic questions about the English language, visit one of our sister sites English Language & Usage or English Language Learners.

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What is the word for a clip of time

When I say the past 30 seconds, I mean this amount of time’s end point is the immediate present and always will be, and the starting point is set somewhere in the recent past. But I’m not referring to ...
Camdon Bartley's user avatar
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Why do artists make grammar mistakes in their songs? [migrated]

I would be deeply grateful if you answer my question. I'm currently writing my thesis about standard and non-standard English grammar and the main problem of my work is why artists make grammar "...
Magda Šudák's user avatar
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Can a complementizer (C) take two complements (COMPS)?

The 1997 paper "English Relative Clause Constructions" by Ivan A. Sag has these diagrams: (53) shows a diagram of to go to the UK, and (54) of for them to go to the UK. In (54), ...
JK2's user avatar
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Canonical flaps

Dear colleagues: I have a question about canonical flaps. The literature is not clear on whether a canonical flap has a burst or not. I have found in my data that many flaps do have a burst (sometimes ...
Reasearcher Pronunciation's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
202 views

The analysis of 'for NP to VP' in HPSG

This is from a paper titled "What for?" by Bas Aarts: (35) [NP It [S′ [COMP for] [S Mary see his relatives]]] [M may] [VP distress John] Bresnan’s account was very influential in proposing ...
JK2's user avatar
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Noun Phrase - complement vs. postmodifier

Let's look at these two noun phrases: 1 - The chapter of the book. 2 - A mother of two kids. Could you please help me understand why 'of the book' is a postmodifier while 'of two kids' is a complement?...
Houcine's user avatar
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1 answer
110 views

How many dimensions do phonemes have?

I was wondering if there was a better or alternative ordering for the letters of the English alphabet, than the standard “a b c d e …”. This led me to wonder by what parameters they would be ordered. ...
Julius Hamilton's user avatar
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0 answers
67 views

Is "because" always a subordinating conjunction introducing a subordinate clause?

My grammar book says that a word like "because" is a subordinating conjunction, meaning that it is a word that can introduce a dependent clause. I know that a dependent clause contains its ...
Elisa's user avatar
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What's this linguistic phenomenon in English speaking?

I was enjoying the relaxing vibes that the hotel provided. When Americans say the above sentence, do they sometimes say "vibes that" in a way that sounds like "vibesat"? Does it ...
Tim's user avatar
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2 votes
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108 views

Is this preposition stranding or not?

I am a linguistics student and am currently doing research on supposed cases of preposition stranding in Brazilian Portuguese. So far I've come up with a few assumptions, but my data has been mostly ...
Nobody16's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
116 views

Has the spread of English removed any phonemes or characteristics from pre-existing languages?

I know there's already an answered question on here about English adding sounds and characteristics to languages, but I was wondering if there were many examples of the removal of intricacies from pre-...
meg's user avatar
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1 answer
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Is subject auxiliary inversion (do-support) unique to English?

In English, some question sentences are formed by the inversion of the subject and the auxiliary verb. I see you? Do I see you? *See I you? From what I understand, the inversion cannot be done with ...
Quinali Solaji's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
187 views

Does California English have an additional vowel phoneme?

I've noticed that my pronunciation of the word only differs from the General American pronunciation (I'm from coastal California). This is the pronunciation of only that I assume is General American: ...
BilliamOrWobForShort's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
132 views

What is the name of the "clicky" t sound used in some british accents in words like "little" and "mental"?

Emma Stone tries to replicate it here. It's not a glottal stop; the t is definitely being pronounced in the mouth and not the throat. It's almost exclusively used when a "t" sound is ...
keaek's user avatar
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3 votes
2 answers
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Is there research on which diphthongs are perceived by English speakers as single sounds?

In English, diphthongs are single phonemes, and monolingual English speakers hear them as a single vowel. However, this does not mean that English speakers will hear all diphthongs in other languages ...
Someone211's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
60 views

How do you attest that two modal particles in different languages are of similar semantic attributes?

especially fellow English-Dutch speakers. I am wondering as to how we can attest that two modal particles in different languages share similar semantic attributes. Is there any metrics/theories to ...
pindakazen's user avatar
5 votes
2 answers
216 views

Linguistically speaking, what is the standard phraseology that pilots and air traffic controllers use to communicate?

There is a standardized phraseology used in aviation radio communications. It is based on English, but it is significantly different, and many of the statements are not grammatically correct in ...
Someone's user avatar
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1 answer
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When the short /i/ sound in English is lenthened very much (in singing, for example), will its quality change so it resembles long /i:/?

In singing, when a singer lengthens a word that contains short /i/, will it cause any confusion (between that short /i/ and the long /i:/) for the native English speaker's ear? When I listened to this ...
Tran Khanh's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
174 views

What is "o'clock" in English?

Please don't say "adverb" because that is an ad hoc part of speech that means "anything that doesn't fit". Certain words in the English language, from a functional perspective, map ...
Fomalhaut's user avatar
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6 votes
1 answer
105 views

Why do nouns typically have their main stress on the penultimate while verbs on the ultimate (according to theories other than that of Hayes)?

I'm working on English stress acquisition by non-native speakers for my Master's Thesis. According to the theories of Hayes (1981) and, subsequently, Halle & Vergnaud (1987), extrametricality (i.e....
ludovikbt's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
201 views

Phonetic/acoustic difference between /ˈæb.sə.luːt/ and /ˈæp.sə.luːt/

My understanding is that "b" in "absolute" can be pronounced either as /b/ or /p/. In both cases, the plosive is usually not released (or has an inaudible release). Clipping occurs ...
Tran Khanh's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
157 views

Is “actual” both a false friend and a cognate?

English definition of “actual”: existing in fact; typically as contrasted with what was intended, expected, or believed. Spanish definition of “actual”: current, present, contemporary These are ...
Felix's user avatar
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-1 votes
1 answer
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Are the Croatian word "struna" (string of a musical instrument) and the English word "string" related? [closed]

So, are the Croatian word "struna" (string of a musical instrument) and the English word "string" related? And, if so, why does the English word contain -ng, while the Croatian ...
FlatAssembler's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
215 views

Chomsky on licensing parasitic gaps in English

Chomsky (1995: 69) says (115) that "(115b) is ruled out for independent reasons of control theory." What reasons? (115) a. the book that you filed [without PRO reading e] b. *the book that ...
Yili Xia's user avatar
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4 votes
0 answers
114 views

Are there languages where grammatical parallelism does not matter?

English has a strong preference for parallelism (Wikipedia link), even though sentences lacking parallelism are still considered grammatically correct: Good: She likes cooking, jogging, and reading. ...
MWB's user avatar
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-1 votes
2 answers
96 views

How to represent and distinguish between inflected and related words in English dictionary?

In English we have these words: create created creates creating creator creation creationism creativity creative I am unsure which one is an inflection, and which one is a new word. Created and ...
Lance's user avatar
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1 vote
2 answers
277 views

I'd like for this to be a word. Why isn't it?

I am a high school student with a question, and I am not entirely sure this is the right place to voice it. I often encounter situations where I want to use a word to describe a specific situation I'm ...
Cailyn Fitz's user avatar
0 votes
2 answers
100 views

The Origin of the Word 'Mammoth' [closed]

As per the Wiktionary article the origin of the world is Russian: From obsolete Russian ма́мант (mámant), modern ма́монт (mámont), probably from a Uralic language, such as Proto-Mansi *mē̮ŋ-ońt (“...
Maksim Fedosov's user avatar
2 votes
7 answers
370 views

Why do so many loan words have a different pronunciations of letters like X and Q (among others)?

I have been thinking about the following question quite a bit recently: why do other languages, which often do not even use the Latin alphabet, seemingly get to decide on the way their words get ...
Joeytje50's user avatar
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Information Selection with Because

I'm having difficulty with the extraction of information from sentences containing the word "because." I was analyzing a text about the advantages and disadvantages of open-plan offices. ...
lans's user avatar
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0 votes
0 answers
46 views

The acceptability of verbal phrase ellipsis and subject-auxiliary inversion in triple modal sentences

I have been researching on multiple modal constructions, which is a feature used in the Southern United States. Unlike Standard English, this dialect allows more than one modal auxiliary per clause. ...
student's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
19 views

Is there any type of app that trains my english skills?

I like to write some more in english and for that I want to improve my vocabulary (and overall grammar skills). Is there an app that focuses on teaching new words and explains their meaning? I know ...
user42532's user avatar
-3 votes
5 answers
375 views

Does English have genuine literary conversation without the use of Latin and Greek words?

The most languages ​​have their own literary and original way of conversation and writing, which is different from common conversation. This dichotomy between the speech of the courtiers and the ...
Alireza's user avatar
  • 106
0 votes
3 answers
234 views

Why is the vowel in “caught” in General American English transcribed to /ɔ/

The /ɔ/ sounds (as in “caught”/“bought”) in RP and GA sound very distinct to me. The one in GA sounds more like /ɒ/ to me. Why isn’t it transcribed to /ɒ/ in the dictionary? And I wonder what the ...
Robin's user avatar
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0 votes
1 answer
165 views

Similar and cognate words between Swedish and Iranian are related to which historical era?

I have been studying languages and history for more than thirty years but I am still in surprise how some of Indo-European languages that has separated thousands years ago from each other still ...
Alireza's user avatar
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3 votes
2 answers
1k views

What is one-place predicate and two-place predicate?

When I read some linguistic articles, I encountered two names. One is called a "one-place predicate" and the other is a "two-place" predicate. So what are the definitions of these ...
Rongrong's user avatar
  • 327
0 votes
1 answer
88 views

Was the word 'vehicle' first used as a concrete noun or as an abstract noun?

So I recently learned that the word 'vehicle' was first used in the 1650s and that got me thinking about the way in which it was first used, and whether this use would've been literal or metaphorical. ...
Jane Doe's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
97 views

What is a psych verb?

As mentioned in this comment by John Lawler to this question I asked yesterday, know is not a psych verb. What is a psych verb? I've heard this term before and vaguely guessed that it was a word ...
Greg Nisbet's user avatar
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1 vote
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By what mechanism do `want` and `know` fail to form commands?

Verbs like want and know seem to resist being used in imperative constructions. In particular, it does not seem possible to use them to command people to change their mind about what they want or to ...
Greg Nisbet's user avatar
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4 votes
2 answers
769 views

What is the difference between attributive adjective and predicative adjective?

When I began to read articles related to English adjectives, I often encountered these two names: "predicative adjectives" and "attributive adjectives". It seems that the author ...
Rongrong's user avatar
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2 votes
0 answers
174 views

Question about prepositions in English idioms

I have noticed that many idioms in English include a fixed preposition at the same time that the complement of the preposition is free, e.g. a. light a fire under X b. carry a torch for X c. cast a ...
Yili Xia's user avatar
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-4 votes
1 answer
110 views

What are the contemporary schools of linguistics? [closed]

What are the contemporary schools of linguistics? Which of them are more influential and which are more promising? Which schools do the following books on English grammars belong to: Huddleston & ...
Tim's user avatar
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-3 votes
1 answer
63 views

Are the Croatian word "radije" (rather) and English word "rather" related?

The Croatian word "radije" means "rather". Is it related to English "rather"? On one hand, it seems that they can't be, as the Croatian 'd' (in "radije") ...
FlatAssembler's user avatar
2 votes
3 answers
184 views

Is morphology of English mostly done by its etymology?

I have the following observations and not sure if they are correct. Whenever I want to learn about the morphology of a word in English, e.g. the affixes and root of the word, my search on the ...
Tim's user avatar
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-4 votes
1 answer
171 views

How does Chinese function so well without determiners and a lot of the subtle detail that English has?

I have been typing into Google Translate and Yabla all day (Yabla is basically a Chinese glossing tool), trying to get a sense at how simple English sentences with prepositions are translated into ...
Lance's user avatar
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6 votes
3 answers
1k views

Do modal auxiliaries in English never change their forms?

Anderson's Essentials of Linguistics says that in English: The modal auxiliaries never change their form: they occupy the T- head position in their own right. The non-modal auxiliaries, like main ...
Tim's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
174 views

Allophones of dental fricatives (/θ/, /ð/) in English

I've noticed in my own speech (West Riding of Yorkshire, male, born in the '90s) two different ways I have of pronouncing phonemes /θ/ and /ð/: The tip of my tongue sits in the gap between my top and ...
mudri's user avatar
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3 votes
1 answer
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Is there a phonological rule or process that dictates the choice between voiced and unvoiced "th" in the English word "with"?

There are two different pronunciations recorded for the "th" sound in the English word "with" in most dictionaries (Webster, OED). I was wondering if one or the other is preferred ...
komeyl's user avatar
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7 votes
0 answers
198 views

What are the current views on the existence of a "zero article" in English?

As is well known, under certain circumstances in English, there can be acceptable noun phrases (NPs) that lack a determiner. Some cases include: (i) "indefinite uncountable nominals" (There ...
linguisticturn's user avatar
-1 votes
1 answer
171 views

Emphasis through capitalizing the first letters of words

I've begun to see this style of emphasis used more frequently, like in the following passage: People whose careers depend on the great stuff working as advertised may decide instead that they Simply ...
kalkronline's user avatar

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