Questions tagged [greek]

A Hellenic language principally spoken in Greece.

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1answer
85 views

Greek: differences between words marked as αρχαιοπρεπής, λόγιος or παλαιότερα

In my dictionary some words are marked with αρχαιοπρεπής (dated, archaic), λόγιος (learned form) and παλαιότερα (more ancient use). What are the differences, if any, between these terms, and what is ...
4
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1answer
693 views

Why Did Koiné Greek Still Write Double Letters?

Languages develop double consonants and other quirks for different reasons -- English' double consonants were originally developed because the consonants were doubled in speech, like Latin, and that ...
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2answers
195 views

How do we get from Greek τρόπος to French trouver?

The French verb trouver (to find/think) can trace its ancestry back to the Greek word τρόπος, which means a turn, manner, style, or figure of speech. Is there any logic to this seemingly disconnected ...
4
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1answer
142 views

“yotta” in Greek and Armenian

The Armenian word for seven is "yotta", which sounds suspiciously similar to the Greek prefix for a factor of one septillion (though AIUI it comes from the ancient Greek word for eight, not seven). Is ...
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3answers
155 views

Evolution in number of words from Greek to Latin to modern languages

I once read somewhere that Greek used, say, three or four words to express an idea; Latin used five or six words to express the same idea; and nowadays we use eight to ten words to express the same ...
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1answer
254 views

Greek - Arabic language relation

Is there a valid, known link (academic source or even speculation) regarding the Greek and Arabic language, when it comes to syntactic- grammatical or morphological cohesion? I ve only come across ...
2
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1answer
312 views

Transliteration-transcription method for ancient Greek & Arabic

I am currently working on a paper that deals with a Psalm from the Septuagint known as the Violet fragment - LXX, Psalm 77.The particular verses i am interested in, are written in Greek uncials, ...
4
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1answer
665 views

Why Is It That Ancient Greek Reconstructed Pronunciation Is Always Used For Koine?

By the time of Koine greek, in general, it was much the same as today, but I always see the Ancient Greek pronunciation being taught, why is this? Is is it because most people learning koine in ...
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156 views

Reviewing the evidence of the spirantization of β (betacism) in Greek

Although I understand that it is impossible to assign a specific time to any sound change in Greek, I am curious about the spirantization of voiced stops, particularly of beta. I'll present the ...
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3k views

Why can “autarchy” be spelled with an “k” while other words not? [closed]

English has a set of words with "ch", coming — more or less directly — from the Greek language. They all have a /k/ sound. character charisma psychology choreography archive Just to name a few. All ...
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2answers
262 views

Why is there no Ancient Greek noun whose stem ends in an “i”-ending diphthong (like “-ai”)?

Ancient Greek nouns are cassified into three declensions, and we can say that this is largely based on the ending of the stem of the noun. If a noun's stem ends in -ā (or -ē in Attic when not after r, ...
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219 views

Greek words with initial “ia” instead of “a” [closed]

Greek verbs with initial #i+H4- from Arnaud Fournet (May 2017) *H4eH4- ‘to heal, guard’: (1)Hurrian a-tt- ‘to guard, protect’ (2) Greek ἰάομαι ‘to heal’ < *y-ā- (3) The question : why "ia" instead ...
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1answer
3k views

Why does Greek “ναι” mean “yes” while it comes from a PIE root meaning “no”?

According to Wiktionary, the Greek word ναι comes from Ancient Greek ναί, which is a variation of νή, which comes from Proto-Indo-European ne, which means no. Why can a word have the opposite ...
4
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2answers
2k views

Are syllable initial consonant clusters pronounced in Ancient Greek?

A number of loan words and New Latin words derived from Ancient Greek have word initial clusters of a plosive+nasal or dissimilar phonemes like /ps/ or /pt/. I cannot avoid aspirating or inserting a ...
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2answers
468 views

The accentual (Tone) system of Ancient Greek

This question is presented with the help of the sources from Wikipedia. The Greek diacritics were introduced by Aristophanes of Byzantium, which became standard in the Middle Ages. My question is: ...
4
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3answers
905 views

How did the Greek aspirates become fricatives?

When I was studying (classical) Greek as an undergrad, we were told that φ θ χ, that is, the Greek aspirate consonants, have the following phonetic values: [f θ χ] and never it was told to us that ...
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1answer
188 views

Etymology/meaning of (Mount) Kyllene

My unabridged Liddell/Scott does not have any indication of what the name of the Greek Mount "Kyllene" means. Robert Graves in "The Greek Myths" says it means "Twisted Queen." I have seen where he ...
4
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1answer
259 views

Turkish kalem: from Anc. Greek or Tocharian?

Usually the Turkish word kalem 'pen' is shown in etym. dictionaries to derive from Arabic qalam, which in turn derives from Greek κάλαμος. However, I noticed that Tocharian languages have the term ...
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1answer
1k views

Can anyone recommend a good, free, and online Greek-to-English dictionary? [closed]

A translation service is not being requested in the question since they provide word-to-word mappings instead of word-to-meaning explanations. The dictionary may optionally render the Greek word with ...
4
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1answer
256 views

what about ophis Python==ahi Budhnya?

in short : is the equation ὄφις Πύθων == अहि बुध्न्य ahi budʰnya widely accepted by scholars ? Python and Ahi Budhnya/Ahirbudhnya are both a famous serpent, the first one in the Greek mythology, the ...
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3answers
379 views

Etymology of Ancient Greek interrogative particle ἆρα

The Ancient Greek interrogative ἆρα is strikingly similar to modern Persian āyā. Both words exclusively signal yes/no questions, and almost always begin the sentence. There is an accent on the first ...
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2answers
311 views

Why “agoraphobia” not “agorophobia”?

Greek compounds are usually made by combining the roots of two nouns and inserting a linking thematic vowel when it would result in a sequence of two consonants. The vowel is usually -o-, so we have e....
3
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1answer
106 views

Which dictionaries can be considered as the most complete for Modern Greek?

My mother tongue is French so I would prefer one in this language but I'm also interested in English ones, especially if they can be considered of much higher quality/completness. I've heard of the ...
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1answer
1k views

Where did the Greek word diaballein got it's meaning from accusing and divide from? [closed]

διαβάλλειν (dia-ballein) "Dia" means through (by the way of; or from one end or side of something to the other (across); or between) and "ballein" means throwing. Now online there are two ...
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167 views

scansion of iambic trimeter in fragment of Euripides

I am trying to scan a line from a fragment of Euripides Erechtheus (cannot figure out how to write Greek characters here!): - v - -| - - v v v| v- v v os theon bomous patrida te rhuometha ...
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2answers
213 views

Reverse-etymology resources

Are there any resources which, given a Latin or Greek word, reference modern English words derived from the word? I find it much easier to remember a root when I know a word derived from it. For a ...
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2answers
163 views

Is there a strict set of rules retrieving syllables from Greek text?

I'm trying to process language corpus written in Greek and like to split words to syllables. I wonder if there is a programmatical way to do that with a strict set of rules, that can be followed to ...
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2answers
214 views

What is the etymology of ypologistís (Greek, computer)?

Is ypologistís (Greek for computer) derived from, or related to, apologeisthai "to speak in one's defense," from apologos "an account, story," (Etomonline) I have now been informed by Janus ...
2
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1answer
933 views

How “fluent” do professional classicists get in reading Latin and Greek? How do they do it?

I've learned to an intermediate reading level Latin, Greek, Sanskrit and Classical Arabic. As a foreign language teacher, I'm well aware of current SLA research and the focus on communication and ...
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2answers
145 views

When did the concept of constituent movement arise?

As far back as the mid 1700s, William Ward considered the following phrase in An Essay on Grammar applied to the English Language. the flowers which a lady sitting on the seat in a garden views with ...
2
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1answer
394 views

Greek-Gothic Weekday Names in Bavarian

The weekdays in my native language (Bavarian) are very inconsistent and two of them apparently came to us from the Goths, who in turn have adopted them from Greek. The two days in question are "Iada" (...
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1answer
468 views

How close is Ancient Greek to English or French or Spanish?

I.e.: What are the Linguistic Distances of Ancient Greek compared to 2000s English, French, and Spanish? I know that each Indo-European language belongs to its own Language Family: Ancient Greek to ...
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3answers
2k views

Is there a relationship between Arabic ka'b and Greek kybos?

This is a complete layman's question. Online etymology dictionary says about kaaba: 1734, Caaba, cube-shaped building in the Great Mosque of Mecca, containing the Black Stone, the most sacred site ...
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2answers
1k views

Are There Ancient Greek Words Descended From Sumerian?

Does the lexicon of Ancient Greek contain words believed to be of Sumerian origin? If so, can some estimate of their number be provided? Thanks
5
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1answer
608 views

How are dead languages reconstructed?

I'm really interested in Biblical studies, so I've often wondered this about the languages in the Bible. Namely, Greek (Koine), Hebrew, and Aramaic. I've tried looking into it, but I've never really ...
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3answers
17k views

What is the difference between Greek zōē and bios?

Ancient Greek has two words that are translated as life in English: zōē and bios. What is the difference between them? What are their cognates in other Indo-European languages?
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1answer
819 views

Is there any Sanskrit-Greek-Latin-English dictionary available?

Is there any Sanskrit-Greek-Latin-English dictionary [including online] available? I am so much interested in etymological study. I will be grateful for any help.
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83 views

metrical analysis software for ancient greek

Does anyone know any good metrical analysis software for ancient Greek? Which are the best ones and which are the most user friendly?
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2answers
436 views

Why does Greek have 'aorgesia' and 'aorist' rather than 'anorgesia' and 'anorist'?

The Ancient Greek words ἀοργησία aorgesia "a defect in the passion of anger" and ἀόριστος aoristos "without boundaries" both start with the "alpha privatum," the negative prefix cognate to English un- ...
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2answers
83 views

accusative being used to express an origin?

I read in Plutarch (Demosthenes.1) the phrase ὑπάρξαι ‘τὰν πόλιν εὐδόκιμον‘ (~ to be born in ‘a famous city’). (τὰν πόλιν εὐδόκιμον being a quote from (pseudo-?)Euripides' ode to Alcibiades, cf ...
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Literature on the reconstruction of proto-Greek

I usually find scattered proto-Greek word reconstructions, but I never came across literature that focus on the reconstruction of that language. Do you know of any?
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505 views

What is the approximate time of the loss of the intervocalic /s/ in Greek?

Teachers of Ancient Greek at my university have always been emphasising the importance of being aware of the loss of the intervocalic sigma in the language's history, because it helped to understand ...
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2answers
285 views

Calculating writing system efficiency with respect to reading ambiguity?

I have been thinking of developing a software tool that would make it possible to calculate the efficiency of a particular writing system (attested rather than hypothetical) for a particular language (...
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1answer
238 views

Which Ancient Greek term describes adjectives used passively?

A teacher claimed, but forgot, the Ancient Greek term that describes adjectives used passively, as used in the following sentence: The weather has been in a most curious state here since ...
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1answer
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How did the Greek 'tropos' evolve to the Latin 'tropus'?

Etymology [ of French 'trouver' ] From Old French trover, truver, from Vulgar Latin *tropāre, present active infinitive of *tropō, from Latin tropus; confer trope. Etymology [ of Latin '...
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1answer
125 views

How to learn more about contradictory or superfluous affixes efficiently?

Instead of questioning each word's prefixes, how can I learn more productively? E.g. I was researching the etymology of the French verb 'accabler': [I quoted Wiktionary in French; the English ...
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1answer
963 views

scansion of a iambic trimeter

I'm stuck with the scansion of the second of the following lines I read in Euripides' Bacchae : 441 κἀγὼ δι᾽ αἰδοῦς εἶπον : Ὦ ξέν᾽, οὐχ ἑκὼν 442 ἄγω σε Πενθέως δ᾽ ὅς μ᾽ ἔπεμψ᾽ ἐπιστολαῖς. (...
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1answer
260 views

How did '-ikos' evolve into '-ic'?

-ics [<--] in the names of sciences or disciplines (acoustics, aerobics, economics, etc.) it represents a 16c. revival of the classical custom of using the neuter plural of adjectives with -...
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2answers
643 views

How does the Greek 'legein' relate to PIE *leg 'to collect'?

ENTRY: leg- DEFINITION: To collect; with derivatives meaning “to speak.” Oldest form *le-, becoming *leg- in centum languages. [...] 3. lexicon, logion, –logue, –logy; alexia, analects, ...
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1answer
81 views

How did 'litotes' evolve from 'plain, simple'?

litotes (n.) rhetorical figure in which an affirmative is expressed by the negative of its opposite, from Greek litotes, literally "plainness, simplicity," from litos "smooth, plain, small, ...