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The International Phonetic Alphabet: A Latin-based alphabet designed for transcribing all sounds of all languages.

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Dental and labiodental fricatives with different relative positions of the articulators

Are there distinct phonemes for labiodental fricatives articulated with the upper teeth touching the lower lip from the inside (like in English /f/) and ones that are articulated with the tip of the ...
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1answer
76 views

Do Nasal Consonants Require Nostrils?

As far as I can tell, some nasals don't seem to require nasal aspiration. For example, [m] and [n] seem to just involve oral occlusive voicing. I can plug my nose and still make such sounds. It surely ...
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1answer
197 views

What do full stops represent in IPA?

In the IPA spelling of various words, I have often come across versions that use full stops and colons. E.g. I have seen 'county' spelled /kaʊnti/ and also /kaʊ.nti/ and 'courage' as spelled /kʌrɪdʒ/ ...
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87 views

How to transcribe 'courage' in IPA

I am very new to linguistics, and am trying to transcribe the word 'courage' into IPA. I have come across a few different transcriptions, but I think the correct one might be "kʌrɪdʒ". Is this correct?...
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2answers
114 views

Is it possible to read the narrow IPA transcription of one's native/fluent language as effortlessly and quickly as its conventional orthography?

it seems there's no neurolinguistic limit on how many letters can a language's alphabet have (it varies a lot between languages), the IPA is a huge phonetic alphabet, As of the most recent change in ...
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0answers
51 views

How many different vowels can be reliable annotated?

This question is similar to How many different vowels are there? but with a different twist: here I am not interested in the minimal difference between two vowels that can be heard, but in reliable ...
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1answer
81 views

The most relative for ə sound in Arabic

The IPA for "man" in American English is mən. Arabic, however, doesn't have the vowel sound ə. So, what's the most related sound in Arabic? I know there are some short vowels (Harakat) but I don't ...
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115 views

Online tool for IPA pronunciation synthesis

I've already found this tool from 0n0e.com but the problem is that it pronounces the words too quickly. Is there any other phoneme synthesis online which speaks a bit slower?
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1answer
86 views

How do I translate a DARPA phonetic alphabet transcription into an IPA transcription

What's the relationship between the DARPA phonetic alphabet transcription into an IPA transcriptions? Is it possible to map a transcription from one system directly into the other? Is it possible in ...
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2answers
123 views

Choice of phonemic symbol for /b/, /d/, /g/, /ʝ/ in Spanish

Wikipedia states this on the Spanish consonants /b/, /d/, /ɡ/ and /ʝ/: The phonemes /b/, /d/, and /ɡ/ are realized as approximants (namely [β̞, ð̞, ɣ˕]) or fricatives in all places except after a ...
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58 views

Deducing a rule out of set of examples

Consider the following Spanish words, written in IPA (with their English translation): And the same question for middle position and final position My answer is: Initial position: Looking at the ...
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1answer
154 views

What is this phonetic alphabet called?

There is a feature in the macOS speech synthesizer (which takes written text and reads it aloud) for developers which lets you instead enter text and outputs the phonemes that it would read aloud in ...
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1answer
44 views

eSpeak - Use transformation to IPA in Windows

eSpeak is capable of transforming text to IPA, as also mentioned in this question. I want to use the same feature in its Windows version. Is it possible? I have tried a lot, but failed. Thanks for ...
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1answer
32 views

German corpus for grapheme-phoneme (G2P or P2G) mapping

TIMIT is a well known, publicly accessible corpus that contains phonetic and lexicalic transcription of language (American English). A sample sentence of TIMIT looks like: She had your dark suit in ...
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3answers
152 views

The ate-eight split?

The words "ate" and "eight" are supposed to be homophones in English, yet in (thick) Hungarian, Dutch and Swedish accents, they are not homophones. As a native Hungarian-speaker, I will attest to this:...
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0answers
43 views

Glides offset: ɪ/ʊ or j/w? [closed]

I've seen linguistics arguing in favour of using either ɪ/ʊ or j/w sets in glides offset. What are your arguments regarding the use of them?
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45 views

Reading IPA sentence [closed]

I'm trying to read the following sentence. It should be some film or play (English). I'd be glad if you could help me with translating
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16 views

where can i download ipa chart with audio offline? [duplicate]

i have seen (this)[Where can you download the IPA chart with audio?) and can not find any solution to my problem. i want the ipa chart with audio offline. where can i download it from?
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1answer
43 views

Realisations of T - affrication

Spanish T and English T are quite different. I was wondering if the difference is just about laminar/apical realisations. I'm talking about unstressed T; that is, no aspiration included. Recently I ...
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1answer
40 views

Looking for large word list file/db (>1k) with IPA transcriptions

I'm building a mobile app to practice/teach IPA. The idea is you look at a word and then input the correct IPA. I've used some dictionary APIs, but they either: Don't include the IPA If it includes ...
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1answer
63 views

Can anyone send me a link or recommend me a book about IPA diacritics?

What I am interested in knowing is what exactly a specific diacritic does to a sound, and which muscles in the vocal tract are responsible for making those sounds.
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4answers
146 views

Why is the “long i” sound in English written /aɪ/?

The "long i" sound in English, as in "fight" is usually written /aɪ/, so fight = /faɪt/. But /a/ is the sound in "hat", and /ɪ/ is the sound in "hit". When I say the two together it doesn't sound ...
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1answer
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What is the correct way to transcribe an apico-labial nasal in the IPA?

I have decided to include an apico-labial nasal in my latest conlang. The sound is produced by voicing while simultaneously extending the tip of the tongue to touch the upper lip and thus prevent ...
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1answer
585 views

What's the difference between ɐ and a?

I really can't tell the difference between these two. At first I thought that ɐ was something similar to ə, but I'm not sure. I'd appreciate any examples to distinguish these sounds
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2answers
110 views

Is there any International standard for representing phonemes?

While for phones we use IPA but it seems that there is no equivalent for phonemes
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212 views

How did Adolf Hitler pronounce his own name?

Adolf Hitler was an Austrian, who used the alveolar trill [r] in his speech, not the Standard German [ʁ]. This is only to be expected for an Austrian. According to the German Wikipedia, in Austrian ...
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1answer
81 views

Punctuation/Pause character in IPA

Is there any way to get breaks between words in a sentence written using IPA? I have the following IPA sentence: /gaɦi ʃammer gan manuʃer tʃee naɦi kitʃʰu bɔɽɔ naɦi kitʃʰu mɔɦian/ Now, when i play ...
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Conversational IPA

Is there any online dictionary which shows conversational version of phrases e.g. /ə ˈkʌpə tiː/ instead of /ˈə ˈkʌp ˈəv ˈtiː/ ? And if there's no one, where can I obtain conversation versions of ...
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IPA, Why Is It Ordered That Way?

The IPA lists Plosives first, then Nasals, then Trills, then Taps, then Fricatives, then Approximants. Why is it ordered that way? I wondered if it was to do with ease of use. However, it doesn't ...
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1answer
88 views

Can /∅/ be used transliterate silent characters? (I.P.A.)

I am not to well versed in all of the inner and outer workings of the international phonetic alphabet, and I was curious if /∅/, not to be confused with /ø/, could always be used for silent characters....
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Does IPA notation ever get capitalized to match their written counterparts?

Some alphabets capitalize proper nouns, others capitalize all nouns. Does ipa notation ever get capitalized to match their written counterparts? I would assume not, as it might be sending mixed ...
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103 views

Why does Kirshenbaum use ‹r› for [ɹ] and ‹r<trl>› for regular [r]?

The stated goals of the Kirshenbaum transcription are that: It should be usable for both phonemic and narrow phonetic transcription. It should be possible to represent all symbols and ...
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2answers
368 views

Only a pair of brackets in IPA transcription sentence, does it matter?

For the IPA transcription of a whole sentence, does it matter in terms of readability if it only has a pair of brackets encompassing the whole transcription? For instance the transcription for "as ...
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1answer
43 views

What is the difference in articulation between /CjV/ and /CʲV/?

I have been looking into words like "pure" and "cube" and I sometimes get /pʲɔɹ/ and /kʲub/, but other times I get /pjɔɹ/ and /cjub/. I know some Slavic languages make the distinction between those ...
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2answers
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Is there a way to teach the IPA to someone in a written way?

There wont' be any verbal help, just text. I understand it's difficult since the IPA is the Alphabet for the representation of all sounds and if you try to explain rules etc in a language, you are ...
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4answers
467 views

Transform Chinese, Korean, Hebrew and Arabic to IPA

I'm trying to transform texts written in Chinese, Korean, Hebrew, Arabic and other languages with non-latin alphabet to the IPA. For now, I can only think of dictionaries. Are there any other ways? ...
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111 views

Speech Pathologists and the International Phonetic Alphabet

Do speech therapists and speech pathologists have to learn the International Phonetic Alphabet as part of their profession? They might want to learn it, but my question really is: are they required to ...
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141 views

What is the function of the *dot* diacritic, when it converts /ba/ to /ra/ (if it can be called so) in Bengali?

The dot diacritic works for [dzo] to [jo] , for [do] to [ro] and for [dho] to [rho]. But /ba/ and /ra/ are completely unrelated sounds, so what is the dot doing to /ba/?
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683 views

Is there a tool for conversion of IPA into X-Sampa?

I need to transcribe text into X-Sampa, but I am an IPA transcriber, so for simplicity purposes I will transcribe in IPA and will then try to convert into X-Sampa. Is there any tool that would ...
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1answer
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Where to download wav/mp3 files for each of the ipa phoneme?

I would like to be able to build a "word" using IPA symbols (ex:sʌnʃaɪn) and then be able to link together a bunch of .wav files (one per phoneme) and play it... But I need a full set of wav (or mp3 ...
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4answers
338 views

Seeking IPA study aids (symbol memorization, audio recognition, transcription practice)

Native english speaker here. I recently learned from an intro linguistics class that I have abysmal transcription skills. Can you recommend practice software? I think I'm looking for IPA drills on ...
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1answer
190 views

Why do dictionaries use non-standard IPA symbols

"ɛə̯" or "ɛə" can be written as "ea" "ɛː" "ɛ" and "ɛə" in various dictionaries. http://teflpedia.com/IPA_phoneme_/e%C9%99/ I don't see the value as they aren't fixing the non-intuitive nature of ...
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1answer
72 views

The vowels in book and good [closed]

The vowels in 'book' and 'good' are both represented by an inverted omega in the international phonetic alphabet (ʊ), according to the OED. Can it not express their difference? 'Isaac Pitman's ...
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2answers
578 views

IPA to plain simple English translator

I'm working on a website(*) that provides word pronunciation guides for a general audience that cannot be expected to know IPA symbols. It would be enormously helpful to have a tool where I could ...
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Praat: Sound analysis

In Praat after converting stereo sound to mono, the intensity reduced to (-ve) so no sound is produced although the original stereo sound has a max intensity 70 dB !
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4answers
617 views

Anglicisation of the voiceless velar fricative [x]

The voiceless velar fricative [x] is present in the English word yech, and sometimes loch, but is often enunciated as [h] or [k] when English speakers pronounce calques or foreign names. Is [h] or [k]...
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2answers
311 views

Is there a rounded /æ/? Is there a Near-open front rounded vowel?

Okay, so I was just doing a bit of conlanging, and I was coming up with a verb ending /æɸ/. Because of the way I have begun this, /ɸ~ʍ/ are interchangeable. When I first tried saying /æʍ]/ I ...
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1answer
180 views

Did proto-indo-european possess sounds that are not any longer present or rare in modern IE languages?

In the movie Prometheus, David, an Android tasked with maintaining the functions on the space ship while his human comrades are sleeping in cryostatic chambers, is learning PIE during his off-duty ...
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2answers
179 views

Is [x] any different from [kʰ]?

I've been trying to learn German (not really) and I've come across the [x] sound. When I hear audio clips of it, it sounds really similar (almost identical) to [kʰ]. I have [kʰ] in my native language (...
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145 views

near-close front unrounded vowel

I tried to specify what the name of the vowel "I" is in my dialect and it seems that the IPA table doesn't have it on it. Reading up on the definitions I believe that it should be called "near-close ...