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Besides logics, what mathematical tools are used in the study of linguistics?

I learned of connections between linguistics and category theory when I'm learning the application of category theory in quantum field theory. Being aware that axiomatic set theory (logics) is ...
David Sun's user avatar
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10 votes
3 answers
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Textbooks in Formal Semantics / Montague semantics

I'm looking for a cheap, thorough but reasonably accessible introduction to formal semantics. There appear to be lots of options on the market. I assume there are plenty of experts in formal semantics ...
لويس العرب's user avatar
7 votes
1 answer
341 views

What are the semantics of questions and requests/commands?

In linguistics, is it correct that statement i.e. declarative clause (sentence) has a truth value (true or false or maybe other value?) i.e. logic as its semantics? What does a question (yes-no, or ...
Tim's user avatar
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6 votes
1 answer
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How is category theory applied in linguistics?

I am learning monoidal category applied in quantum information and quantum field theory, and several references say that monoidal category is somehow related to linguistics via Hopf algebra of quantum ...
David Sun's user avatar
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5 votes
3 answers
954 views

What explanatory advantages does so-called "type theory" have?

Some linguists use a theory called "type theory"; you can see it in a few questions on this site. Apparently it is based on the "type theory" of maths, logic, and computer science. Wikipedia's ...
curiousdannii's user avatar
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5 votes
1 answer
11k views

the difference between upward and downward entailment

How does one show the difference of an upward entailment between that of a downward entailment? I have tried doing examples where the negative polarity item is moved from the verb phrase to the noun ...
R.Moyo's user avatar
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5 votes
1 answer
326 views

What is the difference between function and predicate?

I am currently watching videos on formal semantics in Youtube. I find that the terms function and predicate are used a lot and that what they mean is similar. Functions take one or more arguments, and ...
Buffoon's user avatar
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4 votes
4 answers
165 views

An Overview of Mathematical-Logical Approaches in Formalizing Natural Languages

I am an undergraduate mathematics student with a keen interest in pursuing research in the formalization of natural languages (from a more mathematical-logical approach), yet there aren't many ...
Heleyrine Brookvinth's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
313 views

Do predicates always map to truth values in formal semantics?

I have been informed here What is the difference between function and predicate? that in formal semantics, predicates are always functions that map from individuals (i.e. arguments) to truth values. ...
Buffoon's user avatar
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4 votes
3 answers
5k views

Truth conditional semantics and wffs

How specifically does truth conditional semantics separate syntactically well formed sentences (wffs) with semantic meaning from syntactically well formed sentences without semantic meaning? An ...
ApacheRosePeacock's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
92 views

'sibling-in-law' constructions: Why the polysemy/vagueness?

A holds the 'sibling-in-law' relation to B only in the case when: (1) A is a sibling of C and C is married to B; or (2) A is married to C and C is a sibling of B. What is common to (1) and (2) is ...
WhyNotTryCalmer's user avatar
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1 answer
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Should λ-terms all be easily translated back into natural language syntax?

We have encountered this question when we try to read Heim and Kratzer's book. This following picture is taken from Heim & Kratzer (1998: 40). Our answers are simply based on the subscripts: (a) ...
Yili Xia's user avatar
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4 votes
1 answer
111 views

Formal semantics of the coordination of tense and modality

There seems to be a good amount of work on the formal semantics of tense, e.g. statements of the form "Dave ate the cookie," and also of modality, e.g. statements of the form "Dave ...
m. lekk's user avatar
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4 votes
1 answer
2k views

The semantic type of and?

Semantic types meaning for example a verb being of type (e,t), or an individual/entity being of type e. I am confused in these two sentences, because I believe the semantic type of 'and' is different ...
Lyhbm's user avatar
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4 votes
0 answers
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quantifiers adjoining a verb phrase?

I am working through Heim and Kratzer textbook 'Semantics in generative grammar' and there is a question in it that keeps puzzling me (pp.220); they give an example of a sentence which is supposed ...
johanneshshf's user avatar
3 votes
2 answers
133 views

Computational/Formal Approaches to Paragraph-Level Semantics

There are several frameworks that have been built by both linguists and computer scientists to deal with the problem of semantic representation of sentences, most notably Abstract Meaning ...
lightning's user avatar
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3 votes
1 answer
231 views

What's a good second formal semantics book?

I'm almost done reading Heim and Kratzer's Semantics in Generative Grammar and I'm looking for a good "second" book on formal semantics. Ideally, I would like it to emphasize the syntax-...
user236343's user avatar
3 votes
2 answers
193 views

Understanding Feature Grammar syntax

Background: I am a software dev who doesn't really know much about linguistics but I am trying to learn some of it for an application I'm making I am trying to understand Feature Grammar syntax, and ...
Andrew Alexander's user avatar
3 votes
2 answers
73 views

Reference text on Reichenbach's or Klein's work on the formal semantics of tense

I'm looking for a decent reference text on either Reicehnbach's or, more ideally, Klein's work on the formal semantics of tense with regards to topic time, event time, etc. Klein's initial text on the ...
m. lekk's user avatar
  • 267
3 votes
1 answer
52 views

directed graph representation of LF

I am a logician new to linguistics. I am curious if there has been any work on using the formalism of directed graphs (as opposed to, say, lambda-calculus or first-order logic) to represent LF of ...
Y.Z.'s user avatar
  • 131
3 votes
1 answer
408 views

Truth-conditions of predicate-logic formulas for donkey sentences

I'm current learning about compositional semantics, quantifier raising and scope ambiguity in my semantics class and I'm having trouble answering some questions. I've attempted to answer the questions ...
LizJu's user avatar
  • 31
3 votes
2 answers
122 views

Representing constructive and non-constructive claims in formal semantics

I came across Montague's treatment of "John seeks a unicorn". He distinguishes de re and de dicto interpretations of it on the basis that the de dicto meaning does not entail the existence of any ...
Bumble's user avatar
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3 votes
2 answers
242 views

Are the following two versions of a meaning postulate of Montague Grammar equivalent?

Seem I can't use latex commands on here. Latex works on math.stackexchange, maybe it would be a good idea here as well if linguistics.stackexchange is intended to be a place for questions about formal ...
Bert Zangle's user avatar
3 votes
2 answers
116 views

Having a hard time distinguishing between the simple and perfective aspects

It seems to me that the truth conditions for "David baked cookies" are identical to "David has baked cookies," in that both are true if at some moment of time in the past "...
m. lekk's user avatar
  • 267
3 votes
1 answer
133 views

Does simple type theory distinguish between those common nouns that are used as arguments and those that are used as predicates?

Kearns (2011: 58-61) views the common noun dog to be of type <e, t>. This makes sense based upon the predicate use of such a noun, e.g. Those animals are dogs. What happens, though, when the ...
Tim Osborne's user avatar
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3 votes
3 answers
275 views

Can formal linguistics help language learning?

I am interested in the intersection between abstract, formal grammars/semantics of human language and the very concrete task of learning a new language. Are there any books whose presentation assumes ...
JRC's user avatar
  • 159
3 votes
1 answer
213 views

Solving type mismatch

I am doing a semantic derivation of the following sentence: Cathy and Fred drank three coffees. I know the types of each individual component but when trying to work towards t, I find a type ...
Lyhbm's user avatar
  • 105
3 votes
0 answers
61 views

What is the formal semantics approach to predicative adjectives?

I am wondering if there is a standard treatment of expressions such as "x is ready" or "x is proud". It seems to me that something like BE(x,ready) or BE-READY(x) is not enough, ...
LuisB's user avatar
  • 31
3 votes
0 answers
142 views

A question regarding semantics of "only"

I have a question regarding semantics of only provided by Beaver & Clark (2009) and Chierchia (2013). for something like "Sandy only met [Bush]F" (let this proposition be called p). ...
Non-Being's user avatar
  • 149
3 votes
0 answers
839 views

Inverse scope reading

It is well known that any sentence with two or more quantifiers will result in in multiple possible readings depending on the ordering of the quantifiers. To take a known example (1), there will be ...
BritishLinguist's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
148 views

Tools for converting text to logical form

What's the State of the Art in software for converting text to some sort of logical form? Pros and con's of different packages approaches, if more than one exists?
lightning's user avatar
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3 votes
0 answers
46 views

Neural Net advances in textual entailment and mathematical semantics/logic view on it

I wonder if researchers working on textual entailment using explicit modelling tools (mathematical semantics / logic /formal semantics) have an explanation of recent success of neural networks in ...
user1700890's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
59 views

Connections between combinatory categorial grammars and abstract categorial grammars?

Are there connections/translation or common tools usage/adaptation between combinatory (concrete) categorial grammars (incl. Lambek calculus) and abstract categorial grammars? Can tools for one of ...
TomR's user avatar
  • 499
3 votes
0 answers
35 views

Database of formalized english sentences?

(Not sure if this is the right site to ask) Is there an online (preferably free) database of English sentences and the corresponding first-order representations?
Adam's user avatar
  • 131
2 votes
2 answers
302 views

On colorless green ideas

I’m pretty new here. My main focus is logic, so I spend most of my time on the math and philosophy forums. Chomsky proposed that while “colorless green ideas sleep furiously” is a well-formed sentence ...
PW_246's user avatar
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2 votes
2 answers
440 views

Formalizing Natural Languages

I've been interested in the subject of metalanguages [in mathematical logic] and how (if) we can formalize them. Most metalanguages I've encountered use some variation of a natural language (such as ...
Heleyrine Brookvinth's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
145 views

What is the best/state-of-the-art logic for representing English language?

I know people have used lambda terms which "compile into" first-order logic, but based on what I have seen that is not particularly great for representing complex sentences with causal or temporal ...
lightning's user avatar
  • 345
2 votes
1 answer
98 views

Where can I find an extensive inventory of types of the sort that one encounters in formal semantics (think e, <e,t>, <e,<e,t>>, etc.)?

My exposure so far to type theory in formal semantics has included examples of rather simple phrases and sentences only. Individual constants of are type e (e.g. John, Chicago, etc.), intransitive ...
Yili Xia's user avatar
  • 653
2 votes
1 answer
536 views

Can we build semantic mappings for CFG same as we do in CCG?

In CFG we "simply" have production rules. Whereas in Combinatory Categorial Grammar (CCG) on the other hand, we have both composition rules over categories, and a mapping from syntax to semantics (...
matanox's user avatar
  • 299
2 votes
1 answer
596 views

C&C/Boxer Source Code

I’ve been trying to find C&C tools and Boxer online and found this link in many places (http://svn.ask.it.usyd.edu.au/trac/candc) but the link does not work for me. Is there another place to find ...
4B4540D3-1800-4625-8505-FCCEE2's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
42 views

Are argument clauses and verbal expressions individual constants or individual variables (or perhaps individual predicate-argument constants)?

I am studying first order predicate logic in the context of formal semantics for natural language. Propositions are understood in terms of predicates and their arguments. A given predicate takes 0 to ...
Buffoon's user avatar
  • 683
2 votes
0 answers
27 views

What are the practical differences between type-logical/categorial and context-free based approaches to semantic parsing?

I am currently reading Bob Carpenter's Type-Logical Semantics, which goes over the Type-Logical approach to natural language semantics. I understand that categorial grammar is technically different ...
Nathan BeDell's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
91 views

Lectures on Semantics in Generative Grammar

I do not know if my question is pertinent, but I would like to ask if you know any places where to find video lectures on formal semantics in linguistics, specifically approaches treated in Heim and ...
PwNzDust's user avatar
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2 votes
0 answers
53 views

Quantifier clause in Heim's presupposition theory

there is a point in a paper by Irene Heim related to problems with presuppositions in complex sentences that I do not properly get. The article is the following: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10....
PwNzDust's user avatar
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2 votes
0 answers
213 views

Angelika Kratzer's modal bases

In Kratzer’s theory, for each world w, modal base is the set of propositions p such that the speaker knows in w that p is true, e.g. f(w) = {p1, p2, p3}. Following the standard assumption in possible ...
ronghe's user avatar
  • 595
2 votes
0 answers
304 views

Is there a way to express a negation modifier in lambda calculus?

I want to model the Middle High German sentence "Ih néhabo niêht in geméitun sô uuîlo geuuêinot" that can be glossed as "I Neg-have not-at-all in vain so much cried" meaning "I have not at all cried ...
nora's user avatar
  • 29
2 votes
0 answers
205 views

Is language "necessarily underspecified"?

I've read an exam question given in a class on Semantics, that was asking Why is language necessarily underspecified I did not find much about this at the time, which is surprising because it ...
vectory's user avatar
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2 votes
0 answers
130 views

What's an Event Argument?

Davidsonian and Neo-davidsonian formal semantics is full of templates containing something labelled as Event Argument. For example, In Kratzer (1996, p.1), discussing severing the external argument ...
Tsutsu's user avatar
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2 votes
0 answers
47 views

What is the source of knowledge/discovery for the semantics? Automation of semantic science?

Natural sciences observe facts and make models. Mathematics more or less arbitrarly generates axioms and investigates all the possible consquences of them. What is the source of semantic knowledge (e....
TomR's user avatar
  • 499
2 votes
2 answers
234 views

Definite descriptions and essentially indistinguishable participants

In the analysis of definite descriptions there is a problem called "The Problem of Indistinguishable Participants", exemplified by the so-called bishop sentences: If a bishop meets a bishop, the ...
Dennis's user avatar
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