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Formal syntax and semantics for Turkish

as a student of linguistics and admirer of Turkish, I wondered whether there are good introductory books for formal syntax and (Montague) semantics for Turkish. Thanks in advance!
4 votes
1 answer
111 views

Formal semantics of the coordination of tense and modality

There seems to be a good amount of work on the formal semantics of tense, e.g. statements of the form "Dave ate the cookie," and also of modality, e.g. statements of the form "Dave ...
1 vote
2 answers
266 views

On colorless green ideas

I’m pretty new here. My main focus is logic, so I spend most of my time on the math and philosophy forums. Chomsky proposed that while “colorless green ideas sleep furiously” is a well-formed sentence ...
3 votes
2 answers
116 views

Having a hard time distinguishing between the simple and perfective aspects

It seems to me that the truth conditions for "David baked cookies" are identical to "David has baked cookies," in that both are true if at some moment of time in the past "...
4 votes
4 answers
165 views

An Overview of Mathematical-Logical Approaches in Formalizing Natural Languages

I am an undergraduate mathematics student with a keen interest in pursuing research in the formalization of natural languages (from a more mathematical-logical approach), yet there aren't many ...
1 vote
0 answers
30 views

Present participles in a noun phrase

I'm working on a research project on premodufying present participles and I would like to have a native speaker's impression on the grammaticality or frequency of the following options. There are ...
7 votes
1 answer
340 views

What are the semantics of questions and requests/commands?

In linguistics, is it correct that statement i.e. declarative clause (sentence) has a truth value (true or false or maybe other value?) i.e. logic as its semantics? What does a question (yes-no, or ...
3 votes
2 answers
72 views

Reference text on Reichenbach's or Klein's work on the formal semantics of tense

I'm looking for a decent reference text on either Reicehnbach's or, more ideally, Klein's work on the formal semantics of tense with regards to topic time, event time, etc. Klein's initial text on the ...
1 vote
0 answers
54 views

Canonical treatment of tense and modality within formal semantics

I'm thinking about expressions like "Ronit must have won the game," where we have an intersection of tense and modality. Conventional wisdom is to use Kratzer's notion of ordering source and ...
4 votes
1 answer
137 views

Should λ-terms all be easily translated back into natural language syntax?

We have encountered this question when we try to read Heim and Kratzer's book. This following picture is taken from Heim & Kratzer (1998: 40). Our answers are simply based on the subscripts: (a) ...
2 votes
0 answers
42 views

Are argument clauses and verbal expressions individual constants or individual variables (or perhaps individual predicate-argument constants)?

I am studying first order predicate logic in the context of formal semantics for natural language. Propositions are understood in terms of predicates and their arguments. A given predicate takes 0 to ...
1 vote
0 answers
70 views

Formal semantics of phrases like “I need to go to the store”

Phrases like “I need to go to the store” do not express logical or contingent necessity. Possible words in which one does not go to the store feasibly exist. These phrases behave more as some kind of ...
-1 votes
1 answer
44 views

What aspect of meaning is not captured by the translation from natural language to PropL?

So I was given the sentence "I don’t drink and drive", and asked to translate it into PropL and indicate at least one aspect of meaning that the logical translation doesn’t capture. To ...
2 votes
0 answers
27 views

What are the practical differences between type-logical/categorial and context-free based approaches to semantic parsing?

I am currently reading Bob Carpenter's Type-Logical Semantics, which goes over the Type-Logical approach to natural language semantics. I understand that categorial grammar is technically different ...
2 votes
1 answer
98 views

Where can I find an extensive inventory of types of the sort that one encounters in formal semantics (think e, <e,t>, <e,<e,t>>, etc.)?

My exposure so far to type theory in formal semantics has included examples of rather simple phrases and sentences only. Individual constants of are type e (e.g. John, Chicago, etc.), intransitive ...
-3 votes
1 answer
51 views

Why are these words lacking picturesque meaning?

I was thinking about words that would be as hard as possible to mime (for example, in a game like Charades). I thought of some words - “the”, “of”, “as”, “a”, “if”, “general”, “abstract”. Consider how ...
4 votes
1 answer
313 views

Do predicates always map to truth values in formal semantics?

I have been informed here What is the difference between function and predicate? that in formal semantics, predicates are always functions that map from individuals (i.e. arguments) to truth values. ...
5 votes
1 answer
326 views

What is the difference between function and predicate?

I am currently watching videos on formal semantics in Youtube. I find that the terms function and predicate are used a lot and that what they mean is similar. Functions take one or more arguments, and ...
0 votes
0 answers
50 views

How do you write "in" in logical form?

"There is a beer in the fridge." There exists a beer and there exists a fridge such that the beer is in the fridge. \exists x [BEER(x)] \exists y [FRIDGE(y)] IN(x,y) I guess I never ...
3 votes
0 answers
61 views

What is the formal semantics approach to predicative adjectives?

I am wondering if there is a standard treatment of expressions such as "x is ready" or "x is proud". It seems to me that something like BE(x,ready) or BE-READY(x) is not enough, ...
1 vote
1 answer
255 views

If adjectives denote functions of type <<e,t>,<e,t>>, then what denotation of *be* will allow adjectives to appear in predicative position?

Suppose [[gray]] = λf ∈ D<e,t> . [λx ∈ De . f(x) = 1 and x is gray]. Since this function is of type <<e,t>,<e,t>>, it would seem that sentences like Julius is gray are ...
0 votes
1 answer
176 views

What is the purpose of "x" in the Venn-diagrams depicting categorical propositions?

See the I- and O-diagrams of this article. The "x" does not make sense the way it is formulated. Every member of the intersection is a member of the intersection, obviously. The "x"...
2 votes
2 answers
440 views

Formalizing Natural Languages

I've been interested in the subject of metalanguages [in mathematical logic] and how (if) we can formalize them. Most metalanguages I've encountered use some variation of a natural language (such as ...
2 votes
1 answer
536 views

Can we build semantic mappings for CFG same as we do in CCG?

In CFG we "simply" have production rules. Whereas in Combinatory Categorial Grammar (CCG) on the other hand, we have both composition rules over categories, and a mapping from syntax to semantics (...
3 votes
3 answers
275 views

Can formal linguistics help language learning?

I am interested in the intersection between abstract, formal grammars/semantics of human language and the very concrete task of learning a new language. Are there any books whose presentation assumes ...
1 vote
1 answer
327 views

Series of textbooks to learn semantics from beginners' to advanced level

I am not a student of linguistics, but my interest in mathematics, philosophy and computer science inevitably leads me to many terms and concepts used in linguistics, particularly semantics. I have ...
10 votes
3 answers
2k views

Textbooks in Formal Semantics / Montague semantics

I'm looking for a cheap, thorough but reasonably accessible introduction to formal semantics. There appear to be lots of options on the market. I assume there are plenty of experts in formal semantics ...
3 votes
1 answer
133 views

Does simple type theory distinguish between those common nouns that are used as arguments and those that are used as predicates?

Kearns (2011: 58-61) views the common noun dog to be of type <e, t>. This makes sense based upon the predicate use of such a noun, e.g. Those animals are dogs. What happens, though, when the ...
1 vote
0 answers
45 views

what's the denotation of the predicate 'exists'?

What denotation do linguists assign to the predicate exists in order to make the right predictions about the truth conditions of sentences like Santa does not exist. Unicorns do not exist. My ...
3 votes
0 answers
142 views

A question regarding semantics of "only"

I have a question regarding semantics of only provided by Beaver & Clark (2009) and Chierchia (2013). for something like "Sandy only met [Bush]F" (let this proposition be called p). ...
1 vote
2 answers
183 views

Is there an approach to quantification theory that construes quantifiers as subset creators?

In formal semantics, the theory of generalized quantifiers analyzes quantifiers (e.g. all, some, no, most, few, etc.) in terms of sets to sets. The meaning of the quantifier some, for instance, is ...
3 votes
1 answer
231 views

What's a good second formal semantics book?

I'm almost done reading Heim and Kratzer's Semantics in Generative Grammar and I'm looking for a good "second" book on formal semantics. Ideally, I would like it to emphasize the syntax-...
2 votes
0 answers
91 views

Lectures on Semantics in Generative Grammar

I do not know if my question is pertinent, but I would like to ask if you know any places where to find video lectures on formal semantics in linguistics, specifically approaches treated in Heim and ...
2 votes
0 answers
53 views

Quantifier clause in Heim's presupposition theory

there is a point in a paper by Irene Heim related to problems with presuppositions in complex sentences that I do not properly get. The article is the following: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10....
2 votes
0 answers
205 views

Is language "necessarily underspecified"?

I've read an exam question given in a class on Semantics, that was asking Why is language necessarily underspecified I did not find much about this at the time, which is surprising because it ...
1 vote
0 answers
59 views

Is there a standard accepted definition of in-situ quantification, and if so what is it?

I'm reading a paper that references Montague being focused on in-situ quantification. I'm not a linguist, so apologies for the naivety, but how does this differ from what is being called bounded ...
3 votes
0 answers
839 views

Inverse scope reading

It is well known that any sentence with two or more quantifiers will result in in multiple possible readings depending on the ordering of the quantifiers. To take a known example (1), there will be ...
1 vote
1 answer
140 views

Know and Factivity

Consider the following sentence: (1) I don't know that John kissed Mary. When I assert this sentence, am I contradicting myself? The reason is as follows: following Stalnaker's view on the factivity ...
5 votes
3 answers
951 views

What explanatory advantages does so-called "type theory" have?

Some linguists use a theory called "type theory"; you can see it in a few questions on this site. Apparently it is based on the "type theory" of maths, logic, and computer science. Wikipedia's ...
1 vote
1 answer
234 views

Intuitionistic type theory in linguistics

How important is type theory for modern formal linguistics? I am looking for modern references that build on Ranta's (Ranta, Aarne. "Type-theoretical grammar." (1994)) use of type theory for ...
2 votes
0 answers
213 views

Angelika Kratzer's modal bases

In Kratzer’s theory, for each world w, modal base is the set of propositions p such that the speaker knows in w that p is true, e.g. f(w) = {p1, p2, p3}. Following the standard assumption in possible ...
1 vote
1 answer
193 views

Is formal semantics useful for computational linguistics and NLP?

I browsed the table of content of Cann's Formal Semantics. Cann's book is for linguistics, and am I right that it is helpful for computational linguistics and natural language processing? But it also ...
3 votes
0 answers
147 views

Tools for converting text to logical form

What's the State of the Art in software for converting text to some sort of logical form? Pros and con's of different packages approaches, if more than one exists?
0 votes
1 answer
76 views

'some students,' 'many students' etc. in logical formula

'John met the student' would translate as: (∃x student(x) ⋀ (∀y (student(y) → y = x)) ⋀ met(j,x)) where, j stands for John. We have the existential quantifier and the universal quantifier; hence, ...
1 vote
2 answers
78 views

truth condition of 'uniqueness' in the (neo) Russellian theory

I'm trying to work out how (∀y (student(y) → y = x) represents uniqueness. How come we need that formula there? Doesn't just ∃x student(x) ⋀ met(j,x)) suffice? Or, would it be the expression for I ...
4 votes
1 answer
2k views

The semantic type of and?

Semantic types meaning for example a verb being of type (e,t), or an individual/entity being of type e. I am confused in these two sentences, because I believe the semantic type of 'and' is different ...
2 votes
0 answers
304 views

Is there a way to express a negation modifier in lambda calculus?

I want to model the Middle High German sentence "Ih néhabo niêht in geméitun sô uuîlo geuuêinot" that can be glossed as "I Neg-have not-at-all in vain so much cried" meaning "I have not at all cried ...
4 votes
3 answers
5k views

Truth conditional semantics and wffs

How specifically does truth conditional semantics separate syntactically well formed sentences (wffs) with semantic meaning from syntactically well formed sentences without semantic meaning? An ...
3 votes
2 answers
122 views

Representing constructive and non-constructive claims in formal semantics

I came across Montague's treatment of "John seeks a unicorn". He distinguishes de re and de dicto interpretations of it on the basis that the de dicto meaning does not entail the existence of any ...
0 votes
1 answer
73 views

Formal semantics of subordinate clauses (compound sentences) - in categorial and type logical grammars?

I am trying to apply combinatory categorial grammars and type logical grammars (Montague semantics etc.) to the compound sentences and the subordinate clauses. Are there efforts to develop those ...