Questions tagged [ipa]

The International Phonetic Alphabet: A Latin-based alphabet designed for transcribing all sounds of all languages.

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0 answers
74 views

Why is schwa considered 'one' sound when it can be pronounced many ways?

I have almost no linguistics knowledge, but apparently schwa is the 'A's in America, the the 'e' in problem, or the O in complete. It's always an unstressed vowel and I guess it's like if you could ...
0 votes
1 answer
60 views

Lip rounding doesn't transform the close-mid back vowels into each other, so why is the only difference between their names roundedness?

I don't understand why ⟨o⟩ is called the "close-mid back rounded vowel" while ⟨ɤ⟩ is called the "close-mid back unrounded vowel" - they sound completely different and they feel ...
4 votes
4 answers
450 views

Given both a word and the corresponding IPA, how to match/map the letters together?

Given both the word and the corresponding IPA equivalent, is there any stable algorithm for mapping the letter of each word to the IPA letter? For example, given close-quote and IPA kloʊzkwoʊt -- I'd ...
-1 votes
2 answers
305 views

is my Pronounciation of [ɤ] and french nasal vowels and [ɲ] correct?

Right now I'm trying to learn how to pronounce different vowel sounds in IPA and i wonder if I'm Pronouncing [ɤ] right. ɤ I've been trying to learning French for a long time and I wonder if my ...
1 vote
1 answer
109 views

Why don’t consonants have a definite pitch?

Is it because consonants are too fast or too slow that we perceive them as indefinite pitches?
3 votes
2 answers
484 views

Do any modern orthographies use capital esh?

The letter "esh" (ʃ) is well-known from the IPA, and is also used in some languages' orthographies. Because of this second use case, Unicode includes a capital esh at U+01A9 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER ESH (...
-2 votes
1 answer
367 views

Strange Vocal Trills (L, Th, and Q)

I’m currently spending my quarantine working on the language for my novel. The language is alien-like, so I wanted to make it extremely difficult in it’s phonology. There are several trills. The ...
2 votes
1 answer
240 views

How to type IPA quickly on Mac?

I want shortcuts (pre-existing or customised) for IPA symbols. I've installed IPA Unicode keyboard, which works fine on notes/ google docs but not on pages. I don't have ms word. Keyman does not come ...
1 vote
2 answers
849 views

Can /∅/ be used transliterate silent characters? (I.P.A.)

I am not to well versed in all of the inner and outer workings of the international phonetic alphabet, and I was curious if /∅/, not to be confused with /ø/, could always be used for silent characters....
8 votes
4 answers
2k views

Why in English words is [o] followed by [ʊ]?

The close-mid back rounded vowel is usually diphthongized to [oʊ] or [əʊ] in North America and respectively, Britain. Examples: row, also. In fact, in the Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary I ...
0 votes
3 answers
145 views

UCS IPA Extensions: can LATIN SMALL LETTER R WITH FISHHOOK (U+027E) be written without a fishhook?

WARNING: this question is misleading. See my answer below. Apologies and many thanks to drammock and Draconis for their answers too. In general, for example in Times New Roman, U+027E has a fishhook ...
-1 votes
2 answers
204 views

Can someone explain the ambiguity of the vowel [ø] and null segment [∅]?

Typically the IPA avoids using the same glyph in different scales to represent similar ideas however it seems to me that the representation of the Close-mid Front Rounded Vowel [ø] and the null marker ...
2 votes
1 answer
130 views

What is the name of the "clicky" t sound used in some british accents in words like "little" and "mental"?

Emma Stone tries to replicate it here. It's not a glottal stop; the t is definitely being pronounced in the mouth and not the throat. It's almost exclusively used when a "t" sound is ...
1 vote
1 answer
69 views

What would an IPA narrow transcription be for Finnish /d/?

From Finnish Sound Structure (Suomi, Toivonen, Ylitalo): The Finnish /d/ is apical alveolar, and the duration of its occlusion is very short, about half of that of /t̪/, ceteris paribus, see e.g. ...
-2 votes
1 answer
182 views

Why does the French consonant "b" sound so different from the "b" in the IPA chart (with audio)?

Why does the French consonant "b" sound so different from the "b" in the IPA chart (with audio)? I have compared many IPA chart audios, and the "b" in all IPA charts I ...
2 votes
2 answers
102 views

What's the nasal phoneme before the "n" in "didn't"?

I've noticed that, in informal American english, we don't pronounce the word "didn't" exactly as /ˈdɪd(ə)nt/. There's a nasal sound right before the "n" that sound a bit like the /...
2 votes
3 answers
299 views

Is DŽ actually ĎŽ?

I am from the Czech Republic, and one thing that has always bothered me is that a lot of English (and other) loanwords were written in Czech with "dž" in place of the English J, e.g. "...
1 vote
2 answers
172 views

Is there any reliable way to organize phonemes that aren't in the IPA?

I'm coming up with an idea for a game that simulates the evolution of languages, but to do that and make it the most realistic, I would need to put in the sounds that the IPA says are possible but we ...
3 votes
3 answers
2k views

Is there a rounded /æ/? Is there a Near-open front rounded vowel?

Okay, so I was just doing a bit of conlanging, and I was coming up with a verb ending /æɸ/. Because of the way I have begun this, /ɸ~ʍ/ are interchangeable. When I first tried saying /æʍ]/ I ...
3 votes
3 answers
5k views

When should I use /ə/ or /ɪ/ and why does it seem like they're not used correctly?

So I'm trying to learn the vowel sounds of the IPA, and I'm looking at the words "temerity" and "moment" in AmE. What is especially confusing is that first word, where wiktionary lists the ...
2 votes
1 answer
226 views

Is this diagram accurate for [ɾʲ]

I've been having trouble realizing the /ɾʲ/ sound in Irish, and I wanted to know if I am interpreting the IPA correctly. I find it very difficult to tap the alveolus with my tongue raised to the ...
0 votes
1 answer
63 views

If you hear three sounds in the pronunciation of wuss, are they correctly described?

Go here https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/wuss and play the pronunciation. I hear the semiconsonant/semivowel /w/ clearly, but then to me follows a short /ə/ or a sound more to the Romanian /ɨ/ than the ...
2 votes
3 answers
214 views

Is there any sound change that can result in /ɞ/?

I am making a conlang where one of the distinctive sounds is /ɞ/. It is a rare vowel sound, and I searched Index Diachronica but couldn't find a sound change that results in it. The sound also does ...
0 votes
1 answer
149 views

Why are the coronal approximants so different from the others?

I’m aware that there has been some criticism of the IPA’s classification of approximants, as well as debate over the merit of the term itself. However, my understanding is that approximants are the ...
2 votes
1 answer
149 views

Most and least common places of articulation across world's languages

Which place of articulation is most common for oral pulmonic stops in the world's languages? In order, which places of articulation are the LEAST common in the world's languages? In order, which ...
2 votes
1 answer
82 views

How exactly are vowel qualities plotted on a neat quadrilateral chart?

How exactly are vowel qualities of a particular speaker, or average qualities of the speakers of an accent, plotted on a neat quadrilateral chart like these (from the Wikipedia articles for Received ...
0 votes
2 answers
89 views

How can we represent a stressed monosyllabic word?

According to Wiktionary, in Chinese, the word 是 means "truly; indeed" when it is stressed. However, according to Wikipedia, it appears that the concept of word stress is not applicable to a ...
17 votes
8 answers
3k views

Is it feasible to create an IPA adaptation for cats?

I was trying to transcribe my cat's noises into IPA. For example, her wanting to be petted is like [njæː] or [njaː]. But purring doesn't seem to fit any existing notation, except maybe [ʜ]. Has anyone ...
0 votes
3 answers
227 views

Why is the vowel in “caught” in General American English transcribed to /ɔ/

The /ɔ/ sounds (as in “caught”/“bought”) in RP and GA sound very distinct to me. The one in GA sounds more like /ɒ/ to me. Why isn’t it transcribed to /ɒ/ in the dictionary? And I wonder what the ...
1 vote
0 answers
53 views

Swedish dalmål "ö" pronounciation

I speak swedish with a heavy dalmål accent and my pronounciation of the swedish ö feels most similar to ɤ̞ in the IPA chart since my tongue is pretty far back. I could not find this mentioned anywhere ...
34 votes
6 answers
10k views

Is it hard for software speech synthesisers to handle IPA? If so, why?

Yesterday on ELU, the IPA sequence ˌoʊkeɪˈhiːɹjəˌgoʊ was posted in a comment. I'm not very familiar with IPA, so I thought the easiest way to "decode" that would be through a software speech ...
0 votes
1 answer
51 views

recommendations on turkish-->ipa dictionary

Preferably a research-quality text. It doesn't need to be edited in English necessarily; and can be based on any dialect or standardization since the republics founding. I'm not a native speaker, so I ...
0 votes
1 answer
1k views

What is the difference between traditional and modern IPA?

I have recently come across this while researching the phonetic spelling for "love", and I have come across a website (the website) that had both traditional and modern IPA spellings (with ...
-4 votes
2 answers
136 views

What written notation is used in IPA for the letter "A" in the English words "hand", "man", "and", et cetra?

In American English, the letter "A" is pronounced at least five different ways. What written symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is used for the vowel, or vowel group, shown ...
0 votes
2 answers
149 views

Why does the IPA use four main vowel heights?

Because vowels exist at infinitely precise points on large acoustic and articulatory spectrums (vowel spaces), the study of phonetics uses generalized waypoints to describe them. The International ...
0 votes
2 answers
91 views

Can broad and narrow transcription be distinguished by whether a transcription makes use of diacritics?

When doing transcription of English (British or American) in IPA, is broad transcription exactly the kind of transcription which doesn't make use diacritics, and narrow transcription the kind which ...
-1 votes
2 answers
200 views

Is the vowel quadrilateral in IPA 3 by 2 or 3 by 3?

I found some difference between the vowel quadrilateral from https://www.internationalphoneticassociation.org/IPAcharts/IPA_chart_orig/pdfs/IPA_Kiel_2020_full.pdf and the one from https://pressbooks....
0 votes
2 answers
38 views

How are the varying boundaries of phonemes across idiolects and dialects objectively described?

I am taking a language I know nothing about as an example. In Vietnamese, I am told “hello” is *Xin chào”, pronounced |sin tʃaw|, with a mid tone like saying “aaah” at the doctor, and a falling tone ...
3 votes
2 answers
2k views

Is there an API that converts a word into an IPA Transcriptions?

We want to automatically generate the IPA Transcription for a person's name when we create a record for them in our application. Does anyone know of an API service that can do this?
10 votes
1 answer
665 views

How close are the Italian and the Romanian open central unrounded vowels?

The "a" sound in Italian and Romanian, is identified as the central unrounded vowel and represented as being practically identical, very close to [ä]. Although a is used in these images to ...
2 votes
1 answer
116 views

The pronunciation of nasalized cardinal vowels

I hope to find the standard pronunciations of nasalized cardinal vowels and English vowels. Where can these pronunciations be found? I looked for them in many places. But they can’t be found in IPA’s ...
2 votes
1 answer
185 views

Phonemic transcriptions for English compound words

I have a question about the phonemic transcription for compound words in English. Is there a general rule? Specifically, Should there be space/hyphen/no space between each element in a compound? How ...
7 votes
2 answers
717 views

What does it mean when a phoneme represented by one IPA is "phonetically" a different IPA?

I have been studying Hungarian and its pronunciation for a long time, using references such as the Hungarian Phonology Wikipedia page and comparing that to the General American Phonology page. The ...
14 votes
4 answers
4k views

Is there a difference between /ɕ/ and /sʲ/?

Are /ɕ/ and /ʑ/ simply shorthand for /sʲ/ and /zʲ/ as with many of the possible diacritic combinations in IPA or are they different sounds? If they are the same, is there any good reason to use one ...
-3 votes
3 answers
168 views

Bilabial speech sounds with lower lip inserted between teeth

I have noticed the existence of several phones that can be produced with a place of articulation that I haven't seen discussed before. Basically, the two lips contact each other (as in bilabial sounds)...
1 vote
2 answers
220 views

Single syllable breakdown of the word strawberry in IPA

My intro linguistics class was doing a demonstration of how to break up single syllables into their vowel trees. We came up with three different interrpretations and were looking for more opinions. ...
-1 votes
1 answer
51 views

What transliteration/romanization scheme does Strong's Hebrew Dictionary use?

I can't find anywhere a description of how to convert the Strong Hebrew Dictionary pronunciation transliteration entries into IPA, or a close approximation to IPA. What romanization scheme are they ...
0 votes
2 answers
344 views

There are roughly 46 speech sounds in the English language, however only 26 letters. Why?

There are roughly 44-46 speech sounds in the English language. However, we just have 26 letters which denote some of those 44-46 sounds. Why is that? Why we don't represent each of those 44-46 sounds ...
0 votes
0 answers
34 views

Is there any free API that can translate from French to IPA? [duplicate]

I have invented a language that actually is just French but each phoneme is replaced by another one. So to build an application that can translate from French to that language, I need the phonetics of ...
-1 votes
1 answer
457 views

Is there a difference between /tʲ/ (palatalized t) and /kʲ/ (palatalized k)? [closed]

I've noticed that what some languages refer to as "soft k" and others as "soft t" seems to be the same sound. Is it so? I was able to find a wiki page discussing the "soft g&...

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