Questions tagged [grammar]

A body of rules, features, or generalizations which reliably differentiate between grammatical and ungrammatical constructions.

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7
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0answers
164 views

Combinatory Categorial Grammar (комбинаторная категориальная грамматика) developments and lexicon for Russian language?

I am trying to apply Cornell Semantic Parsing framwork https://github.com/cornell-lic/spf (implementation of Combinatory Categorial Grammars CCG) to Russian language. This framework takes natural ...
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0answers
153 views

Combinatory Categorial Grammar developments and lexicon for German language?

I am trying to apply Cornell Semantic Parsing framework (implementation of Combinatory Categorial Grammars CCG) to the German language. This framework takes natural language texts, learns grammar and ...
3
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1answer
132 views

What's this punctuating feature of some peoples' English?

What exactly is the name and nature of this odd bit of consistent yet seemingly redundant English found in many forms of colloquial English: "She gave me dates, she did!" "The little lads ran home, ...
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data sources and/or softwares to get morphological derivation of words

What data sources and/or softwares can generate a list of morphological derivatives for a given English word?
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0answers
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Combinatory Categorial Grammar for inflected languages?

Can combinatory categorial grammars be used for inflected languages like Slavic and Baltic languages? I am aware only of this thesis https://pwmarcz.pl/pm-thesis-final.pdf As far as I have ...
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2answers
2k views

Can anyone explain the difference between nominal and pronominal cases?

Like the title says, can anyone give an explanation on the difference between nominal and pronominal cases?
2
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1answer
71 views

generic definite article with uncountable/mass nouns after preposition 'of' indicating material

The 'generic' subclass of the definite article treated in the pag. 112, section 1.12.3.1 of the Modern Written Arabic: A Comprehensive Grammar reads as follows "it denotes a generic meaning مائدة من ...
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0answers
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Portmanteau in Middle Egyptian [closed]

coming here redirected from the history stack. Lacking a proper literal translation for the word benedict in the language –as in "well spoken (of)–", I figured the best would be to create it by ...
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1answer
164 views

What is a half-transitivizer?

I've been learning Greenlandic and I came across this term, and I can't find anything about it online. Can anyone explain it in Layman's terms?
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1answer
135 views

What is the influence of Germanic languages on Esperanto grammar?

I am making a presentation in my class about the influence of Germanic languages on the Esperanto grammar. I was wondering if you could help me further. I already said that Esperanto was a non pro-...
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1answer
685 views

Austronesian Alignment [closed]

Can someone give a brief explanation for it? I heard about it once and I couldn't wrap my head around it, and the Wikipedia article wasn't much help either.
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1answer
883 views

meaning of yek in Persian or Farsi [closed]

I know that in Persian "Man yek sag daraam" means "I have a dog", where: Man = I, sag = dog, daraam = have. What is the purpose of yek? Is it a/an, the indefinite article?
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What does it mean for a grammar to be linear?

What is the definition of a ''linear'' grammar. For instance, there is a class of grammars called ``linear indexed grammars'' which is different from plain ''indexed grammars.'' What does ''linear'' ...
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1answer
178 views

Is there a difference between 'doot' (दूत) and 'dut' (दुत) in Sanskrit? [closed]

I recently came across a verse from RigVeda यदक्रन्दः परथमं जायमान उद्यन समुद्रादुत वा पुरीषात | शयेनस्य पक्षा हरिणस्य बाहू उपस्तुत्यं महि जातं ते अर्वन || Now, I can understand उद्यन समुद्रादुत (...
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2answers
474 views

Intuitive English example of why linguists think natural language grammar is stronger than CFL?

I have a decent understanding of regular languages, CFLs and r.e. sets from a course in computer science theory. I'm just learning about the Chomsky hierarchy. As an English speaker, I have a ...
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2answers
185 views

Has it been argued that linguistics could only have arisen after exposure to foreign languages?

Would concepts like grammar have even been understood/discussed until other languages with different grammars were encountered?
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0answers
134 views

Introductory linguistic theory books [duplicate]

I'm wondering where a good place (or good places) to start learning about linguistic (grammar, syntactic and semantic) theories would be. I'm essentially a complete novice in this domain. Any sort ...
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4answers
200 views

How does the description of the grammar of a language differ between a traditional and scientific approach?

Let me clarify the question, There are traditional grammars to describe the working and structure of languages, mostly with the purpose of teaching someone to speak the languages. So, it is approach ...
9
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2answers
668 views

When does language “evolve” and when is it just wrong grammar?

Lately I seem to get into a lot of discussions about stuff that is "wrong" in a language and whether it's really wrong. In my last discussion there was a native Japanese saying you can use "verb x" ...
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1answer
50 views

Am i breaking this sentence down correctly?

"One day as they were walking along they looked down on the ocean and wondered what was beneath it." They(subject) - on the ocean(object) - One day (preposition) - looked down(verb) | (complimentizer)...
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0answers
60 views

Resources to learn just grammar

I'm interested in learning about the grammar of other languages (notably German, Russian, and Arabic), but I don't really want to learn to speak them. Only their grammar, syntax, morphology, etc., to ...
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1answer
1k views

Where does the Swedish word “bra” come from? [closed]

Swedish has the words "bra", "god" and "väl" with similar meanings. "Bra" is usually an adjective for example Han är en bra programmerare. = He is a good programmer. "God" means more like "...
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5answers
291 views

Are there any known natural languages in which tense is never (or very rarely) expressed through the modification of verbs?

I should probably confess up front that I don't have a great deal of knowledge of foreign languages, but I have lately taken a strong interest in the structure and nature of language, and have spent a ...
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0answers
109 views

conjunctions or enumerations inside a sentence make multiple predicates [closed]

please tell me if in the following example: The tree is characterized by long, strong roots. Does the enumeration generate two nested (recursion) sentences? 1. The tree is characterized by long ...
3
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3answers
163 views

What grammar generate this sequence

I need some little help in connection with linguistics. My first question is: Is there any fast way to figure out grammar if I have sequence of symbols, or do I have to guess? My second question ...
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1answer
300 views

Chomsky's Syntactic Structures: Why is {a^n b^n : n ∈ ℕ} not a finite state language?

In (10) (i) of Chomsky's Syntactic Strucures (1957), the set of sentences of a specific language is defined as ab, aabb, aaabbb, ..., and in general, all sentences consisting of n occurrences of ...
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2answers
89 views

“Is there …?” vs “Does … have …?” Yes/No questions

From my understanding (non-native English speaker) "Is there ...?" and "Are there ...?" are generally used for Yes/No question to ask for the existence of something; for example, "Are there vegetarian ...
2
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0answers
64 views

“Did” as a habitual / emphatic marker in Southern varieties of British English

I'm currently doing research on the salience of did as an emphatic marker in Southern varieties of British English as illustrated in (1). I'm comparing this with the salience of did as a habitual ...
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1answer
238 views

Lithuanian possessive perfect

Can someone explain what exactly the 'possessive perfect' is? The book I read gave the following example: Turiu atsinešęs maisto. have:PRS.1SG bring:PTCP.PST.ACT.NOM.SG....
2
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1answer
160 views

Is there a name for self-reference in verbs?

In German and Swedish we have typically the ending ...sig (själv) or ...sich (selbst) (in German) when doing something with yourself, for yourself or oneself. Example Ändra sig (="change yourself/...
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1answer
202 views

Possessive pronoun position in north germanic languages

I begin with the following translations of the sentence "This is my father": Icelandic: Þetta er faðir minn. Bokmål: Dette er faren min. Danish: Det her er min far. Swedish: Det här är min far. All ...
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2answers
470 views

a question about grammar and syntax [closed]

can anyone provide me a short critique for the following analyses of the sentence. About their advantages and disadvantages and provide evidence if possible!!thank you. I have no idea about this.
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3answers
2k views

How should I form grammatical cases in my conlang?

Now, I'm a Latin student, and that being said, I understand how cases operate and what they do for a language, but I've never enjoyed learning/studying/keeping track of them. That being said, I feel ...
7
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1answer
1k views

Declensions in Polish

Declension, as far as I know, corresponds to the act of creating boxes where you can pile up nouns that follow the same rule when inflected (generally due to cases). Classical Latin is often said to ...
0
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2answers
421 views

What is a “level” of grammar?

Conceptually, I understand the difference between underlying (?phonological), surface (?phonetic) and lexical (?) "levels", but what are these levels? I think they are just a heuristic, a sort of ...
7
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5answers
377 views

Why are there such things as 'time adverbs'?

Words like yesterday, today, and tomorrow are defined as adverbs. However, an adverb is a word modifying an adjective or verb (or another adverb). Words such as yesterday do not seem to modify ...
6
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0answers
90 views

Are Rhyming, Alliterative Verse etc. forms of linguistic Error Detection/Correction Schemes?

Rhyme (Wikipedia) Alliterative verse (Wikipedia) Metre - Poetry (Wikipedia) Mechanisms such as these appear to help lower information corruption during long range communication, especially during pre-...
2
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1answer
123 views

Which linguists from the 1940s–1970s believed that language comprised two distinct parts, “lexis” and “grammar”?

I’m looking for information about the linguists and/or researchers from before the 1970s who at the time believed that vocabulary and grammar should be taught as two completely separate entities, that ...
2
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1answer
493 views

Is there any CNF grammar available for English which can be downloaded directly?

For implementing the CYK algorithm for parsing, we need to have a grammar in CNF (Chomsky Normal Form) defined for a language. Is there any such CNF grammar readily available which covers all (or most ...
2
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1answer
537 views

How to detect verb in a sentence where the verb is invisible in the sentence?

In case of some Indo-European languages it seems there is no visible verb in the sentence. This is specially visible in languages like Bangla, Hindi etc. For example the sentence Who is there? is ...
6
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1answer
365 views

Why in English can't two NPs in a relative clause be relativized?

John Ross's CNPC (Complex NP Constraint) describes the fact of English that after extracting one NP, corresponding to the relative pronoun from a relative clause, no other NP can be extracted from ...
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2answers
213 views

Is the English “because (noun)” an instance of grammaticalization?

This structure is often used recently (I think since mid-2012) in a sarcastic or humorous way, or to indicate that the reasoning is not sound. a) “Ok, I really want to hang with her because ...
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0answers
132 views

How do you distinguish complements/adjuncts? [duplicate]

Is there a reliable test that can distinguish complements from adjuncts?
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1answer
353 views

Which noun phrases within relative clauses can be [further relativized]?

The term [further relativized] appears in an academic monograph. See: https://linguistics.stackexchange.com/a/19839/13923 This doesn't seem to be a generally-used term, but I'll use it here. This ...
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1answer
416 views

In English, noun phrases within a relative clause cannot be further relativized, but this is allowed in some cases in Japanese

Japanese: Revised edition by Shoichi Iwasaki: In English, noun phrases within a relative clause cannot be further relativized, but this is allowed in some cases in Japanese. If there is such a ...
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2answers
2k views

“Please to be <VERB>ing” in Indian english

I've noticed this form being used by English speakers from India. In standard English the infinitive form of "to be" is not normally combined with verbs modified with "-ing" (normally used for ...
2
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5answers
802 views

Do auxiliary verbs always express different aspect/mood/tense?

Do auxiliary verbs always serve to express a mood or aspect that is different from simple indicative (or a tense)? Or are there cases where a sentence is in simple-indicative-present with the presence ...
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1answer
84 views

The benefits of studying a second language with word-by-word translations in one's mother tongue [closed]

I've recently been taking French and am having a bit of a hard time understanding the word order of certain sentences or phrases when I'm forming them in my mind. I tend to do the word-by-word ...
5
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1answer
217 views

Languages with a grammatical distinction between abstract and concrete nouns

Are there any languages making a grammatical distinction between abstract and concrete nouns? I suppose this should boil down to the question about the existence of languages having a morpheme ...
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1answer
2k views

how similar are Serbian and Polish?

how similar are Serbian and Polish? They are both Slavic languages so how similar are they? When i listen to them it sounds pretty similar

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