Questions tagged [grammar]

A body of rules, features, or generalizations which reliably differentiate between grammatical and ungrammatical constructions.

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-1 votes
0 answers
16 views

X-Bar: Can an Adverbial be the first to be combined with the head?

A picture (included in this post) shows a sentence that is, according to a certain encyclopedia, meaning 'the book of linguistics with a red cover is long'. Description of the picture in case it is ...
7 votes
7 answers
23k views

How similar are Spanish and French?

I know that Spanish and French both belong to the Romance branch and they are very alike. But what I want to make clear is that how similar they are. I mean that if I have mastered one of them, how ...
0 votes
0 answers
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Languages with strict or less strict grammar

I speak German and Dutch and it seems to me that the German grammar more "enforcing" or "strong" is. I explain my impression : German grammar rules are non ambiguous. I think for ...
-2 votes
0 answers
36 views

what does 'r', 'I' and 'N', tildes after progressive actor/object triggers and ... between

I was reading about the Tagalog grammar when i came across the progressive and contemplative actor triggers. Here are some progressive actor triggers i found: C⟨um⟩V~ nag-CV~ na-CV~ nang-CV~ Here ...
0 votes
2 answers
5k views

English vs. Esperanto (in grammar, vocabulary, semantics) [closed]

I know Esperanto is constructed on the basis of Romance languages; but what are the main differences and similarities between English and Esperanto? Especially from the following aspects: grammar (...
3 votes
2 answers
301 views

Constituency Tests

I had a test and the question was to test the underlined part for constituency; however, I got confused because I used the test of deletion, but I found the sentence ungrammatical, so my answer was ...
3 votes
0 answers
101 views

How can you 'test' for grammatical properties in A Student's Introduction to English Grammar?

According to the book A Student's Introduction to English Grammar (2005), grammatical terms, e.g., subject, object, noun, verb, adjective, etc. should not be defined by meaning, but by grammatical ...
2 votes
2 answers
410 views

When an existential verb is used existentially as the predicate to a subject, is it true in all languages that it cannot take another predicate?

When an existential is used existentially verb as the predicate to a subject, is it true in all languages that it cannot take another predicate? In other words, when the existential to-be verb means '...
1 vote
0 answers
41 views

Does a possessive nominalize an adjective in Indonesian?

Fletch’s song “Laraku, Pilumu” “Sedih,” “lara,” “pilu”…. Those are all adjectives, yet they’re being modified by possessives (“-ku,” “-mu,” “kita manusia,” et cetera.). Does it mean that possessives ...
1 vote
1 answer
66 views

Can someone share with me an article that studies the decline of by-phrases in the passive?

Can someone share with me an article that studies the decline of by-phrases in the passive? Preferably a corpus-based study, but this is not that relevant
9 votes
3 answers
883 views

When does language "evolve" and when is it just wrong grammar?

Lately I seem to get into a lot of discussions about stuff that is "wrong" in a language and whether it's really wrong. In my last discussion there was a native Japanese saying you can use "verb x" ...
0 votes
2 answers
112 views

What are some rules that native speakers instinctively know about English that non-native speakers usually don't? [closed]

For example, the famous tweet quoting Forsyth, [A]djectives in English absolutely have to be in this order: opinion-size-age-shape-colour-origin-material-purpose Noun. So you can have a lovely little ...
3 votes
2 answers
442 views

Does Euro-English exist?

There is debate on the existence of this variety within the expanding circle, I think it exists in as much as we can categorise other varieties (i.e. Singlish falls under the 'Asian-English' label). ...
1 vote
0 answers
41 views

What is the subcategorizarion of the verb "thought"?

I'm writing a grammar and I see that VP->thought SBAR. The sentence "the president thought that a sandwich sighed ." In the stanford parser. But what is this type of verbs? Transitive/...
2 votes
0 answers
52 views

Verb subcategoriztion - intransitive, transitive, ditransitive, Verb with a complement clause

I'm trying to avoid building grammatically incorrect sentences in some small toy grammar I'm building. I find subcategorization of verbs bit confusing. Can there be more then one classification per ...
0 votes
2 answers
100 views

How does the process of finding descriptive rules of language differ from prescriptive ones?

How exactly does the research of writing a prescriptive grammar book differ from that of a descriptive one? I imagine that both would involve reading modern day literature, so how could they be ...
7 votes
3 answers
1k views

I have my hair cut - "my hair" a Direct Object?

I am confused about the following sentence: I have my hair cut. Now here I am not sure whether "my hair" is the Direct Object (DO) of the verb "have", or if it is just the ...
-1 votes
2 answers
83 views

Are there any languages where you can put the demonstrative at the end of the sentence? [closed]

Basically, are there any languages where it's grammatically acceptable to say "blue this is" rather than "this is blue?"
1 vote
2 answers
112 views

Does English have animate/inanimate distinction?

I know we have the "'S" genitive and the "X of Y" but I don't exactly understand the rules of using these even as a native English speaker and I'm unsure if English makes other ...
1 vote
0 answers
108 views

OVS in English dialogue

English is an SVO language. When writing dialogue, especially in literature, writing a sentence with the speech first is considered grammatically correct. Take for example this extract from Ursula K ...
2 votes
0 answers
94 views

Do English words have a sort of de-facto inherrent gender (or gender stereotype) to them?

I apologize in advance if this question goes all over the place, I was just randomly thinking today about gender in the English language. One thing in English that I find is overlooked is gender in ...
9 votes
5 answers
648 views

Which language is more complex, English or French? Is it even possible to objectively measure a language's complexity?

OK, so I'm a native English speaker who learned French as a teenager and I have a friend who is French and learned English as a teenager (so the opposite). The other day he was telling me how easy ...
-6 votes
1 answer
82 views

Is Hebrew more efficient and more grammatically logical than English? [closed]

Grammatically logical - this is possible, vs zeh yachol lhiyot. Let's break down the English way for a moment -- the words don't actually connect with each other in a logical sequence. 'This is' has ...
0 votes
1 answer
63 views

Why did auxiliary verbs in Kazakh got completely merged into one word in Turkish?

Kazakh and Turkish belong to same language group. But Kazakh is more archaic, Turkish is more modern. In Kazakh, there are auxiliary verbs otur, jur , and jatir that become part of the word in Turkish:...
1 vote
0 answers
38 views

How to draw HPSG illustrations?

everyone!I want to draw HPSG pictures like this,what tools can I use? Are there any HPSG illustration generators like http://mshang.ca/syntree/ ?(that link is a syntax tree generator)
0 votes
1 answer
49 views

On a question in regards to Ergativity

I am working on a conlang, and I am making sure of how this one sentence would be parsed when translated. "We have no friends, but the mountains" Would mountains be the ones put into the ...
2 votes
2 answers
74 views

Question on Avestan Adjectives

Looking at various examples of Avestan, I am confused on how the adjectives work. For instance, Ahura Mazda, Vohu Manah, Angra Mainyu, Spenta Armaiti, Aka Manah, etc are all adjective first. But Asha ...
-4 votes
3 answers
141 views

Why couldn't one combine rules from languages for sentences with the same intended meaning?

Why couldn't one combine rules from languages for sentences with the same intended meaning? So that I could, for example, write Finnish with the same comma rules as in English? Rather, one must ...
6 votes
1 answer
239 views

How to extract grammar rules from a language (grammar induction?) using a neural network like a LSTM

I have a simple artificial language. It has about 200 words and it has a grammar. I am trying to figure out how to learn that grammar, which I think is called grammar induction, then print those rules....
-1 votes
1 answer
80 views

Why can't you treat prepositions as simply noun/verb modifiers (i.e. as adjectives or adverbs)?

I am working on a conlang and have (for many months/years?) been perplexed by the prepositions. They standout because they are extremely hard to pinpoint what they actually mean, unlike a noun or verb,...
1 vote
0 answers
43 views

Flesch-Kincaid reading ease formula coefficients [duplicate]

About the Flesch-Kincaid reading ease formula: F = 206.835 − (84.6 ∗ S) − (1.015 ∗ P) I don't understand the meaning of the coefficient choices. Why those specific numbers? Are the studies behind the ...
1 vote
0 answers
53 views

How do you draw a x-bar tree with negative inversion? [closed]

For example: 'Never was I so offended' There is already a T to C inversion with 'was', where do we put the word 'Never'? And how should we label it? AdvP or Neg?
0 votes
1 answer
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In syntax trees, why aren't single-word phrases reduced to that word?

Why do phrases like "the car in Texas" break down into (NP (Det the) (N car) (PP (P in) (NP (N Texas)))) Why is the prepositional phrase "in Texas" constituted of the ...
0 votes
1 answer
56 views

Can adjuncts modify nouns?

The Wikipedia page on adjuncts gives the example Yesterday, Lorna saw the dog in the garden. Notice that this example is ambiguous between whether the adjunct in the garden modifies the verb saw (in ...
1 vote
1 answer
100 views

What causes people to make mistakes in language usage? Is it bad concentration or mislearned rules or ...?

What causes people to make mistakes in language usage? Is it bad concentration or mislearned rules or ...? This confuses me. If the rules are to be reasonable, shouldn't people "know" ...
13 votes
9 answers
3k views

Why are there grammars in languages in the first place?

I recently took an interest in linguistics and is currently working through the various interesting phenomenon like x bar theory, wh-movement, binding theory, etc. It all sounds very fascinating to me....
0 votes
1 answer
170 views

Does Morpho-syntax = Grammar?

According to Fukuyama University Asst. Prof. Warren M Tang1 What is morphosyntax? – in other words Morphosyntax is another word for grammar. Grammar can be divided into morphology and syntax. ...
4 votes
1 answer
101 views

What's the significance of correct grammar (as long as the information gets across)?

What's the significance of correct grammar (as long as the information gets across)? This confuses me, because I intuitively think that: Yes, if there are grammar rules, then one should attempt to ...
1 vote
2 answers
224 views

Why Do We Say "The Same"?

Generally, sentences are constructed like this: Compared to Joe, he looks similar. Compared to Joe, he looks different. Compared to Joe, he looks handsome. Compared to Joe, he looks ugly. Yet, when ...
2 votes
1 answer
65 views

What is it called when a verb takes its "logical" or "usual" object as its grammatical subject?

This usually occurs for objects that are used by a person, and in English often feels to me like an Americanism. Examples: The sofa sits five. The wine drinks very smoothly. The car drives very ...
3 votes
1 answer
146 views

Why "a liter of water" but not "a 100ºC of water"?

Imagine a volume of water, 100 ml in size, with a temperature of 100ºC. Interestingly, you can refer to the water as "100ml of water" but you cannot call it "100ºC of water". That ...
0 votes
1 answer
111 views

Why does the pronoun and verb order vary in Polish language?

My go nie lubimy - we do not like him On nie kocha mnie - he does not love me Why in the first example go is followed by nie lubimy, but in the second sentence we have the opposite: nie kocha followed ...
2 votes
1 answer
187 views

Non-projective tree sentences

I'm trying to generate the non-projective tree of the sentence: "A hearing is scheduled on the issue today." But with the Stanford Core NLP tool (https://corenlp.run/), I obtain a projective ...
4 votes
1 answer
237 views

why in Polish we change ją to jej when negating the phrase?

ja lubię ją - I like her ja nie lubię jej - I do not like her Do I understand correctly what these sentences mean? If yes, why do we change ją to jej when negating the phrase? In both cases the ...
0 votes
1 answer
144 views

How do you tell a spelling mistake from a grammar mistake?

How do you tell a spelling mistake from a grammar mistake? For example: Your the best. This iz the end. I likes music. She preatend to be asleep. One method is to read the erroneous sentence aloud (...
0 votes
0 answers
121 views

What is the maximum number of accusatives you can have in an English sentence? [closed]

I know things like the double-accusative exist in English, like "I call sodas cokes." Then things can get more complex with words like "bet," where you can have "I bet you 5 ...
0 votes
4 answers
193 views

When/how did "articles" like "the" first appear in language?

I am wondering this sort of cross-linguistically. I know many (most?) languages don't have a word for "the", but the English language does. First part of the question is, did Middle English ...
0 votes
1 answer
65 views

(how) do natural languages distinguish classes and instances of things?

In data modeling and other areas of knowledge organization there is often a strict separation between abstract classes of things and individual objects. For instance I am an instance of the class ...
1 vote
0 answers
64 views

The grammatical analysis - "most of them civilians"

I came across this sentence today: They were most of them civilians. Now how will we analyse"most of them" here? Is it just a modifier in Noun Phrase - "most of them civilians"? ...
0 votes
1 answer
68 views

Is there a root final stop in English?

Is there a root final stop in English? I can't seem to find any

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