Questions tagged [ipa]

The International Phonetic Alphabet: A Latin-based alphabet designed for transcribing all sounds of all languages.

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1answer
198 views

Missing IPA symbols

Sometimes phonologies have symbols that I haven't seen in the IPA, such as ᵘa or k͜xʰ. Wondering how I go about finding out what these mean, and/or why they don't use the IPA symbols. Wondering if ...
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3answers
2k views

When should I use /ə/ or /ɪ/ and why does it seem like they're not used correctly?

So I'm trying to learn the vowel sounds of the IPA, and I'm looking at the words "temerity" and "moment" in AmE. What is especially confusing is that first word, where wiktionary lists the ...
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2answers
268 views

How these close sounds are distinguished in native language

This is not a comprehensive list but just a few snippets from languages that have a few consonants that sound pretty much the same to me. I wanted to ask how I can learn to hear the difference between ...
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1answer
128 views

Audio library for all IPA vowels and consonants

Wikipedia has a pretty good intro to the IPA sounds, even some of the "click" sounds: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Help:IPA https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IPA_vowel_chart_with_audio https://en....
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232 views

Germanic Philology: “translate” a word from indoeuropean language to the germanic language

I'm having a philology test next week. One of the questions will be to "translate" an indoeuropean word into a germanic word, like: i.e. Agros -> germanic Akraz (i.e. "g" --> germ. "k" for Grimm's Law,...
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796 views

Diagram of all IPA sound places

Wondering if there is a diagram similar to the following one, but that lists all of the mouth configurations such as for ʃ and everything else.
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4answers
358 views

Why d͡z is not considered two consonants

Wondering why d͡z is not considered two consonants. Same with p͡f, t͡s, etc.
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346 views

Can we simulate the pronunciation of sounds that we can't make?

There's certain non-filled places in the IPA chart because we physically can't pronounce them. For example, a velar trill or glottal trill. Using computers, is it possible that we could simulate how ...
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148 views

If any of these stranger human voice sounds have IPA annotations

Wondering if the following sounds have written transcriptions / annotations in IPA or any other system: Snooring sound (breathing in, "hoooonk" is a trill of some sort, then the breathing out "shoo" ...
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264 views

If these letter pairs are used to distinguish two words in any language

Wondering if there are languages in which there are 2 words, 1 containing letter (a) and the other containing letter (b), such that they sound pretty much the same, yet they mean different things. The ...
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3answers
453 views

The anatomy of the L sound

Starting to learn the IPA and having a few questions. One is about the L sound. Here are the L sounds I've seen: l l̥ ɬ (No language uses this). ɫ: both velarization and pharyngealization lˠ (...
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297 views

Do animal sounds have linguistic symbols or classifications?

Wondering if animal sounds have any formal classification or linguistics symbols like the IPA. For example: Chicken sounds (pretty awesome, done by a human) Cat sounds (purr, like trilled t, or ...
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1answer
2k views

Complete list of sounds in all languages (IPA)

Wondering if there is a list of all the IPA sound combinations and how to pronounce them. Searching brings up a bunch of partial and not too well done lists, so wondering if there is a standard or ...
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1answer
72 views

Dental and labiodental fricatives with different relative positions of the articulators

Are there distinct phonemes for labiodental fricatives articulated with the upper teeth touching the lower lip from the inside (like in English /f/) and ones that are articulated with the tip of the ...
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1answer
153 views

Do Nasal Consonants Require Nostrils?

As far as I can tell, some nasals don't seem to require nasal aspiration. For example, [m] and [n] seem to just involve oral occlusive voicing. I can plug my nose and still make such sounds. It surely ...
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1answer
945 views

What do full stops represent in IPA?

In the IPA spelling of various words, I have often come across versions that use full stops and colons. E.g. I have seen 'county' spelled /kaʊnti/ and also /kaʊ.nti/ and 'courage' as spelled /kʌrɪdʒ/ ...
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514 views

How to transcribe 'courage' in IPA

I am very new to linguistics, and am trying to transcribe the word 'courage' into IPA. I have come across a few different transcriptions, but I think the correct one might be "kʌrɪdʒ". Is this correct?...
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259 views

Is it possible to read the narrow IPA transcription of one's native/fluent language as effortlessly and quickly as its conventional orthography?

it seems there's no neurolinguistic limit on how many letters can a language's alphabet have (it varies a lot between languages), the IPA is a huge phonetic alphabet, As of the most recent change in ...
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0answers
89 views

How many different vowels can be reliable annotated?

This question is similar to How many different vowels are there? but with a different twist: here I am not interested in the minimal difference between two vowels that can be heard, but in reliable ...
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1answer
216 views

The closest sound to [ə] in Arabic

The IPA for "man" in American English is mən. Arabic, however, doesn't have the vowel sound ə. So, what's the most related sound in Arabic? I know there are some short vowels (Harakat) but I don't ...
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1answer
170 views

Online tool for IPA pronunciation synthesis

I've already found this tool from 0n0e.com but the problem is that it pronounces the words too quickly. Is there any other phoneme synthesis online which speaks a bit slower?
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1answer
458 views

How do I translate a DARPA phonetic alphabet transcription into an IPA transcription

What's the relationship between the DARPA phonetic alphabet transcription into an IPA transcriptions? Is it possible to map a transcription from one system directly into the other? Is it possible in ...
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2answers
806 views

Choice of phonemic symbol for /b/, /d/, /g/, /ʝ/ in Spanish

Wikipedia states this on the Spanish consonants /b/, /d/, /ɡ/ and /ʝ/: The phonemes /b/, /d/, and /ɡ/ are realized as approximants (namely [β̞, ð̞, ɣ˕]) or fricatives in all places except after a ...
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775 views

Deducing a rule out of set of examples

Consider the following Spanish words, written in IPA (with their English translation): And the same question for middle position and final position My answer is: Initial position: Looking at the ...
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1answer
223 views

What is this phonetic alphabet called?

There is a feature in the macOS speech synthesizer (which takes written text and reads it aloud) for developers which lets you instead enter text and outputs the phonemes that it would read aloud in ...
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1answer
183 views

eSpeak - Use transformation to IPA in Windows

eSpeak is capable of transforming text to IPA, as also mentioned in this question. I want to use the same feature in its Windows version. Is it possible? I have tried a lot, but failed. Thanks for ...
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1answer
115 views

German corpus for grapheme-phoneme (G2P or P2G) mapping

TIMIT is a well known, publicly accessible corpus that contains phonetic and lexicalic transcription of language (American English). A sample sentence of TIMIT looks like: She had your dark suit in ...
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3answers
413 views

The ate-eight split?

The words "ate" and "eight" are supposed to be homophones in English, yet in (thick) Hungarian, Dutch and Swedish accents, they are not homophones. As a native Hungarian-speaker, I will attest to this:...
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100 views

Glides offset: ɪ/ʊ or j/w? [closed]

I've seen linguistics arguing in favour of using either ɪ/ʊ or j/w sets in glides offset. What are your arguments regarding the use of them?
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170 views

Reading IPA sentence [closed]

I'm trying to read the following sentence. It should be some film or play (English). I'd be glad if you could help me with translating
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47 views

where can i download ipa chart with audio offline? [duplicate]

i have seen (this)[Where can you download the IPA chart with audio?) and can not find any solution to my problem. i want the ipa chart with audio offline. where can i download it from?
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165 views

Realisations of T - affrication

Spanish T and English T are quite different. I was wondering if the difference is just about laminar/apical realisations. I'm talking about unstressed T; that is, no aspiration included. Recently I ...
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97 views

Looking for large word list file/db (>1k) with IPA transcriptions

I'm building a mobile app to practice/teach IPA. The idea is you look at a word and then input the correct IPA. I've used some dictionary APIs, but they either: Don't include the IPA If it includes ...
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86 views

Can anyone send me a link or recommend me a book about IPA diacritics?

What I am interested in knowing is what exactly a specific diacritic does to a sound, and which muscles in the vocal tract are responsible for making those sounds.
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4answers
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Why is the “long i” sound in English written /aɪ/?

The "long i" sound in English, as in "fight" is usually written /aɪ/, so fight = /faɪt/. But /a/ is the sound in "hat", and /ɪ/ is the sound in "hit". When I say the two together it doesn't sound ...
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77 views

What is the correct way to transcribe an apico-labial nasal in the IPA?

I have decided to include an apico-labial nasal in my latest conlang. The sound is produced by voicing while simultaneously extending the tip of the tongue to touch the upper lip and thus prevent ...
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1answer
2k views

What's the difference between ɐ and a?

I really can't tell the difference between these two. At first I thought that ɐ was something similar to ə, but I'm not sure. I'd appreciate any examples to distinguish these sounds
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2answers
119 views

Is there any International standard for representing phonemes?

While for phones we use IPA but it seems that there is no equivalent for phonemes
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2k views

How did Adolf Hitler pronounce his own name?

Adolf Hitler was an Austrian, who used the alveolar trill [r] in his speech, not the Standard German [ʁ]. This is only to be expected for an Austrian. According to the German Wikipedia, in Austrian ...
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978 views

Punctuation/Pause character in IPA

Is there any way to get breaks between words in a sentence written using IPA? I have the following IPA sentence: /gaɦi ʃammer gan manuʃer tʃee naɦi kitʃʰu bɔɽɔ naɦi kitʃʰu mɔɦian/ Now, when i play ...
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Conversational IPA

Is there any online dictionary which shows conversational version of phrases e.g. /ə ˈkʌpə tiː/ instead of /ˈə ˈkʌp ˈəv ˈtiː/ ? And if there's no one, where can I obtain conversation versions of ...
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IPA, Why Is It Ordered That Way?

The IPA lists Plosives first, then Nasals, then Trills, then Taps, then Fricatives, then Approximants. Why is it ordered that way? I wondered if it was to do with ease of use. However, it doesn't ...
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228 views

Can /∅/ be used transliterate silent characters? (I.P.A.)

I am not to well versed in all of the inner and outer workings of the international phonetic alphabet, and I was curious if /∅/, not to be confused with /ø/, could always be used for silent characters....
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3k views

Does IPA notation ever get capitalized to match their written counterparts?

Some alphabets capitalize proper nouns, others capitalize all nouns. Does ipa notation ever get capitalized to match their written counterparts? I would assume not, as it might be sending mixed ...
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1answer
201 views

Why does Kirshenbaum use ‹r› for [ɹ] and ‹r<trl>› for regular [r]?

The stated goals of the Kirshenbaum transcription are that: It should be usable for both phonemic and narrow phonetic transcription. It should be possible to represent all symbols and ...
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2answers
4k views

Only a pair of brackets in IPA transcription sentence, does it matter?

For the IPA transcription of a whole sentence, does it matter in terms of readability if it only has a pair of brackets encompassing the whole transcription? For instance the transcription for "as ...
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120 views

What is the difference in articulation between /CjV/ and /CʲV/?

I have been looking into words like "pure" and "cube" and I sometimes get /pʲɔɹ/ and /kʲub/, but other times I get /pjɔɹ/ and /cjub/. I know some Slavic languages make the distinction between those ...
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2answers
126 views

Is there a way to teach the IPA to someone in a written way?

There wont' be any verbal help, just text. I understand it's difficult since the IPA is the Alphabet for the representation of all sounds and if you try to explain rules etc in a language, you are ...
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2k views

Transform Chinese, Korean, Hebrew and Arabic to IPA

I'm trying to transform texts written in Chinese, Korean, Hebrew, Arabic and other languages with non-latin alphabet to the IPA. For now, I can only think of dictionaries. Are there any other ways? ...
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1answer
274 views

Speech Pathologists and the International Phonetic Alphabet

Do speech therapists and speech pathologists have to learn the International Phonetic Alphabet as part of their profession? They might want to learn it, but my question really is: are they required to ...