Questions tagged [grammar]

A body of rules, features, or generalizations which reliably differentiate between grammatical and ungrammatical constructions.

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0answers
47 views

Connections between combinatory categorial grammars and abstract categorial grammars?

Are there connections/translation or common tools usage/adaptation between combinatory (concrete) categorial grammars (incl. Lambek calculus) and abstract categorial grammars? Can tools for one of ...
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2answers
262 views

Conflation of language dialects and phonology

The main idea behind this questions is that I have some difficulty to accept that a certain language can be a dialect of another one by simply basing that argument on the similarity of the vocabulary ...
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1answer
57 views

Formal semantics of subordinate clauses (compound sentences) - in categorial and type logical grammars?

I am trying to apply combinatory categorial grammars and type logical grammars (Montague semantics etc.) to the compound sentences and the subordinate clauses. Are there efforts to develop those ...
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1answer
579 views

Are there any natural languages that actually have gender neutral 3rd person pronouns? [duplicate]

You see this a lot in the auxlang movement that having gendered pronouns is sexist. But making conlangs of my own, I find its absence to be often annoying. No one seems to realize how useful it is to ...
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What to reference for grammatical features being more reliable than lexical features for diachronic research?

I often hear people mention in passing that grammatical features are more reliable than lexical features in diachronic research, specifically when detecting pseudepigraphs, because it is relatively ...
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Subjective pronouns in English copulas: gradual loss of objective case, or emphatic construction taking over?

I'm interested in the historical linguistics of constructions like "that's me" versus "this is she" when answering the phone. Searching online led to a Google Books peephole view ...
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2answers
165 views

How does a field linguist record rare, unknown features of an undocumented language? Is it likely for him/her to miss the details?

A field linguists is most likely an adult, after all. We all know that babies are capable of hearing the specific sounds in natural languages. As a person grows up, however, he/she starts to lose the ...
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170 views

Adjunct domain and Argument domain

I am attempting a problem with anaphora resolution. I need help with some terms in the Lappin and Leass' paper. In the paper, it is mentioned A pronoun P is non-coreferential with a (non-...
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1answer
132 views

Romance-like pronominal verbs elsewhere

Romance languages are known to have lots of so-called pronominal verbs, which are always conjugated with a reflexive pronoun even though the action is not actually reflexive: for example, Spanish irse,...
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4answers
160 views

Why isn't a countable noun required to have a determiner when used in the plural?

When used in the singular, a countable noun is required to have a determiner. *I bought car. But the same countable noun is not required to have any determiner when used in the plural. I bought ...
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1answer
433 views

Is there a measure for grammatical similarity?

Something I see from time to time is the proportion of words from various sources, e.g. English has about 29% French, 29% Latin, 26% Germanic and 6% Greek words. I've never seen anything similar with ...
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2answers
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Is there a name for the tense some Romance languages used to use for stories?

I've seen it before, but I don't know what it would be called. I know that some of the Romance languages used to have a specific tense used only for stories (at least, fictional ones). They're no ...
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1answer
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Are there any languages that place subjects and direct objects before the verbs, but everything else after?

I know the Romance languages do this with pronouns, but they don't do this with noun phrases. Are there any natlangs out there where the subject and direct object always precedes the verb, but ...
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1answer
153 views

Difference between forms of the georgian verbs with and/or without objective version vowel

I was studying the complicted verbal morphology of Georgian language, when I came across the description of versioners in Hewit's Georgian: A Structural Reference Grammar. In discussing the Objetive ...
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1answer
127 views

In what ways might dependency grammar be a better fit for free word order languages?

I believe it is often cited that dependency grammars are more adequate for free word order languages. How actually, is dependency grammar more descriptive or less limited, than constituency grammar, ...
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2answers
256 views

Does the Dutch sentence "Waarschijnlijk deze zomer ga ik naar Spanje" follow the V2 structure?

This question would be better on Dutch Languages SE, but that site is still in Area 51. I was discussing Dutch grammar with a Dutch native and how I'd just learnt that Dutch is a V2 language (as are ...
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2answers
375 views

What is the part of speech of 'modifiers to adjectives'?

This is something I was just thinking about. Adjectives in a lot of languages can also take modifiers of their own: very big, more intelligent, etc... But is there an actual word for the part of ...
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Are the to infinitives, gerunds and bare infinitives objects?

Are the to infinitives, gerunds and bare infinitives objects? I see that everyone says different things. For example: I agreed to give him the money Some people will say that here "to give" is a ...
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3answers
133 views

How could we say it is a “object” by the definition?

The Object is a noun or a pronoun that receives an action in a sentence. There are three types namely Diect object,Indirect object and Object of a preposition. Both direct object and indirect object ...
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1answer
411 views

The argument/complement marker prepositions

What is the name used to refer to the subset of particles (or prepositions) which mark sentence's arguments/complements in a language? For example, suppose that the prepositions sub, dir, and ind ...
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2answers
380 views

Does a subordinating conjunction necessarily introduce a subordinate clause?

I would like to clear up some longstanding confusion of mine on subordinate clauses, especially since it is a rather simple grammatical topic and it is about time that I learn it. Which of the ...
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1answer
96 views

"The depressed, the stressed, the lonely, the fearful" are these appositives?

An Introductory Series of Appositive. Example:The depressed, the stressed, the lonely, the fearful— all have trouble coping with problems. My doubt is on which basis "The depressed, the stressed, the ...
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1answer
49 views

Can we use appositives befor the subject?

1) Good vocabulary, knowledge of grammar, sense of style--all are basic writing skills. 2) Basic writing skills--good vocabulary, knowledge of grammar, sense of style-- can be learned by almost ...
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1answer
359 views

How would you describe X of Y phrases where X and Y are nouns?

What grammatical feature is being used, when we say something like, "I drink a cup of coffee"? In this sentence we have one noun modifying another noun, "coffee" modifying "cup". Would "cup" or even "...
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Does "a little" (en) correspond to the same grammatical class as "ein wenig" (de)?

If you want to say in German, "I speak a little German", you would say, Ich spreche ein wenig Deutsch. The phrase "ein wenig" is reminiscent of the English phrase "a little", but what is ...
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1answer
300 views

Are there languages with tense that lack a pluperfect?

This is something I've been thinking about. It would be rather hard to tell a story without using a pluperfect. I know there are languages that lack tense, like Chinese, but what about languages that ...
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1answer
288 views

Greek - Arabic language relation

Is there a valid, known link (academic source or even speculation) regarding the Greek and Arabic language, when it comes to syntactic- grammatical or morphological cohesion? I ve only come across ...
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0answers
45 views

Self-contained explanation for the CCG Principles

CCG is governed by a set of meta-rules which are commonly called "Principles". E.g. the Combinatory Projection Principle (CPP) the Projective Dependency Principle (PDP) I have found most ...
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1answer
3k views

Auxiliaries in generative grammar

In a course of introduction to Generative Grammar, my teacher told that auxiliary (Aux in the tree diagram) is the element that comes before the subject (NP) in an interrogative sentence. But I found ...
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49 views

Induction of semantics for grammars of natural languages (as opposed to syntax)

I am learning about combinatory categorial grammars and the formal semantics of natural language, course by Partee http://people.umass.edu/partee/MGU_2005/MGU05_formal_semantics.htm (especially ...
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1answer
238 views

Czech: "Býval + minulý čas" VS. minulý čas

What is the difference between czech construction "býval + m.č." and m.č.? Harry by si přál mít aspoň čtyři páry oči navíc. Harry by si býval přál mít aspoň čtyři páry oči navíc.
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Is there relationship (and translation) between Link Grammars and Combinatory Categorial Grammars?

Is there relationship (and translation) between Link Grammars and Combinatory Categorial Grammars? Link Grammars have very unusual parse structure - links between words, but CCGs have parse trees. ...
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169 views

Combinatory Categorial Grammar (комбинаторная категориальная грамматика) developments and lexicon for Russian language?

I am trying to apply Cornell Semantic Parsing framwork https://github.com/cornell-lic/spf (implementation of Combinatory Categorial Grammars CCG) to Russian language. This framework takes natural ...
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0answers
162 views

Combinatory Categorial Grammar developments and lexicon for German language?

I am trying to apply Cornell Semantic Parsing framework (implementation of Combinatory Categorial Grammars CCG) to the German language. This framework takes natural language texts, learns grammar and ...
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1answer
135 views

What's this punctuating feature of some peoples' English?

What exactly is the name and nature of this odd bit of consistent yet seemingly redundant English found in many forms of colloquial English: "She gave me dates, she did!" "The little lads ran home, ...
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15 views

data sources and/or softwares to get morphological derivation of words

What data sources and/or softwares can generate a list of morphological derivatives for a given English word?
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0answers
54 views

Combinatory Categorial Grammar for inflected languages?

Can combinatory categorial grammars be used for inflected languages like Slavic and Baltic languages? I am aware only of this thesis https://pwmarcz.pl/pm-thesis-final.pdf As far as I have ...
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2answers
3k views

Can anyone explain the difference between nominal and pronominal cases?

Like the title says, can anyone give an explanation on the difference between nominal and pronominal cases?
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1answer
72 views

generic definite article with uncountable/mass nouns after preposition 'of' indicating material

The 'generic' subclass of the definite article treated in the pag. 112, section 1.12.3.1 of the Modern Written Arabic: A Comprehensive Grammar reads as follows "it denotes a generic meaning مائدة من ...
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Portmanteau in Middle Egyptian [closed]

coming here redirected from the history stack. Lacking a proper literal translation for the word benedict in the language –as in "well spoken (of)–", I figured the best would be to create it by ...
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1answer
179 views

What is a half-transitivizer?

I've been learning Greenlandic and I came across this term, and I can't find anything about it online. Can anyone explain it in Layman's terms?
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1answer
142 views

What is the influence of Germanic languages on Esperanto grammar?

I am making a presentation in my class about the influence of Germanic languages on the Esperanto grammar. I was wondering if you could help me further. I already said that Esperanto was a non pro-...
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1answer
785 views

Austronesian Alignment [closed]

Can someone give a brief explanation for it? I heard about it once and I couldn't wrap my head around it, and the Wikipedia article wasn't much help either.
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1answer
924 views

meaning of yek in Persian or Farsi [closed]

I know that in Persian "Man yek sag daraam" means "I have a dog", where: Man = I, sag = dog, daraam = have. What is the purpose of yek? Is it a/an, the indefinite article?
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What does it mean for a grammar to be linear?

What is the definition of a ''linear'' grammar. For instance, there is a class of grammars called ``linear indexed grammars'' which is different from plain ''indexed grammars.'' What does ''linear'' ...
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1answer
186 views

Is there a difference between 'doot' (दूत) and 'dut' (दुत) in Sanskrit? [closed]

I recently came across a verse from RigVeda यदक्रन्दः परथमं जायमान उद्यन समुद्रादुत वा पुरीषात | शयेनस्य पक्षा हरिणस्य बाहू उपस्तुत्यं महि जातं ते अर्वन || Now, I can understand उद्यन समुद्रादुत (...
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2answers
492 views

Intuitive English example of why linguists think natural language grammar is stronger than CFL?

I have a decent understanding of regular languages, CFLs and r.e. sets from a course in computer science theory. I'm just learning about the Chomsky hierarchy. As an English speaker, I have a ...
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2answers
191 views

Has it been argued that linguistics could only have arisen after exposure to foreign languages?

Would concepts like grammar have even been understood/discussed until other languages with different grammars were encountered?
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0answers
149 views

Introductory linguistic theory books [duplicate]

I'm wondering where a good place (or good places) to start learning about linguistic (grammar, syntactic and semantic) theories would be. I'm essentially a complete novice in this domain. Any sort ...
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4answers
207 views

How does the description of the grammar of a language differ between a traditional and scientific approach?

Let me clarify the question, There are traditional grammars to describe the working and structure of languages, mostly with the purpose of teaching someone to speak the languages. So, it is approach ...

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