Questions tagged [georgian]

National language of Georgia. Member of the Kartvelian language family.

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How to distinguish between hiatus and a diphthong?

Recently I've been thinking about the difference hiatus and diphthongs. in my native language there are no phonemic diphthongs but phonetic diphthongs do occur e.g "კაი" ("okay") /...
4 votes
1 answer
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Are long vowel-less consonant clusters in Georgian actually vowel-less phonetically?

As some of you may already know, in Georgian language there exist a huge strings of consonant clusters which are said to be pronounced without an intervining vowel, like for example /brdɣvnis/ and /...
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Is /ɑ/ of Standard Georgian realized as [ə]?

On page 263 of this PDF on Standard Georgian, it shows a narrow transcription of the North Wind and the Sun as narrated by a native speaker of the Georgian language. In that transcription, the ...
6 votes
2 answers
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What language branch of PIE does Kartvelian belong to? (Georgian language)

I know little about language, so I would like to preface that this question may appear disjointed. I have been listening to some wonderful Georgian folk music and have been trying to relate it to any ...
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Do Diphthongs occur in Georgian?

I'm asking this question because of this study https://www.cambridge.org/core/services/aop-cambridge-core/content/view/A7DCF9606BA856FCA5CC25918ADB37EF/S0025100306002659a.pdf/standard-georgian.pdf ...
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3 votes
1 answer
108 views

Why is IPA Transcriptions of Georgian so inconsistent?

for example why do some sources transcribe ღ and ხ as /ɣ x/ while others transcribe it as /ʁ χ/ also ა is transcribed as /a/ by some while others transcribe it as /ɑ/ can anyone explain to me what's ...
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2 votes
1 answer
108 views

What is the phonetic realization of /ɣ/ and /x/ in Georgian? are they velar? or are they actually uvular?

I'm confused as to which symbol should I be using when transcribing Georgian with IPA. as native speaker of Georgian myself, I feel my /ɣ/ and /x/ sound more like uvular than velar. I could be wrong ...
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2 votes
1 answer
102 views

Are there any detailed studies on Phonology of Georgian language?

As a native speaker of Georgian, I'm interested in learning more about Phonology of my native language.
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1 answer
116 views

What is the etymology of the Western Georgian family name Ashkinadze (borne by both Christians and Jews)? [closed]

The Western Georgian family name Ashkinadze consists of at least two morphemes, the last of which (-ძე = -dze in romanization) is the Georgian for ‘son’. A Georgian trained in linguistics told me in ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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Difference between forms of the georgian verbs with and/or without objective version vowel

I was studying the complicted verbal morphology of Georgian language, when I came across the description of versioners in Hewit's Georgian: A Structural Reference Grammar. In discussing the Objetive ...
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5 votes
3 answers
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Numeral-noun number agreement - how popular it is

I am interested in the feature of number agreement for simple cases of "several nouns" in various languages. Some languages featuring this agreement are e.g. English or Slavic languages (I don't know ...
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Do languages with long clusters have minimal vowel or consonant inventories?

I assume, considering the Onset principle, that there are not many languages that have a structure with VV or VVV but are there languages that have a CV.VV structure? If there is, I would assume that ...
5 votes
2 answers
559 views

Georgian minimal pairs with p' t' k'

Does anybody know any minimal pairs for /p'/ and /p/, /t'/ and /t/ or /k'/ and /k/ in Georgian (or any other indigenous caucasian language)? I'm writing a seminar paper about ejectives in caucasian ...
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Etymology of "ნარიყალა" and "Нарын-Кала": Mongolian? Turkic?

There are ancient ruins of fortresses in Tbilisi and Derbent which share a name. In Tbilisi there is ნარიყალა Nariqala and in Derbent there is Нарын-Кала Naryn-Kala. The story of the name ნარიყალა ...
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2 votes
0 answers
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Georgian prefix-suffix lists!

I'm wondering if there are some lists for Georgian prefix-suffix changing parts of speech (with some explanations about the changes occur in roots or stems (e.g syncope ch'am -> ch'm)) sorted in such ...
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1 answer
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Dictionary of Georgian language with lexical stress?

I search for dictionary of Georgian with lexical stress, but i can't find online of offline. Perhaps Georgian have any explicit rules for lexical stress which i don't know?
5 votes
1 answer
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What are Georgian harmonic clusters phonetically?

According to Georgian: A Reading Grammar by Howard I. Aronson, Georgian has many "harmonic clusters" consisting of two consonants pronounced with only a single release. (The consonants must be stops ...
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1 answer
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Why does the Georgian adverb მწარედ (mtsared) "bitterly" end in -ედ rather than -ად?

According to the materials I possess or can find on the Internet, Georgian adverbs derived from nouns end in -ად (-ad) (unless the noun in the nominative ends in -ო (-o) or -უ (-u), in which case the ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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Can Georgian verb stems start with a vowel?

I'm interested in the kinds of ambiguities which can be encountered when attempting to analyse the agglutinative verbs of Georgian into their component "slots". Georgian verbs may have an optional "...
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0 votes
2 answers
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Constraints on Kartvelian preverbs

In Georgian and its related languages there is a concept of the "preverb", which is much like the separable and inseparable verb prefixes in German or in English phrasal verbs with a preposition or ...
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1 vote
2 answers
326 views

Which features of Georgian verbs can cause an initial "ა" (a) to become an "ე" (e)?

Kartvelian languages such Georgian have a very complex agglutinative verb structure. Georgian is very well studied but there's not a lot of self-study books or online sites that go really in depth. I ...
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0 votes
1 answer
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Are there conditions under which Georgian nouns omit the "-ი" case ending?

In Georgian most nouns in the nominative case end with "-ი" (-i), most other nouns end in another vowel. In cases other than the nominative this ending may be replaced with a different ending but the ...
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15 votes
2 answers
972 views

Did Georgian ever have a native word for "dolphin"?

During my time in Georgia one word came to puzzle me and I'm still thinking about it: დელფინი (delp'ini) "dolphin" Wiktionary says this comes from Greek via Russian. The thing is Georgia is on ...
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4 votes
3 answers
813 views

Why does it appear certain Georgian verbs take preverbs in present forms?

Georgian verbal morphology includes a concept called a preverb, which has several functions compounded into one morpheme: distinguishes present (without preverb) from future (with preverb) adds ...
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6 votes
4 answers
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Which cues can I listen for to distinguish spoken Georgian and Armenian?

I'm living in an area of Tbilisi Georgia that is traditionally the ethnic Armenian area. I would like to take the opportunity to listen to people in the street to detect whether anybody is speaking ...
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5 votes
0 answers
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Is there any difference in meaning or nuance when the adjective follows the noun in Georgian?

Many languages allow the order of adjectives compared to nouns to vary, but for different reasons: Some languages have very free word order in which case there is little difference between adj + noun ...
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4 votes
2 answers
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What's going on when I hear people pronounce Georgian "ვ" like "w" instead of like "v" as it always seems to be defined?

The sixth letter of the Georgian alphabet is ვ and all the resources I have describe it as being like English v or IPA [v]. But especially in the common word ნახვამდის (goodbye) the ვ sounds a lot ...
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7 votes
6 answers
2k views

How exactly do the sounds of Arabic "ﻕ" and Georgian "ყ" differ?

The Arabic letter ﻕ and the Georgian letter ყ are often described as being similar, also they are both transliterated using q. ... the Georgian letter ყ is difficult for most Westerners to ...
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15 votes
3 answers
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Can you give me some tips on how to pronounce ejective consonants?

I'll be going back to the Republic of Georgia pretty soon and will try to learn the famously difficult language but last time I was there I couldn't distinguish or reproduce the ejectives. Everybody ...
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