Questions tagged [english]

A Germanic language, which originated from England, and is considered the leading language in international communication.

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2
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3answers
139 views

What are determinants of language specific city names

I stumbled across the fact that in many cases city names are different across different languages. For example the british capital London is spelled Londres in French and Spanish, but also London in ...
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1answer
718 views

How do noun-noun compounds fit into a noun phrase in syntax?

I have a question regarding attributive nouns, or noun-noun compounds, and how they are integrated into syntactic rules for NP formation. Typically, the rule given in textbooks for forming a NP is the ...
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2answers
425 views

Why does “begin” have /g/ instead of /j/ if it's from PG *ginnan?

My understanding is that the reflexes of Proto-Germanic velar consonants before front vowels were usually palatal consonants in Old English, which in turn generally yield palatal or palato-alveolar ...
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1answer
475 views

What is the particular function of “lol” or “lmao” in the middle of sentences?

For example, look at this statement I found on an internet conversation: "Memes are the opener now I guess lmao but that seems pretty good to me." where the statement makes perfect sense without ...
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2answers
202 views

What is the linguistic term for 'it'

'This' is proximal demonstrative pronoun/ adjective. 'That' is distal demonstrative pronoun/ adjective. What is 'it' called?
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1answer
86 views

The vowels in book and good [closed]

The vowels in 'book' and 'good' are both represented by an inverted omega in the international phonetic alphabet (ʊ), according to the OED. Can it not express their difference? 'Isaac Pitman's ...
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0answers
44 views

Is there any free, single-word wordlist with CLAWS7 part-of-speech tags?

I am looking for a wordlist which includes single-word entries and their part-of-speech tags in UCREL CLAWS7 format. The list must be comprised of scientifically collected data, for example words ...
4
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1answer
1k views

Is the V-T movement possible in English?

To clarify: V-T movement would be a type of movement of the V head (verb phrase) to I (or T) head (inflection phrase). Some languages, like French, allow for this movement. But during my syntax ...
3
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1answer
151 views

Principle A in binding theory - reflective pronoun in cleft sentences higher than the R-expression

The principle A in binding theory states that: an anaphor (reflexive or reciprocal, such as "each other") must be bound in its governing category (roughly, the clause). which strikes this ...
3
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1answer
48 views

Correcting the names in NLP

I have a dataset where lot of names are written like man1sh instead of manish, vikas as v1kas. How can one correct these names in NLP?
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8answers
18k views

Why do Japanese people have difficulties in pronouncing English?

When I watch Anime, I notice that Japanese English pronunciation is really bad, they twist all the sounds, and they can't pronounce sounds like "L". I think English is the easiest language when it ...
3
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2answers
149 views

Is there a known reason for the position of the stress in “concupisc-” words in English?

The words concúpiscent, concúpiscence, concúpiscible seem to be irregularly stressed (at least, according to their dictionary pronunciations; regularized pronunciations apparently have been heard "in ...
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2answers
2k views

Substitution of w for g between certain words in French and English

A few words/names in French strongly resemble their English equivalents but with g substituted for w: Guillaume ~ William guêpe ~ wasp guerre ~ war I'm curious as to how this came about. Is there a ...
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0answers
74 views

Did Chomsky made the first generalization of coordination?

If not then who? And maybe someone can suggest a good book of history of English linguistics? Can't find myself. Thanks!
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1answer
2k views

Why does “Vacuum” have two “u's,” and how is it pronounced?

I am curious, why does "vacuum" have two "u's?" I am aware that it is a Latin-derived-Word, so therefore it was probably pronounced [wakwum], logically. Is this correct? I can understand us English ...
2
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1answer
245 views

Why is “bicycle” shortened to “bike” and not “bice”?

In my accent, at least, "bicycle" is pronounced /bɑɪsɪkʊl/, but it's shortened to /bɑɪk/, and not /bɑɪs/. The latter would be analogous to how some people shorten "decent" to "dece" /diːs/, but it ...
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2answers
723 views

Do any English verbs end in -s or -es that are singular?

I'm trying to automatically determine if a verb is singular/plural in a program, I cannot think or find on Google any verb that ends in -s or -es before conjugation. Are there any?
2
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3answers
421 views

Minimal Pairs Highlighting the Difference between American and British English

Does anyone have a list of minimal pairs, highlighting the difference between American and British English? Thanks.
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2answers
76 views

coding t realisations English: how to do it objectively? any tips?

For my MA thesis, among other things, I am coding the realisations of /t/ in English, by L2 speakers, as: 1) "normal" t, or 2) flapped, d-like t, 3) missing t, and 4) glottalised t. While I have ...
2
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1answer
245 views

Different assimilation directions

Here's a question I posed to a prominent researcher in French phonology during my undergrad. We didn't spend a ton of time on it, but we couldn't come up with a satisfactory solution. Now that I've ...
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1answer
136 views

Are Polish-> Russan translations generally better than Polish->English?

I speak Russian natively, but 95% of what I read is in English. Which translation of a Polish book should I read, Russian or English? The question may sound strange, but I mostly prefer English ...
5
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1answer
88 views

Are there non-rhotic English speakers who distinguish between [ən] and syllabic [n]?

I'm aware that [ən] can be reduced to [n̩] in some circumstances. Does this possibility also apply to [ən] that comes from former [ɚn] in non-rhotic English dialects? I have had limited contact with ...
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2answers
412 views

When did Aspirated Consonants appear in English?

As stated here : (in English) "The voiceless stops /p/, /t/, /k/ are typically aspirated when they begin a stressed syllable, becoming [pʰ], [tʰ], [kʰ] [...]" Since these consonants weren't ...
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2answers
195 views

Are phonemes worse recognizable in English than in Czech?

One of the specifics of the Czech phonetics is that everything is written "phonetically" and I wonder wheter one of the reasons for that could be that Czech simply uses less phonemes than English. It ...
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2answers
151 views

English “fruit” vs Italian “frutta” plural number

So I was listening to: "Story of Human Language - John McWhorter" and I stumbled upon an example of errors foreigners could do while speaking English (at least the American variant), mainly: This ...
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4answers
185 views

Tomorrow, he should pretend he *was* on a bus

"He is afraid of flying. When he flies tomorrow, he should pretend he was on a bus instead of an airplane." I uttered the above statement in a recent conversation. Of course, I could replace the "...
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4answers
1k views

Specific English word classification

I'm looking for a maximum subset of the English language such that words can be divided into two categories, one of which must include at least nouns, proper names, adjectives, numerals, verbs and ...
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1answer
158 views

Is Old English ġe- a digraph representing [j]?

It's a naive question : I can't decide what's the value of "ġe" in Old English : either it's a digraph to be read [j], hence "ġeong" = [joŋɡ] (or [juŋɡ] ? as stated here). Such digraphs exist in ...
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1answer
4k views

What is the origin of counting “Mississippis”?

The word "Mississippi" is often used in the United States as a filler in order to count seconds. Why is that particular word used and not another? What is its origin?
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2answers
308 views

The current status of Irish Gaelic in Ireland

In addition to all the usual phonology, grammar, and vocabulary one has to learn for a new language there is the social situation, among many things when is it appropriate to speak in one register or ...
2
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0answers
136 views

Type of adjective, “more” vs. “less” [closed]

Does Linguistics group adjectives by their nature to denote an absolute quantity, as opposed to those that denote a relative quantity? If so, are there terms for such adjectives pointing out this ...
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4answers
767 views

Is there a question that can't be answered by “I don't know”? [closed]

If the respondent's reply to your question is "I don't know" , then it implies that his/her understanding of the English language is enough to understand the question. Let's assume that the question ...
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2answers
403 views

Is there any relation between the Hebrew word שד for 'demon' and the English word 'shade' for ghost?

A שד (pronounced shade) is a demon or ghost, in Hebrew. In English, the word 'shade' is used to mean ghost or demon in some places. (I find it in fantasy novels a lot.) Is there any relation?
3
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1answer
184 views

Why is the need+concealed passive gerund construction unavailable with polyadic gerunds?

As is well known, the verbs need, require, lack and want, on the one hand, and deserve, justify, merit, warrant..., on the other, can exceptionally take -ING complement clauses with ‘concealed’ ...
2
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1answer
156 views

How does English 'lodge' come from Frankish *laubija by sound change?

lodge (etymonline) (n.) Middle English logge, mid-13c. in surnames and place names; late 13c. as "small building or hut," from Old French loge "arbor, covered walk; hut, cabin, grandstand at ...
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1answer
131 views

Is the loss of English V to T movement connected to “do”

English is unique among the European languages in that it lacks V to T movement. My professor mentioned this loss occurred in Middle English. If I remember correctly, we also acquired the auxiliary ...
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0answers
62 views

How can I write subject and predicate phrases so they can be interchanged for a multiple-choice test and still have subject-verb agreement?

I’m trying to write a large set of multiple-choice test questions that can easily be randomized by interchanging their subject phrases and predicate phrases. I’m having some difficulty finding verbs ...
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2answers
1k views

What is the purpose of Subject-Verb agreement?

An important rule in English grammar is "subject-verb agreement". It basically states that a verb must conform to the form of the noun (i.e. Singular/Plural). My question is: What is the purpose of ...
4
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1answer
103 views

Term for words that introduce a new sentence

I'm curious if there is a decided term for the words that begin a new utterance. They often are written with a comma following them such as below: "Well, ..." "So, ..." but the class of these words ...
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2answers
2k views

Is the word “here” a preposition?

In a related question, I got entangled in a debate whether the word "here" (which I would classify readily as an adverb) is in reality a preposition. I am curious which modern analyses find ...
2
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1answer
160 views

Are these similarities coincidental?

The word "betray" sounds similar to the Swedish word "bedra". The Swedish word means betray or commit a fraud. The word "fraud" sounds similar to the Swedish word "förrådd" which means betrayed. ...
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0answers
70 views

Idiomatic modifiers that have completely different impact on the same word

I'm thinking about similarly-formed idiomatic constructs like this cluster: 'Put up' - (#1) to allow someone to reside, usually in an ad-hoc temporary manner ('He put up John and I put up Mike; it ...
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2answers
369 views

a question about grammar and syntax [closed]

can anyone provide me a short critique for the following analyses of the sentence. About their advantages and disadvantages and provide evidence if possible!!thank you. I have no idea about this.
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2answers
2k views

Why did English evolve to have so little inflection? [duplicate]

Consider the sentence, The boy hit the ball out of the yard. If we think of the words which make up the sentence, we realize that none of them have much inflectional possibility. The conjugation ...
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1answer
118 views

When do English speakers add /əs/ in the end of a word ending in /əs/? [closed]

What is the most general and accurate linguistic observation on when native English speakers add /əs/ in the end when uttering a word already ending in /əs/? Googling has not helped me one bit. ...
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0answers
34 views

Is there a study of contemporary changes in V+preposition constructions

I am interested in knowing of any studies of historical changes to verb plus PP constructions in contemporary English. An example is the rise of constructions like "advocate for NP", e.g. "He's ...
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0answers
101 views

Relative Language Distances [closed]

Could someone compare the distance between Modern French and Middle French to Modern English and Middle English. In general which of these languages has diverged more over time?
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2answers
135 views

Usage of pluperfect in English to talk about metaphysical possibility in the present

I hope that this is the right SE site to ask my question (as opposed to philosophy.SE and english.SE). I am interested in and know some logic, so I talk often with philosopher of language, even ...
2
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1answer
370 views

Is there any CNF grammar available for English which can be downloaded directly?

For implementing the CYK algorithm for parsing, we need to have a grammar in CNF (Chomsky Normal Form) defined for a language. Is there any such CNF grammar readily available which covers all (or most ...
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0answers
190 views

What are the features of English diphthongs?

Do diphthongs adopt all the features of their components? For example, ɔɪ consists of ɔ (sonorant, continuant, approximant, voice, round, back, syllabic) and ɪ (sonorant, continuant, approximant, ...