Questions tagged [english]

A Germanic language, which originated from England, and is considered the leading language in international communication.

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2
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0answers
65 views

Subjective pronouns in English copulas: gradual loss of objective case, or emphatic construction taking over?

I'm interested in the historical linguistics of constructions like "that's me" versus "this is she" when answering the phone. Searching online led to a Google Books peephole view of a book that ...
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1answer
135 views

What determines how a language creates new words? For example, is it likely for English to continue to create new words from Latin in future?

In particular, I'm curious about the phenomenon where a language creates most new, modern words using a dead ancient language, rather than its existing, living original word roots. One example is ...
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116 views

Find noun phrases using syntactic analysis from Google Cloud Language API

I'm using the Google Cloud Language API (GCL API) to do syntactic analysis of English sentences. In particular, I'd like to identify all noun phrases. I don't care how they are used (subject, object,...
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1answer
159 views

How did “will” lose the meaning “want” in English?

Will used to mean want (and sometimes still does) but in other Germanic languages, such as Dutch and Norwegian, the cognate still means want. What was different about English to cause this?
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2answers
54 views

Is there a term for the diminishment of intensity of meaning over time?

I can only imagine this has been asked before, but the closest I found in a search had to do with translation and slang. Sorry if it's been answered! My question is about the watering-down of English ...
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1answer
417 views

Did Google Translate supply North Korea with the word “dotard” because of J.R.R. Tolkien's “Lord of the Rings”?

This question contains some speculation that a good answer would confirm or deny: The North Korean government recently released a statement that referred to Donald Trump, the current US president, as ...
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1answer
92 views

What is the linguistic cause of the formation of “competete” a wrong variant of “compete”?

Competete a variant of Compete used in colloquial speech, but is written with the same spelling as the latter, has come into use (at the least) in Indian English variants if in no other English ...
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22 views

Semantics and pragmatics [closed]

Many people call implicature as ambiguity and to me it is what words refer to, I'm confused what implicature actually is and what is relationship between implicatures, entailment and presupposition. ...
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What explains the semantic sameness in 'Verb + preposition + Direct Object' and 'Verb + Direct Object'?

Why can prepositions following a verb not affect the meaning of Verb Phrases that differ by only a preposition? I.e., what explains the semantic sameness between Verb Phrases that differ by only a ...
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2answers
146 views

Common language root for dom, domain

Earlier today I was wondering about the similarity of domain (eng), domaine (fr) and the words for home or house dom (rus), dům (cz) makes me think they have some common root, is that true? If so, ...
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679 views

How to differentiate an East Anglian accent from a West Country accent?

I want to understand the East Anglian accents better (Norfolk, Suffolk etc) but can't seem to differentiate it from a West country accent (Devon Somerset, Cornwall) properly. What linguistics ...
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4answers
557 views

Why did English “man” and Latin “homo” take both the senses “gender-neutral human” and “male adult”?

Why did English "man" and Latin "homo" take both the sense "gender-neutral human" and "male adult"? According to etymonline.com, English "man", and incidentally Latin "homo" (which originally meant "...
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0answers
53 views

Test for function or content word? (LFG)

This might only apply to LFG, but are there any tests for if a word is functional or content/lexical? I have been trying to ascertain whether or not there is a lexical 'be' in English. The active '...
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1answer
87 views

Are languages losing features like honorifics due to code mixing with English?

This question is not the exact same as this question here,. Here, I want to ask if code mixing (if that's the right term) is affecting languages which are in contact with English. E.g. Hindi is ...
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2answers
351 views

What are the arguments against Wells’s syllabification of English?

In Syllabification and Allophony John Wells argues for a view of English syllabification based on phonetic processes within the pronunciation of words. He mentions elsewhere that it is unorthodox, but ...
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1answer
57 views

In spoken English, is there a clear preference for using contractions?

In spoken English, is there a clear preference for using contractions? Does it depend on the locale? I am mostly interested in Midwestern and Northeastern USA, but I would also care to know how it is ...
5
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1answer
133 views

Do we know anything more about the semantic shift of “with” in Middle English?

The Wiktionary page on the English word "with" < *wi says that the meaning of "with" shifted in Middle English to denote association instead of opposition. The latter sense is still present in ...
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2answers
655 views

Are Hindi “Bigul” (बिगुल) and English “Bugle” cognates?

In Hindi, Bigul (बिगुल) (IPA /bigul/) is a bugle-like instrument, if they are cognates can someone also tell me how they might have been formed.!
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2answers
107 views

How do you analyze a standalone hashtag like “#goals”?

For those not fluent in internet-ese, the semantics are something like "The subject under discussion has an aesthetic I want to emulate"; if I saw a picture of someone wearing an outfit I like, I ...
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1answer
78 views

What part of speech is the word “that” in “That you be happy!”

In the exclamation That you be happy! what part of speech is the word that? Is it a conjunction via ellipsis, i.e. "(I wish) that you be happy!" If yes, then does this poke a hole in the idea that ...
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2answers
320 views

Does a subordinating conjunction necessarily introduce a subordinate clause?

I would like to clear up some longstanding confusion of mine on subordinate clauses, especially since it is a rather simple grammatical topic and it is about time that I learn it. Which of the ...
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2answers
461 views

Need for English not to have many grammatical cases

In other languages (mainly Romance languages such as: Portuguese and Spanish), we have many grammatical cases such as: abessivo ablativo, absolutivo, acusativo, adessivo; English doesn't feature such ...
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2answers
177 views

Do english-speaking people feel grammatical gender of words like “California” or “America” being feminine and “New York” being masculine?

Do english-speaking people feel grammatical gender of words like "California" or "America" being feminine and "New York" being masculine? Many of geographical names are obviously came from languages ...
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1answer
62 views

How Acceptability is this Epithet? [closed]

I am a non-English native (Arab) I have constructed the following epithet and want to check whether or not acceptable to English-natives' ear. I have come across a thin layer of deposits-covered ...
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2answers
169 views

How is it possible to reconstruct old accents of a language?

I just a video of a guy who delivered the opening lines of Romeo and Juliet in the modern received pronunciation of (British) English and then the same lines in what he claimed was the original accent ...
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1answer
146 views

How would you describe X of Y phrases where X and Y are nouns?

What grammatical feature is being used, when we say something like, "I drink a cup of coffee"? In this sentence we have one noun modifying another noun, "coffee" modifying "cup". Would "cup" or even "...
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73 views

Does “a little” (en) correspond to the same grammatical class as “ein wenig” (de)?

If you want to say in German, "I speak a little German", you would say, Ich spreche ein wenig Deutsch. The phrase "ein wenig" is reminiscent of the English phrase "a little", but what is ...
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3answers
253 views

Do “wise” and “wissen” share the same root?

A cursory search shows that the English adjective "wise" and the German verb "wissen" descend from the same root: the PIE *weyd- ("to see, to know"). I found this by using Etymonline to search the ...
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2answers
574 views

English onsets with /s/ and sonority hierarchy

Why are clusters such as /sk/ (as in sky), /st/ (stop), and /sp/ (spill) allowed as onsets in English? The sonority decreases in these clusters and does that not violate the phonotactic rules? On a ...
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1answer
164 views

Why the writing and reading in English are different?

I do not encounter so big problems with the English language although I'm not a native English speaker. But I'm curious why some languages (like English or French) are written different from the way ...
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1answer
680 views

Feminisation of men's language?

I was wondering whether there has been (generally) a feminisation of "men's language". Lakoff's claims in "women's and men's language" are almost half a century old and there have been contradictory ...
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1answer
1k views

Auxiliaries in generative grammar

In a course of introduction to Generative Grammar, my teacher told that auxiliary (Aux in the tree diagram) is the element that comes before the subject (NP) in an interrogative sentence. But I ...
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2answers
89 views

Why is Indonesian Google Translator voice so much better than English?

Listen to those Indonesian words. The sound is very clear and native speakers agree with me it's way better than the voice of English Google Translator. I doubt Indonesian speaker uses more advanced ...
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1answer
363 views

Is /ɡ/ Germanic and /dʒ/ French in English ge-/gi- words?

I've recently noticed that in English words starting with "ge-" or "gi-", when the "g" is pronounced /ɡ/, they tend to be etymologically Germanic, while the words where the "g" is pronounced /dʒ/ tend ...
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2answers
266 views

What came first: «starboard» or «estribor»?

In English, the right side of a ship (and everything beyond said side) is called «starboard». I know enough about sailing and about stars to know that stars can't have anything to do with that name, ...
2
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1answer
169 views

Letter switching? “r” and vowels switching

This is something I don't think is worthy of a question, but it is something I noticed happening to me, and I was curious if there are any other cases. For me for somereason I have begun switching my ...
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2answers
211 views

'there' vs 'it' expletive insertion

These are my conditions for detecting an expletive position: if spec IP has been assigned non 'null' Case and is not theta marked. However, after this I struggle to choose between 'it' and 'there'. ...
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2answers
126 views

What phonetic elements is the word yes and no put together by? [closed]

This might be a long shot but it will try it anyway?... I am currently working on developing a speech recognition application, capable of detecting utterances consisting of the words yes/no. A ...
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1answer
125 views

What's this punctuating feature of some peoples' English?

What exactly is the name and nature of this odd bit of consistent yet seemingly redundant English found in many forms of colloquial English: "She gave me dates, she did!" "The little lads ran home, ...
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2answers
167 views

Why do some English speakers insert a /t/ in ⟨else⟩ and say /ɛlts/?

Some English speakers insert a /t/ absent in standard American English in ⟨else⟩. How did this arise? What’s the mechanism behind it? Is it related to the insertion of a /ks/ in ⟨espresso⟩, as in /...
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2answers
3k views

Why can “autarchy” be spelled with an “k” while other words not? [closed]

English has a set of words with "ch", coming — more or less directly — from the Greek language. They all have a /k/ sound. character charisma psychology choreography archive Just to name a few. All ...
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1answer
127 views

What are the historical origins for the naming of the word 'function' in its mathematical context? [closed]

I tried to look at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Function_(mathematics) but couldn't see anything. The reason why I was curious to ask is because this word just doesn't make any sense for what it ...
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3answers
147 views

What are determinants of language specific city names

I stumbled across the fact that in many cases city names are different across different languages. For example the british capital London is spelled Londres in French and Spanish, but also London in ...
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1answer
1k views

How do noun-noun compounds fit into a noun phrase in syntax?

I have a question regarding attributive nouns, or noun-noun compounds, and how they are integrated into syntactic rules for NP formation. Typically, the rule given in textbooks for forming a NP is the ...
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2answers
485 views

Why does “begin” have /g/ instead of /j/ if it's from PG *ginnan?

My understanding is that the reflexes of Proto-Germanic velar consonants before front vowels were usually palatal consonants in Old English, which in turn generally yield palatal or palato-alveolar ...
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1answer
636 views

What is the particular function of “lol” or “lmao” in the middle of sentences?

For example, look at this statement I found on an internet conversation: "Memes are the opener now I guess lmao but that seems pretty good to me." where the statement makes perfect sense without ...
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2answers
230 views

What is the linguistic term for 'it'

'This' is proximal demonstrative pronoun/ adjective. 'That' is distal demonstrative pronoun/ adjective. What is 'it' called?
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1answer
88 views

The vowels in book and good [closed]

The vowels in 'book' and 'good' are both represented by an inverted omega in the international phonetic alphabet (ʊ), according to the OED. Can it not express their difference? 'Isaac Pitman's ...
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0answers
47 views

Is there any free, single-word wordlist with CLAWS7 part-of-speech tags?

I am looking for a wordlist which includes single-word entries and their part-of-speech tags in UCREL CLAWS7 format. The list must be comprised of scientifically collected data, for example words ...
4
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1answer
2k views

Is the V-T movement possible in English?

To clarify: V-T movement would be a type of movement of the V head (verb phrase) to I (or T) head (inflection phrase). Some languages, like French, allow for this movement. But during my syntax ...

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