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Questions tagged [english]

A Germanic language, which originated from England, and is considered the leading language in international communication.

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0answers
30 views

questionnaire for diploma [closed]

I'm a 4th year student majoring in linguistics. I live in Russia and English is my second language. I', currently working on my diploma dedicated to semantics of such phrases as WE NEED and IT IS ...
3
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5answers
166 views

Is there a theory of word polysemy? Case of snake versus serpent

Snake and serpent mean exactly the same thing. But they're different words when they're treated as derivations. The obsolete brass instrument is a serpent but cannot be called a snake. The plumber's ...
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2answers
61 views

“program” Equivalent in Arabic [on hold]

Program and programming language don't have a known translation in Arabic. برمجة and برنامج are used, even though they aren't Arabic. Is there a native word that can be used instead?
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votes
3answers
2k views

Why was apostrophe so vaguely used in Early Modern English?

So I have noticed in many of Shakespeare's poems that he used apostrophes in places where we don't usually see them now. For Example: In the poem 'Fear No More' the first line is "Fear no more the ...
2
votes
2answers
130 views

Why are the word-initial consonant clusters /tl/ and /dl/ absent in English?

The clusters /pr/, /br/, /kr/, /gr/, /tr/, /dr/, /pl/, /bl/, /kl/, /gl/ are all pretty common. But why are /tl/ and /dl/ missing? Is there any linguistic or historical explanation?
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2answers
60 views

Why is “index” as a noun pluralized as “indices” while the present tense verb is “indexes”? [closed]

What is the reason behind this? Do the noun and the verb have different derivations?
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1answer
109 views

Relative Clause Tree Diagram

My teacher drew this diagram in the class. He seperated the sentence as NP and S2 but it doesn't seem true. Can somebody help me?
1
vote
2answers
92 views

Which accents distinguish “golf” and “gulf”?

From Wikipedia's article on the NATO spelling alphabet: The IPA form of Golf implies it is pronounced gulf, which is neither General American English nor British Received Pronunciation. However, ...
1
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1answer
45 views

“To whom” in pied-piped infinitive relative clauses

In English wh raised from, or in situ in, a direct object or prepositional object, you can almost always use "who" at least as well as "whom",1 and in some cases you can only use "who": Who/whom did ...
0
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1answer
59 views

DP acting as AdvP?

Is it possible for a DP like "three times" to act as an AdvP ("He read the book three times.")? How would such a constituency tree look like? How does the DP modify the verb? Conversely, would the ...
3
votes
1answer
111 views

Why do French words tend to become so much more intense in English?

My knowledge of French is very rudimentary, but one common theme I noticed in English words borrowed from French is that their meaning becomes so much more intense. To give just a few examples, ...
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1answer
73 views

ɔθɛntɪket translating from IPA to English [closed]

Having trouble translating this word into English if anyone can help it would be greatly appreciated.
2
votes
1answer
98 views

Can we parse the hell out of this construction?

John only had the Ferrari for three months, but while he had it, he drove the hell out of it. I'm pretty sure I aced the hell out of that test. That last stuff you got us, we smoked the hell out of it....
3
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0answers
76 views

*through* vs. *tough*: ME*-ough* /uːx/ > –? How are the sound shifts from ME -ough explained?

How is it explained that the sound sequence /uːx/ -ough has developed so differently in different words? Not-dipthongized in through, shortened and unrounded and retained fricative in tough, lowered ...
2
votes
2answers
121 views

Why is the English name for Bruges the same as the French despite that it's a Flemish city?

My question is about the name of Bruges, Belgium. In Flemish, Bruges is called "Brugge", and in French, it's called "Bruges". Despite the city being part of the Flemish-speaking region of Belgium, we ...
2
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3answers
110 views

Why are English and German West Germanic languages while Scandinavian Germanic languages are an own branch

The Germanic languages are according to Wikipedia subdivided into North Germanic languages and West Germanic languages (historically, there also existed East Germanic languages). The most important (...
2
votes
1answer
98 views

Why “were” for subjunctive?

Is the subjunctive (what I learned in school as "Konjunktiv 2") Ger. "wäre" ("Ich wäre gern ..." - I'd like to be ...) cognate to "were" even for singular person ("*als ob ich sicher wäre " - as if I ...
2
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2answers
89 views

Are the English “Woe” and the German “Wo” related?

Is the English "Woe" and the German "Wo" related? I just heard a colleague say, "Wo ist mein ..." and I thought of the band Woe is me. Are these words just false cognates... or is there some common ...
0
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1answer
59 views

What is the etymology of the word, “own.” [closed]

Dictionaries offer no etymogy on the word, "own." A search for etymogy of the word comes up wanting. Does anyone know the etymology of "own"?
5
votes
3answers
263 views

Morphophonology of changing adjectives to nouns

I’m a freshman who is taking Introduction to Language classes at my college. I’m struggling to answer a question but my mind gets confused. My question is: When the word “secret” becomes another word ...
0
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1answer
59 views

Classification of -s added to English words

I'm trying top work out what the correct terms are to use in the below scenarios. I've heard of clitics and affixes, but I'm not clear on the difference. cat - cats (noun, plural -s) cat - cat'...
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2answers
64 views

How should the `y` in `Hornby` be pronounced [closed]

How should the y in [Hornby][1] be pronounced, as the I in I'm, or as the ee in honey-bee? What is the English rule that governs the above?
5
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0answers
88 views

Is there any dialect of English with clusivity?

What it says on the tin. The closest thing that I'm aware of is in Tok Pisin, a creole language which involved English in its creation, which distinguishes “we without you” (mipela) from “we with you” ...
3
votes
2answers
178 views

Is “indirect object” syntactically definable or useful, in English or generally?

In traditional English grammar, we're taught that phrases like those boldfaced below are "indirect objects": I gave the book to Ted. I gave Ted the book. But this appears to be based on semantics (...
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1answer
58 views

Is there a General European English Accent?

I have noticed my former trainer from Estonia, fellow students from Poland and Italy, even Khabib from UFC who comes from Dagestan speak with this accent. Here is a video of khabib from remote ...
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1answer
64 views

Does “tetrahedrization” make sense?

I am deciding on a spelling of "tessellation composed of tetrahedra" to use in my thesis. There are four choices I know of Tetrahedralization with 3,530 results on Google Scholar and 25,800 on ...
2
votes
1answer
317 views

“We was” and other dialectical variants

According to the British Library site, the use of nonstandard forms of past tense expressions like “we was” are common in some English dialects The verb 'to be' has two simple past forms in ...
0
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1answer
87 views

Does English have syllabic fricatives (allophonically)?

When speaking rapidly, it doesn't seem that I make a schwa at all when saying a phrase like, say, "the bus." It seems like I'm saying [ð̩.bʌs]. Is this a documented phenomenon?
5
votes
2answers
130 views

Language where negation is the default

I was wondering how in English we say "I can" and "I can not" the negative is the longer one, in terms of morphemes, but is there any language where the negative is the default and the positive is ...
2
votes
1answer
163 views

Are the English word “charm” and Russian word “чары” etymologically related?

Do "charm" and "чары" share a common etymological root? (NB: "чары" is a Russian plural noun meaning "magic" or "charm." Also note that the English noun "charms" has historically meant magic or ...
1
vote
1answer
98 views

The rule of location of stress in English verbs

There are three sets of verbs to point out the location of stress, which are: (Bold implies stress) A => exit B => exist C => improve, surprise C - consonant / V - Vowel According to this data, ...
4
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1answer
151 views

Which dialect/accent of English has the most/least sounds?

My accent is from New York City, yet I wonder which area has the most or least sounds in their phonemic inventory. While one may have the most vowels and another the most consonants, I would like to ...
1
vote
1answer
80 views

What is the full distinction between creoles and other natural languages?

English being a great mess of multiple languages such as French and Old Norse, would it be safe to consider the language that came about a creole? Obviously, most would not consider English a Germanic/...
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0answers
68 views

“Peter sang a song to Julie”, Is “to Julie” is an adjunct or complement?

Peter sang a song to Julie. It seems that the verb "sang" selects the preposition, but to Julie is optional. And if we apply it to an X' Schema, how shall we do it? To Julie is the dependent of sang ...
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2answers
105 views

“there” and “everything” in linguistics is a “pronoun” or “noun”?

Regarding to drawing a syntax tree, "there" and "everything" in linguistics is a "pronoun" or "noun"? For example, 1. There is an apple. 2. It is not everything.
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1answer
101 views

Why do swear words mean the same thing in both English and Spanish (possibly more languages)

Earlier today, I was talking about swearing in other languages with some friends (this is a serious question, bear with me), so I decided to look up some lists of Spanish swear words for fun. This ...
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vote
1answer
91 views

proper terms for tipper and dipper S articulation

I just learned for the first time from a WIRED video about movie accents (at 4:30) that American English has multiple possible places of articulation for the "S" sound. I was able to find terms for ...
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1answer
88 views

Is it a causative morpheme or a modal morpheme?

Let us take the verb 'get', we can say both: 1- Someone gets to take something 2- Someone gets someone to take something In the 1st sentence, 'get' is a modal morpheme, but in the other sentence '...
0
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1answer
40 views

Different ways to interpret stressed words in a sentence

I'm reading an introductory book on syntax and one of the exercises says to discuss the interpretations which the italicized expression can have in the given sentences and to give an appropriate ...
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2answers
106 views

If there is really an /ə/ between /dəɹ/ in “quandary”

In considering words with -er ending like "quandary" /ˈkwɑːn.dəɹɪ/, it seems like to me there is no difference between that IPA /ˈkwɑːn.dəɹɪ/ and /ˈkwɑːn.d.ɹɪ/, or "quand-ree". The [r] is like "rrrr" ...
0
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1answer
56 views

Phonetic mapping between English accents

Does anyone know if there is a resource which lists the mappings between phonemes in different English accents? e.g. a given phoneme in RP maps to this phoneme in Liverpool, that phoneme in Newcastle, ...
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2answers
69 views

Why some verbs have -tion while others don't, when being nounified

Verbs like animate become a noun animation, and others like graduate become graduation. But then there are verbs that are just straight converted into nouns, like capture the verb and a capture the ...
2
votes
3answers
128 views

Are There Any Monophthong [o] Words in English?

Whenever I look up a transcription for a word containing [o], it's either an [oɪ] diphthong or an [oʊ] diphthong. Is it not possible to pronounce [o] without gliding through [ʊ] too? Is it possible, ...
2
votes
2answers
402 views

Why English is missing some phoneme sequences (/aʊv/ or /aʊp/)

Wondering why English is missing some phoneme sequences. By that I mean, I understand English doesn't have some primitive phonemes like χ, but I'm wondering about sequences of phonemes, not sure if ...
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0answers
85 views

Does anyone know if there are plans for a 'successor' to Huddleston and Pullum (CamGEL or CGEL)?

Huddleston and Pullum's The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language (CamGEL or CGEL) is widely considered a 'successor' to a previous 'great English grammar': Quirk, Greenbaum, Leech, and Svartvik's ...
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vote
1answer
95 views

Language in England during 1066

For how many years after 1066 did we speak French in England? I tried looking this up on many sites, but I couldn’t find anything. I'm hoping someone knows their history and can tell me when people ...
0
votes
1answer
44 views

Transposition of words in questions

In English, the following is grammatically correct: Am I going to the cinema today? In contrast, the assertion that this is true is grammatically correct only with the first two words reversed. ...
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votes
2answers
132 views

Why languages have the concept of “the”

Wondering why you write a sentence like this, with the word the: The person went to the store. La persona fue a la tienda. I don't understand why that extra word needs to be there. It could just ...
2
votes
0answers
35 views

Axioms in English: If we try to find the root meaning of every English word in the dictionary,which word will we land on the most [duplicate]

Assume an alien has landed on Earth and wants to learn English with the help of an English Dictionary. He looks up the meaning of "the". Meaning of "the": "denoting one or more people or things ...
2
votes
5answers
159 views

Algorithm for figuring out the pronunciation of a word

Wondering how we pronounce words. I feel like I learned this when I was a kid in school with all the language rules, but now I can't remember. I am trying to think about how we pronounce words. How ...