Questions tagged [english]

A Germanic language, which originated from England, and is considered the leading language in international communication.

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8
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0answers
65 views

Are there any studies on some English passive verb constructions currently being replaced by new intransitive senses?

In the past couple of years I've noticed a new trend in younger generations of native English speakers, at least in American English and Australian English. But I can't find it discussed anywhere on ...
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Does British English use fewer words than American English?

I was looking at the word frequency in British English. (I am an American, so I have some biases, but this does seem to be an objective pattern.) I looked at the 10,000 most common words in English ...
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4answers
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Is there a term for translating a word to a language that has a different alphabet (such as Hindi to English)?

The specific example that I am thinking of is the word "दाल का सूप" in Hindi. It translates to "lentil soup", and is pronounced "dal", however there are multiple ways of ...
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1answer
104 views

Is there any case in English where a noun phrase is not the subject of a sentence, or a complement of a verb, or the object of a preposition?

It's a simple question but limited to how noun phrases function in English sentences. Time phrases like last week, are an example of noun phrases functioning adverbially but they are still verb ...
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1answer
136 views

Why did “s” use to look like “f”?

Example: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b6/Houghton_EC65.M6427P.1667aa_-_Paradise_Lost%2C_1667.jpg Paradife loft. There is no way that I can ever read that as: Paradise lost. The ...
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Measuring lexical similarity between two arbitrary languages

Pardon me if this question is naive, but I am wondering if there is a way to quantify lexical similarity between two corpora of text, each written in different languages whose alphabets differ greatly....
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Free CEFR placement test of English (paper based)

I am looking for a free English placement test that corresponds to CEFR standard. I have found some on the internet, but they mostly require me to connect to the internet. I am looking for an offline-...
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1answer
75 views

Is there any rule in Old English / Modern English a/o, a/oa transformation?

Is there any rule in Old English / Modern English a/o (ham/home, ban/bone, stan/stone), a/oa (fam/foam, hlaf/loaf, gat/goat) transformation?
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2answers
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Does the word Culture come from Tamil “கலாச்சாரம்”? [closed]

The Tamil word "Kalacharam" is very similar to the English "Culture". The "am" can be ignored as it is in many Tamil ideas, so Kalachar is very similar to Culture. Did ...
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6answers
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Why can you say “I am not sure whether it's raining” but not “I am sure whether it's raining”? [closed]

I know that some verbs take interrogative clauses ("I know where they are") while others don't (* "I believe where they are"). The verb "sure" is kind of like "...
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1answer
52 views

Is English modeled as a deterministic CFL or a CFL?

Books on linguistics and NLP often mention that English is modeled by context free grammars, but also is parsed by LR(k) parsers. LR(k) parsers are for parsing deterministic CFLs, while CFLs are ...
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1answer
90 views

Differences between free languages and official languages?

In short: as far as I know, English in the USA has no official standards from the government for how it's to be written and used. There are just dictionaries. Spanish however, has the RAE, which is an ...
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3answers
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Why are some (coda) clusters hard to pronounce in onsets?

Consider the following examples: Fact -> /fækt/ Hard -> /hɑːrd/ Paint -> /peɪnt/ In all these words, the clusters in the coda are easy to pronounce. However, when these clusters come in the onset ...
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Does an adverb either modify verbs (not adjectives and adverbs), or modify adjectives and adverbs (not verbs)?

From Manning's Foundations of Statistical Natural Language Processing: Adverbs modify a verb in the same way that adjectives modify adverb nouns. Adverbs specify place, time, manner or degree: (3....
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2answers
125 views

Question about habitual aspect and object licensing in English

In the following sentences: (1) I am writing a letter. (2) I wrote a letter yesterday. (3) I will write a letter tomorrow. (4) I often write letters. (5) I like writing letters. (6) It is my ...
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Can first order logic represent a past occurring adverbial dependent clause with a present main clause to form the perfect tense?

Can first order logic represent a past occurring adverbial dependent clause with a present main clause to form the perfect tense? Is this the way to represent an adverbial dependent clause with first ...
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0answers
23 views

Which online sources provide narrow transcriptions for English?

I've tried a dozen of online English dictionaries, and all of them give broad transcriptions. So it's impossible to tell from them, for example, how many aspirated "p"s there are in "appropriate". ...
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81 views

Aspiration of p, t, k in English

I'm trying to figure out when exactly p, t, k should be aspirated in (American) English. Here's what I found here: Voiceless stops are aspirated at the beginning of a word, and at the beginning ...
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0answers
50 views

Semantic category of [VERB] + as a + [NOUN]

I have the following examples from a corpus (ICNALE corpus) "They can grow as a member of society." "At university, students are regarded as adults not children." "I worked in a hotel as a service ...
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0answers
42 views

Do nouns in simple apposition semantically unpack to predicate nominatives in English?

A Koine Greek grammar states that nouns in simple apposition are semantically understood as predicate nominatives. So, "Paul the apostle" unpacks to "Paul is the apostle" and "the apostle is Paul" ...
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2answers
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What is the name for the tense/mood/aspect of “You will have seen the news that…”?

There are two superficially similar constructions in English, which have quite different implied meanings: You will have seen the news that the company is furloughing 15% of its employees, but I ...
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1answer
89 views

Is there a term for how English replaces the preposition “of” by putting the word that comes after “of” before the word that comes before “of”?

EG, Apple Juice --> (The) Juice of Apple(s) Gold Castle --> (The) Castle of Gold Liver Disease --> Disease of (the) Liver Et Al.
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1answer
51 views

Is the following sentence a CP? Does it contain another CP?

Lies, do you think that she tells you? Is this sentence grammatical? Is the whole sentence a CP, in which lies is the CP Specifier and do is the head C? If yes, is that the C head of a second CP in ...
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1answer
89 views

How is the ungrammaticality of the following sentence explained?

Maria asked I read which book This sentence is ungrammatical. Is this because an IP I read cannot be a complement or sister to a V asked Is there a CP in this ungrammatical sentence?
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1answer
138 views

Why are constructions such as ‘AN historian’ commonly pronounced with a non-silent H?

It is well-known that the determiner a is substituted with an when the following word begins with a vowel (letter or sound). In some cases, however, an has been used preceding words beginning with (as ...
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0answers
34 views

Is there a principled reason behind differing compound verb stress in English?

Is there a principled difference between compound verbs in English with stress on the first root and those with stress on the second root? First root stress compound verbs: Dropkick Spoonfeed ...
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is PP ‘out’ an adjunct or a complement of V ‘get’ in ‘get out’

As the title shows, in a VP ‘get out’, is PP ‘out’ an adjunct of VP ‘get’, or a complement of V ‘get’?
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2answers
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Dataset of English verb forms (conjugation)

What are some exhaustive/accurate datasets of English verb forms? From this closed SO question, I see: http://www.ibiblio.org/webster/: GCIDE, which contains plurals, alt spellings and conjugations, ...
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1answer
38 views

My teacher wants me to disambiguate the sentence by separate tree diagrams [closed]

the sentence: The scared monster saw a very lovely dog with one eye. here is what I finished so far : to change as 1.The scared monster with only one eye saw a very lovely dog. and other one is that ...
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2answers
117 views

sentence structure vs word order difference

What is the difference between a sentence structure and a word order? (could you please explain that on a few examples?) Thank you.
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2answers
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What is the difference between “ɪ”, “i”, “i:”? [duplicate]

What is the difference between “ɪ”, "i", “i:”? Is “ɪ” lax and short, "i" tense and short, "i:" tense and long?
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4answers
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Why does English have words from Latin and none from Celtic?

It is known that Britain's history of invasion goes as: Celtic arrival, Roman domination, Saxon settlement, Nordic settlement, Norman invasion. If England's identity was largely made from the Saxons (...
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1answer
67 views

What is case for pronouns in different positions? [closed]

Can we say "the case of subject in a sentence is nominative, the direct object of a verb is accusative, the second object of a ditransitive verb is accusative, the objective of a preposition is ...
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1answer
52 views

Checking Definitions for Self-Consistency and Cycles

I am building a "self-contained" set of definitions, and would like to ensure that the definitions: Do not contain circular definitions (which might include other words within that cycle, not just a ...
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1answer
93 views

ʃɔː can you pls help me what word is this po? [closed]

/ʃɔː/ can you pls help me what word is this po?
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2answers
68 views

a question about reflexives and nonreflexives

Why "the house(i) had a fence around itself(i)" is ungrammatical but "Susan(i) wrapped the blanket around herself(i)" is grammatical?
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0answers
68 views

Binding Puzzle in English Generative Syntax!

Consider the following sentences: (1) Anna believes [ IP herself to be a hero] ] (2) Anna wants [ IP him to leave] ] (3) *Anna wants [ IP herself to leave ] ] (1) is an example of Exceptional Case ...
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50 views

How can we say modals are of category T, but auxiliaries are really verbs? [duplicate]

Are there any arguments or theories to account for it?
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2answers
201 views

What is the relation between a specifier and a determiner?

Does specifier mean "the" and "possesser" and determiner mean "the" and "possessive 's"?
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1answer
59 views

grammar of the 'in the following'

Consider we have the sentence My bird likes sunflower seeds. She eats a lot of seeds everyday. Using pronoun resolution we can replace she with the actual subject 'My birds'; converting 'She ...
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2answers
201 views

What is the distribution of pronominal “one”?

(Based on the comments this question has received, more is needed to avoid confusion. The original question remains as stated below the line below. What is added here now is a more complete rendition ...
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2answers
83 views

Considering the English language, is there only one way to divide a word in syllables?

I should do a words analysis. More specifically given a word I should split it into syllables and I was wondering if, given a word, there is only one syllables subdivision. This is because I have read ...
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1answer
57 views

How much more often is a definite article used with a noun than an indefinite article in the English language?

I'd be happy if I could get an overall answer to this question, but if someone is also capable of breaking this down by single vs. plural nouns nouns as subject vs. nouns as direct objects nouns as ...
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0answers
26 views

What is the ratio of uncountable nouns to countable nouns in the English language?

I want to make the claim that uncountable nouns far outweigh countable ones in the English language, but a cursory search of the web did not lead me to anything that might support this claim, so all I ...
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0answers
47 views

Why is “woman” in “the woman teacher” an adjunct while “literature” in “the literature teacher” a complement?

Is it because we cannot say "teacher of woman" but we can say "teacher of literature"?
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1answer
58 views

Why do the equivalents of “moody” in other Germanic languages mean “courageous”?

If it wasn’t clear, “moody” is a word found in the English language. It generally implies a sense of melancholy on the thing it is describing. However, in other Germanic languages, the cognates of ...
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2answers
89 views

Raised object vs. Subordinate subject (I didn't want 'Kim' mistreating my cat)

(1) I didn't want Kim mistreating my cat. (2) I didn't want Kim to mistreat my cat. Semantically, Kim is not the object of want but the subject of the respective subordinate clauses mistreating my ...
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1answer
81 views

Labialised /r/ in RP

Is /r/ in RP labialised in all positions? For example: In words like real, free, proud, tree, brother, borrow, dream, throw etc. Is it labialised in all positions (like intervocalic, post-...
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2answers
1k views

American production of /ɾ/ in other languages

Why is it common for Americans who study foreign languages to keep producing /ɾ/ as a retroflex sound, even though [ɾ] is present in their pronunciation of native words like city and water?
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36 views

Name That Phenomenon: I worry that once I STOP doing an action “just to be safe,” the thing I'm being safe from will occur

I've always had feelings like these before. I've seen sad movies when I was younger, but the thing that got me the most was the kid (who lost their parents) said, "The last thing I ever said to them ...

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