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Questions tagged [ipa]

The International Phonetic Alphabet: A Latin-based alphabet designed for transcribing all sounds of all languages.

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0answers
71 views

Why do we transcribe the vowel sound in 'how' as /aʊ/?

The diphthong /aʊ/ doesn't really make sense to me as a transcription. I'm a Southern British English speaker, and when I say and hear 'how' it sounds to me like /hæɒw/. /a/ doesn't seem to exist as ...
0
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1answer
49 views

What does a long mid-high unrounded back vowel sound like?

I'm trying to figure out what the Livonian character ȱ sounds like. As far as I can tell, it's a long mid-high unrounded back vowel. In IPA it seems to be written as /ɤː/ but that seems to be a non-...
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3answers
103 views

Why are two versions of a word written in the same IPA pronounced differently?

My question is to be applied on any language; why do I find for instance two versions of the same word written in the same IPA symbols pronounced differently, in case of different accents for example. ...
2
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2answers
88 views

Do any modern orthographies use capital esh?

The letter "esh" (ʃ) is well-known from the IPA, and is also used in some languages' orthographies. Because of this second use case, Unicode includes a capital esh at U+01A9 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER ESH (...
2
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0answers
43 views

What is the difference between ŋ͡͡j and ɲ? [duplicate]

I was thinking about how a "b̃" is the same thing as an "m" and a "s̪" is the same thing as a "θ". Maybe the same applies to ŋ͡͡j and ɲ?
5
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2answers
274 views

Question about nasal vowels in IPA

Probably a silly question, but why are there no nasal vowels in IPA charts? Should we assume that nasal vowels are placed in the same position as the corresponding oral vowels in the vocal chart? So ...
3
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2answers
250 views

IPA Pronunciation of Unvoiced Consonants Seems Like Voiced

This might be a trivial question, but it seems to me that certain unvoiced example pronunciations for IPA sounds resemble the voiced one. For example, on this site: http://www....
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0answers
69 views

Is it appropriate to say that [ɕ] is an intermediate form of [ʃ ç]?

The description is found in a paper about the German fricatives https://www.degruyter.com/view/j/labphon.2014.5.issue-1/lp-2014-0005/lp-2014-0005.xml How do the three sound differ from each other in ...
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1answer
61 views

What is the maximum number of IPA diacritics that can be added on a vowel?

What would the symbol look like, and how would it sound like? E.g. a long rhotacized nasalized vowel with tone?
1
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1answer
99 views

What the palatalized [ʲ] means

So I'm pretty sure I understand labialized [ʷ] and some of the other superscripts, but I don't fully understand palatalized [ʲ]. An example of palatalized is Abkhaz, Selkup, Bulgarian, and Yanesha. ...
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1answer
87 views

What IPA does in these complex cases

I'm trying to think of examples where the IPA symbols get really complex, and find phonologies with those symbols. I'm not quite there in understanding all the aspects of IPA, but I wanted to see if ...
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2answers
75 views

System for intermixing IPA with Orthography

So in English the word hi sounds like /haɪ/, but can be spelled "hi", "high", etc. So if you wanted to define the word "high" in English you would have to write two things: high (the spelling/...
2
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2answers
118 views

Given both a word and the corresponding IPA, how to match/map the letters together?

Given both the word and the corresponding IPA equivalent, is there any stable algorithm for mapping the letter of each word to the IPA letter? For example, given close-quote and IPA kloʊzkwoʊt -- I'd ...
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2answers
106 views

Some questions on pieces missing from the IPA sheet [closed]

So the tilde used on the top vs. the bottom means different things (nasal vs. creaky voice). This got me wondering if the [ ̥ ] ring means anything differently when it is on the top as seen here ŋ̊. ...
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1answer
56 views

Accurately representing stress

Wondering how to accurately represent stress. In IPA, stress, is marked with ˈ◌. But in languages like Spanish (don't know of other languages that use acute accent, other than Ancient Greek), you have ...
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1answer
50 views

How to annotate the difference between blended vowels and non-blended vowels

Similar to this question about consonants, I'm wondering how you annotate with IPA (or any other system if IPA doesn't support it) the difference between blending vowels together (morphing between ...
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1answer
53 views

If diacritics cause duplication in IPA

So in first learning the IPA I went through the consonants and the vowels. This is confusing because in the consonants chart you see stuff like [d̪] or [ʎ̥˔]. At first I thought these were just some ...
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1answer
43 views

How to annotate “popping” vs. non-popping sounds of sequential consonants

How to write (orthography) words in a distinct way to capture the essence of these pronunciations (I'll try to use IPA but probably will do it wrong so adding another variation). hip /hɪp/ hipo /hɪpo/...
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1answer
34 views

How to write IPA for a slovenian word Midva? [closed]

can someone please help me how to write the pronunciation for the word "Midva" that English speaking people will understand? In Slovene it is [ˈmiːdva]
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1answer
81 views

General American English words for IPA vowel sounds

Looking at the Danish vowels, it came up with this translation: a hat ɑ art ɑː father ʌ off ɒ og ɒː dog æ bet æː bed e face ɛ ? eː phase ɛː ? i leaf iː leave o oak ɔ thought ...
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1answer
172 views

The difference between [h] and [ħ]

I am trying to tell the difference between [h] and [ħ]. I get the technical difference of pharyngeal vs. glottal, but I don't see how it's possible to control those two regions of your anatomy ...
2
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1answer
116 views

What parentheses and tildes mean in IPA / phonology chart

Why some symbols in phonology charts are put in parentheses or brackets, such as (z), or [ɲ], and why there is a tilde ~ in some places, such as dz [dʒ ~ dz]. Wondering what that means exactly, if it ...
1
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1answer
93 views

Missing IPA symbols

Sometimes phonologies have symbols that I haven't seen in the IPA, such as ᵘa or k͜xʰ. Wondering how I go about finding out what these mean, and/or why they don't use the IPA symbols. Wondering if ...
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2answers
312 views

When should I use /ə/ or /ɪ/ and why does it seem like they're not used correctly?

So I'm trying to learn the vowel sounds of the IPA, and I'm looking at the words "temerity" and "moment" in AmE. What is especially confusing is that first word, where wiktionary lists the ...
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1answer
86 views

How these close sounds are distinguished in native language

This is not a comprehensive list but just a few snippets from languages that have a few consonants that sound pretty much the same to me. I wanted to ask how I can learn to hear the difference between ...
0
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1answer
32 views

Audio library for all IPA vowels and consonants

Wikipedia has a pretty good intro to the IPA sounds, even some of the "click" sounds: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Help:IPA https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IPA_vowel_chart_with_audio https://en....
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2answers
150 views

Germanic Philology: “translate” a word from indoeuropean language to the germanic language

I'm having a philology test next week. One of the questions will be to "translate" an indoeuropean word into a germanic word, like: i.e. Agros -> germanic Akraz (i.e. "g" --> germ. "k" for Grimm's Law,...
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1answer
98 views

Diagram of all IPA sound places

Wondering if there is a diagram similar to the following one, but that lists all of the mouth configurations such as for ʃ and everything else.
2
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4answers
172 views

Why d͡z is not considered two consonants

Wondering why d͡z is not considered two consonants. Same with p͡f, t͡s, etc.
5
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2answers
95 views

Can we simulate the pronunciation of sounds that we can't make?

There's certain non-filled places in the IPA chart because we physically can't pronounce them. For example, a velar trill or glottal trill. Using computers, is it possible that we could simulate how ...
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2answers
52 views

If any of these stranger human voice sounds have IPA annotations

Wondering if the following sounds have written transcriptions / annotations in IPA or any other system: Snooring sound (breathing in, "hoooonk" is a trill of some sort, then the breathing out "shoo" ...
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3answers
187 views

If these letter pairs are used to distinguish two words in any language

Wondering if there are languages in which there are 2 words, 1 containing letter (a) and the other containing letter (b), such that they sound pretty much the same, yet they mean different things. The ...
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3answers
102 views

The anatomy of the L sound

Starting to learn the IPA and having a few questions. One is about the L sound. Here are the L sounds I've seen: l l̥ ɬ (No language uses this). ɫ: both velarization and pharyngealization lˠ (...
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1answer
74 views

Do animal sounds have linguistic symbols or classifications?

Wondering if animal sounds have any formal classification or linguistics symbols like the IPA. For example: Chicken sounds (pretty awesome, done by a human) Cat sounds (purr, like trilled t, or ...
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1answer
197 views

Complete list of sounds in all languages (IPA)

Wondering if there is a list of all the IPA sound combinations and how to pronounce them. Searching brings up a bunch of partial and not too well done lists, so wondering if there is a standard or ...
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1answer
34 views

Dental and labiodental fricatives with different relative positions of the articulators

Are there distinct phonemes for labiodental fricatives articulated with the upper teeth touching the lower lip from the inside (like in English /f/) and ones that are articulated with the tip of the ...
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1answer
99 views

Do Nasal Consonants Require Nostrils?

As far as I can tell, some nasals don't seem to require nasal aspiration. For example, [m] and [n] seem to just involve oral occlusive voicing. I can plug my nose and still make such sounds. It surely ...
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1answer
247 views

What do full stops represent in IPA?

In the IPA spelling of various words, I have often come across versions that use full stops and colons. E.g. I have seen 'county' spelled /kaʊnti/ and also /kaʊ.nti/ and 'courage' as spelled /kʌrɪdʒ/ ...
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1answer
137 views

How to transcribe 'courage' in IPA

I am very new to linguistics, and am trying to transcribe the word 'courage' into IPA. I have come across a few different transcriptions, but I think the correct one might be "kʌrɪdʒ". Is this correct?...
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2answers
136 views

Is it possible to read the narrow IPA transcription of one's native/fluent language as effortlessly and quickly as its conventional orthography?

it seems there's no neurolinguistic limit on how many letters can a language's alphabet have (it varies a lot between languages), the IPA is a huge phonetic alphabet, As of the most recent change in ...
3
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0answers
69 views

How many different vowels can be reliable annotated?

This question is similar to How many different vowels are there? but with a different twist: here I am not interested in the minimal difference between two vowels that can be heard, but in reliable ...
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1answer
105 views

The most relative for ə sound in Arabic

The IPA for "man" in American English is mən. Arabic, however, doesn't have the vowel sound ə. So, what's the most related sound in Arabic? I know there are some short vowels (Harakat) but I don't ...
6
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1answer
134 views

Online tool for IPA pronunciation synthesis

I've already found this tool from 0n0e.com but the problem is that it pronounces the words too quickly. Is there any other phoneme synthesis online which speaks a bit slower?
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1answer
149 views

How do I translate a DARPA phonetic alphabet transcription into an IPA transcription

What's the relationship between the DARPA phonetic alphabet transcription into an IPA transcriptions? Is it possible to map a transcription from one system directly into the other? Is it possible in ...
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2answers
206 views

Choice of phonemic symbol for /b/, /d/, /g/, /ʝ/ in Spanish

Wikipedia states this on the Spanish consonants /b/, /d/, /ɡ/ and /ʝ/: The phonemes /b/, /d/, and /ɡ/ are realized as approximants (namely [β̞, ð̞, ɣ˕]) or fricatives in all places except after a ...
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2answers
116 views

Deducing a rule out of set of examples

Consider the following Spanish words, written in IPA (with their English translation): And the same question for middle position and final position My answer is: Initial position: Looking at the ...
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1answer
166 views

What is this phonetic alphabet called?

There is a feature in the macOS speech synthesizer (which takes written text and reads it aloud) for developers which lets you instead enter text and outputs the phonemes that it would read aloud in ...
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1answer
72 views

eSpeak - Use transformation to IPA in Windows

eSpeak is capable of transforming text to IPA, as also mentioned in this question. I want to use the same feature in its Windows version. Is it possible? I have tried a lot, but failed. Thanks for ...
1
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1answer
49 views

German corpus for grapheme-phoneme (G2P or P2G) mapping

TIMIT is a well known, publicly accessible corpus that contains phonetic and lexicalic transcription of language (American English). A sample sentence of TIMIT looks like: She had your dark suit in ...
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3answers
173 views

The ate-eight split?

The words "ate" and "eight" are supposed to be homophones in English, yet in (thick) Hungarian, Dutch and Swedish accents, they are not homophones. As a native Hungarian-speaker, I will attest to this:...