Questions tagged [ipa]

The International Phonetic Alphabet: A Latin-based alphabet designed for transcribing all sounds of all languages.

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Why the phonetic /ɔ/ is used in totally two different position?

Why the phonetic /ɔ/ is related to the phonetic /ɑ/ and the phonetic /oʊ/ at the same time even though they're totally different in pronunciation? /ɔ/&/ɑ/ /ɔ/ Awesome, autumn, Australia, Talk, ...
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3 answers
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What is the difference between these three IPA phonetics in American pronunciation?

"ɔ" Like (awesome, autumn, Australia), "ɒ" Like (octopus, October, occupy), "ɑ" Like (arm, art, argument). I know it's going to be hard to explain them in writing, but ...
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2 votes
2 answers
70 views

What does the superscript x in Finnish IPA mean?

IPA transcriptions like /muːtːuɑˣ/ from here show a superscripted x. The Finnish Phonology Wiki page says, in the Sandhi section: Gemination of a morpheme-initial consonant occurs when the morpheme ...
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1 answer
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Does double tone mean long vowel?

After looking into the IPA for some words in tonal languages, I am starting to see things like ăn (Vietnamese), which are transcribed with two like tone marks, like ʔan˧˧. What does it mean when two ...
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Are there languages which have h following a consonant, that contrasts with aspiration?

I am working on a conscript and want to make sure I can handle all of Earth's languages. In some Indian languages they have the aspirated consonants like bh like bhavya. It is basically a breathy b. ...
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2 votes
2 answers
141 views

Does the IPA have a symbol to mark a letter that can be dropped in pronunciation?

I would like to mark a letter in a syllable with some kind of symbol that denotes that the letter can be dropped. Is there a symbol for that in the phonetic alphabet?
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1 vote
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In the IPA transcription do I need to show the global fall/rise before or after the stressed syllable?

I put the global fall symbol (down arrow) after the stressed syllable because it makes more sense to me. The last content word in a though group is where final inflection usually occurs, the syllable ...
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is this sound [ɾ] or [ɹ]?

Here my native language is claimed to have alveolar tap or trill as its rhotic sound but recently I've wondering if it's actually a plain alveolar approximant [ɹ] instead since I noticed that my [ɾ] ...
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2 votes
0 answers
42 views

Is it more correct to use the minor and major foot groups in the IPA than commas and periods?

I transcribed some phrases from TV. This is casual American connected speech: As you can notice I'm using the | and || symbols instead of the commas and periods. Also, I do not show the question mark,...
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1 vote
0 answers
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Is there a database that lists all ways of spelling IPA phonemes?

I'm looking for a list, database, table, etc. of different ways that IPA phonemes (like /f/) can be represented (e.g normally just f, but also the gh in cough).
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1 vote
1 answer
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Why do many languages analyse [e̞] as /ɛ/?

I experience that most analyses of many languages that I know, in particular Swedish, (Flemish) Dutch, Norwegian and Icelandic, analyse the languages' short ⟨e⟩ as /ɛ/, while they sound a lot more ...
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2 votes
1 answer
132 views

Is there an IPA symbol to represent both primary or secondary stress?

I was just wondering if there is an IPA symbol to represent stress in general, be that primary or secondary stress, just one symbol for both?
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1 vote
0 answers
72 views

Full stops to indicate a syllable boundary?

Without syllable boundary: ˈwʌt̚ ˈhæp ənd || With syllable boundary: ˈwʌt̚ ˈhæp.ənd || However I have words that are two syllables and both syllables are stressed: ˈsʌmˌθɪŋz‿ˈaʊt̚ ˈðɛəɹ || As you ...
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6 votes
1 answer
588 views

Why do IPA pronunciations pronounce phones in two ways? 1st on their own. 2nd with a vowel /ɑ/ or schwa in front?

I use IPA and oral cavity videos (is this the correct term?) to master phonemes, while I learn second languages. Examples are [ ʎ̝ ] voiced dorsal palatal lateral fricative, [ ʝ ] voiced dorsal ...
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3 votes
1 answer
540 views

What kind of stress is this?

I found the word "ice-free" is pronounced /ˈˌaɪsˈˌfri/ in Oxford English Dictionary, but what kind of stress is this? Should it be called 'there are two primary stresses and two secondary ...
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IPA symbol for a pause?

I started transcribing some phrases from TV and sometimes there are very short pauses between thoughts when longer phrases are pronounced, like the comma for instance. How can I represent the pauses ...
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3 votes
0 answers
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The dark l sound followed by a vowel sound during linking

the dark L in English is at the end of a word such as "girl", "pencil" or when it is followed by a consonant sound such as "child". I'm curious what is happening with the ...
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6 votes
2 answers
1k views

/ / vs [ ] - when to use which? [duplicate]

I'm a university student studying sound structure. It's a first-year course. No matter how many times it's explained to me in lectures, tutorials, help labs, or office hours -- I don't understand all ...
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7 votes
2 answers
863 views

Why is ʌ an open-mid back unrounded vowel?

Consider: I've been studying the vowel chart recently and I don't understand why ʌ is an open-mid back unrounded vowel. Shouldn’t it be a short low central unrounded vowel like in the chart picture I ...
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2 votes
1 answer
74 views

Concise IPA dictionary

For decades I have used "A Pronouncing Dictionary of American English" by Kenyon and Knott as a concise and accessible tool in learning the IPA. The fact that it's still in print must mean ...
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-4 votes
1 answer
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Why is w not written as ʋ͡ɰ or ɰʷ in IPA? [closed]

For some reason w is used instead of ʋ͡+ɰ or ɰʷ I don't know why
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3 answers
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Is there any other Phonetic notation other than IPA? [duplicate]

I'm wondering is there any other Phonetic notation other than IPA — that is easy to understand by Native English speakers
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1 answer
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is this sound [j]? [closed]

is the sound in this recording [j]? or is it just [i]? I feel like all my post-vocalic /i/'s are Pronounced like [j] but I'm not sure.
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1 answer
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Does IPA characterize every discernable accent?

Can the IPA, or any other formal linguistic system, fully characterize every accent discernable by language speakers? By "accent" I mean regional variations in pronunciation – for example, ...
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1 answer
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What is the difference between <ᵊ> and <ə̆> in IPA?

what is the difference between the usage of these two symbols? aren't they basically the same thing?
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2 answers
68 views

Transcription of Devanagari script

Indian languages have many similar sounds and Devanagari & IAST scripts uniquely distinguish these For Example (not comprehensive) — IAST (Devanagari) t (त) and ṭ (ट) th (थ) and ṭh (ठ) d (द) and ...
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6 votes
1 answer
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How does one transcribe a plosive that involves lip closure AND the velum sealing off the nasal cavity before releasing the air mostly thru the nose?

In the conlang I'm creating, I want the clusters /b/ + a nasal. When I say such a cluster, I find myself realizing the /b/ with simultaneous lip closure and the production of a stop consonant that ...
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4 votes
1 answer
512 views

What symbol, if any, signifies an audible nasal emission in the IPA?

I'm making a conlang and would like to include the consonant clusters /hm/ /hn/ /hɳ/ and /hŋ/ with /h/ realized as an audible nasal emission. I don't have to worry about how these clusters would be ...
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4 votes
1 answer
367 views

What is the difference between [j w] and [i̯ u̯]?

The symbols [i̯] and [u̯] always confused me, like what makes them different from [j] and [w]?
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2 votes
2 answers
143 views

How did the j get the dʒ sound?

The j getting the dʒ is very weird, how did the letter j get the dʒ sound? Why not a /j/ sound as in "yes"?
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1 answer
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is my Pronounciation of [ɤ] and french nasal vowels and [ɲ] correct?

Right now I'm trying to learn how to pronounce different vowel sounds in IPA and i wonder if I'm Pronouncing [ɤ] right. ɤ I've been trying to learning French for a long time and I wonder if my ...
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-1 votes
1 answer
82 views

is this a schwa?

Today, out of interest I tried to unround the /o/ sound of my native language and I got this vowel sound, is this vowel a schwa?
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1 answer
95 views

What is the phonetic transcription of the vowel sounds in these recordings?

I'm really interested what those vowels are phonetically, sorry if there's anything wrong with the audio, I recorded it with my phone. recording 1: https://voca.ro/1eAvg2BdKK0q recording 2: https://...
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13 votes
1 answer
567 views

What's the difference between a syllabic consonant and a schwa followed by a consonant?

I'm a native speaker of a language which has syllabic consonants, here are the examples კლდე/k'lde, [kʼl̩dɛ] "cliff" ქრთამი/krtami, [kʰɾ̩tʰami] "bribe" ბრძენი/brdzeni, [bɾ̩d͡zɛni] &...
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1 vote
2 answers
94 views

How does r-coloring impact phonological analysis?

Edit: I realized I asked this very confusingly. I think what I really should have said was, are there any phonemic implications to r-coloring? Or thinking about it slightly differently, is there a ...
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0 answers
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What are the sounds that define the r-controlled vowels?

For all the r-colored vowels like ɑr, ɔr, ɛr, and ɪr, I keep hearing this extra vowel sound in between the vowel and the r. This isn’t the case for ər/ɜr since this just sounds like the r sound to me, ...
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3 votes
2 answers
157 views

How to exactly pronounce IPA

I'm a native Korean speaker, and I somtimes have trouble pronuncing some of the sounds which is not used or not distinguished in Korean. For example, ɛ and e are equivalent to Korean phoneme ㅐ and ㅔ. ...
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0 votes
2 answers
109 views

IPA confusion, difference between these vowels?

I am having trouble hearing the difference between these vowels based on this website for the IPA and would appreciate if someone could tell me the differences and how to pronounce them. ʊ and ø ə ...
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2 votes
2 answers
201 views

Finding phonetic similarity of names in different languages

I am trying to come up with a way using Python to find phonetic similarities between how differently written names with different meanings in different languages might sound alike. Names can be ...
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1 answer
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Why isn't there a [mj]/m̃ in the IPA?

We all know the nasal ɲ, found in a variety of languages including the Spanish ñ. However, instead of n, why not m or more specifically [mj]? Why are these 2 consonants not considered one, unlike [nj] ...
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1 vote
1 answer
58 views

Wikipedia sound samples: vocal fry?

In seems to me that in Wikipedia's sound samples for the vowel sounds, there's often some vocal fry, especially in the back vowels. Vowels like ɑ æ ä e and to a lesser extent: ɤ o ɜ œ. Do you concur? ...
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0 votes
1 answer
128 views

Is there any articulatory difference between these two IPA symbols?

Is there an articulatory difference between the voiced palatal nasal [ɲ] sound and the nasalized voiced palatal approximant [j̃] sound? If there is a diference, what is it? I ask that because in ...
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When enclosing a phonetical annotation, what are the differences between [] and //? [duplicate]

When enclosing a phonetical annotation, what are the differences between [] and //? Are they not completely equivalent?
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  • 109
7 votes
3 answers
2k views

/t͡ʃ/ vs. /ʧ/ vs. /tʃ/

In English for example, the "ch" sound (as in China) is sometimes written as /t͡ʃ/, other times as /ʧ/ or simply as /tʃ/. Similarly, I have seen the German "tz" (e.g. Katze) ...
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-2 votes
1 answer
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How do you transcribe these sounds you make in IPA?

Uvular ejective fricative χʼ? I don’t know. It seems not. https://youtu.be/3u65Dk1bqWg?t=584 https://youtu.be/d3oBs5TljNE?t=8193 https://youtu.be/B2FkJVj2hj4?t=39 https://youtu.be/quF-CDV3K68?t=223 ...
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1 vote
1 answer
94 views

Has anyone ever ranked the prevalence of phones by number of speakers worldwide?

I'm interested in knowing the most-used and least-used phones worldwide. According to Wikipedia, the IPA charts about 140 pulmonic consonants, 80 non-pulmonic consonants, 30 co-articulated consonants, ...
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  • 111
7 votes
1 answer
256 views

Does the orientation of the voiced uvular fricative IPA symbol (ʁ) not matter, or are these fonts buggy?

The symbol for voiced uvular fricative in IPA is ʁ (an inverted small uppercase letter "R"), but I have noticed that this symbol is not displayed consistently depending on where it is pasted ...
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  • 73
0 votes
1 answer
120 views

Why does IPA have only finitely many symbols? Isn't the human voice box capable of producing a continuous range of sounds?

There are two things I've noticed: Every language has only finitely many sounds in it IPA, which is a notation for representing all possible sounds in all possible languages, has only finitely many ...
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  • 109
0 votes
2 answers
175 views

How can I find IPA charts that pairs each language's phonemes, with a common word feat. that phoneme in that language?

How can I find equivalents to the following chart (for American English), but for the world's currently most spoken e-languages? E.g., the chart for Modern German must SCHEMATICALLY map out each of ...
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1 vote
1 answer
135 views

Simple Way to Determine if IPA Words Rhyme (English)

As a follow-up to my question at Mathematics of Rhyme (perfect, slant), I have been able to map most English words to IPA using a mix of custom code and a dictionary stored at flancast90.github.io. ...
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