Questions tagged [grammar-formalism]

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Can anyone explain me the structure of the FCFG grammar

I was not able to understand the grammar rules explain in discourse.fcfg file. Can any one help me understanding SEM means in S[SEM = <app(?subj,?vp)>] -> NP[NUM=?n,SEM=?subj] VP[NUM=?n,SEM=...
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Examples of languages with complex “formules de politesse”

French uses complex word arrangements to say "best regards" and "yours sincerely" to finish well written letters, i.e.: Nous vous prions d’agréer, Monsieur, l’expression de nos sentiments respectueux ...
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What is the definition of the Van Wijngaarden grammar?

I've been trying to find the formal definition of Van Wijngaarden grammars, but all I can find are either examples of these grammars or some basic overview of what they are. I need to know an actual ...
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Complete NL formalisms w/out syntax

What are the natural language formalisms that, roughly speaking, do away w/ syntax as a separate level of description? Cf. Steedman's "The Syntactic Process" (2000): "...syntactic structure is ...
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“in relation to which” - what type of subordinated clause and is this conjunction somehow distinct?

I am trying to analyse the sentence: Building land is a plot of land in relation to which a construction permit has been issued. and my question is - what type of subordinated clause is introduced ...
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What does it mean for a grammar to be linear?

What is the definition of a ''linear'' grammar. For instance, there is a class of grammars called ``linear indexed grammars'' which is different from plain ''indexed grammars.'' What does ''linear'' ...
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Intuitive English example of why linguists think natural language grammar is stronger than CFL?

I have a decent understanding of regular languages, CFLs and r.e. sets from a course in computer science theory. I'm just learning about the Chomsky hierarchy. As an English speaker, I have a ...
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1answer
242 views

Can we build semantic mappings for CFG same as we do in CCG?

In CFG we "simply" have production rules. Whereas in Combinatory Categorial Grammar (CCG) on the other hand, we have both composition rules over categories, and a mapping from syntax to semantics (...
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1answer
315 views

How to diagram a sentence containing a sentence adverb? [closed]

There is a traditional representation of a sentence's parts and it's relation called Kellogs-Reeds diagramming method,which is not used in linguistics. There are also linguistic representations like ...
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132 views

Are all grammar formalisms either dependency or constituency grammars?

Can a grammar formalism be something that's neither a dependency grammar nor a constituency grammar?
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832 views

How can PSG describe the vertical dimension of sentence structure? [closed]

PSG (phrase structure grammar) describes the horizontal dimension of sentence structure with strings, sequences of sentence parts, in a way we are all familiar with. We know that nominal expressions, ...
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2answers
242 views

Syntax presupposed by Heim and Kratzer

Heim and Kratzer's "Semantics in Generative Grammar", bases its semantics on some version of transformational syntax. However, it is remarkably inexplicit about formalising the syntax it presupposes ...
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Analogs of Lambek grammar that can encode structural ambiguity?

My understanding (mistaken, see below) is that in basic lambek/categorial grammar, the basic objects are strings. Does anyone know of variants where one can have multiple trees for the same string?
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Functionalism vs Formalism?

I'm trying to really understand the difference between linguistic functionalism and formalism, but I can't find any good concrete examples of either. From what I can tell, functionalism is a sort of ...
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1answer
364 views

What is the most comprehensive context-free grammar for English?

I realize how hard it is to develop a CFG to model an arbitrary English sentence. Some valid discussion points for this topic can be found here: Is there an EBNF that covers all of English? However, ...
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Formal definition of English grammar

I saw on a related question some mentions of a formal grammar definition for English. It is mentioning there a definition called English Resource Grammar. Perhaps anyone here would know about loosely ...
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312 views

Van Wijngaarden grammar - concrete examples?

I stumbled across this Wikipedia article on Van Wijngaarden grammar. This cut-down quote of the intro paragraph picks out the elements that I found tantalizingly interesting: ... Van Wijngaarden ...
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3answers
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Is there a paradigmatic formalism for dependency grammars?

When looking on the web, wikipedia for example, at the concept of constituent, it is associated with the concept of phrase structure, and rather quickly with context-free languages (as the ...
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1answer
471 views

Are Backus–Naur Form (BNF) and Extended Backus–Naur Form metalanguages or metasyntax?

From http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Extended_Backus–Naur_Form Extended Backus–Naur Form (EBNF) is a family of metasyntax notations, any of which can be used to express a context-free grammar. Does ...
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Is a formal grammar of a formal language a formal language?

From http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meta In linguistics, a grammar is considered as being expressed in a metalanguage, language that operates on a higher level in order to describe properties of the ...
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Is there any phrase where common syntax fails?

Are there any phrases were a conventional grammar gives multiple syntactic analysis for the same phrase (without changing the meaning) or even fails to give a consistent structure? I thought about ...
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1answer
233 views

How does a dependency grammar generate strings?

Theoretically speaking, if I were to use a rule-based approach to generate grammatically correct strings for a language L, I would implement a phrase structure grammar G = (V, T, R, S) consisting of ...
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1answer
522 views

Application of Regular grammar in English Language

Am doing a practical application of formal languages to English Language. Am able to understand the CF grammars with respect to english very easily. (i.e.), for example, CF's are used to ensure ...
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1answer
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Grammar for language L = {ww ∣ w ∈ {a,b,c} * }

I am new to linguistics and trying to understand how to construct a grammar. I am however having issues on this. L= {ww ∣ w ∈ {a,b,c} ∗ } is a linear indexed language, how can I construct the ...
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1answer
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Could anyone give examples of context-sensitive sentences that cannot be generated by context-free rules?

Could anyone give examples of context-sensitive sentences that cannot be generated by context-free rules? To clarify, they are generated by rules including at least one that is in the form αβγ→αψγ, α,...
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2answers
691 views

Is the commutative CFG in the mathematical linguistics literature?

I am shocked that Linguists have not given a reasonably small canonical computationally precise representation of any natural language yet, so I wrote a recent EL&U post to explain how one does ...
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Semantic head vs Syntactic head parsing

I've run into "semantic head parsing" and "syntactic head parsing" and while I think I have a feel for the difference, I was wondering if anyone could give a more concrete definition or reference to ...
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What are some alternatives to Chomskian generative grammar?

What are the other common approaches to study syntax? Note: the source is an example question from the on-topic question list in Area51.