Questions tagged [ipa]

The International Phonetic Alphabet: A Latin-based alphabet designed for transcribing all sounds of all languages.

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161 views

Wikipedia and official IPA symbol chart appear quite different

So I am learning the IPA. I am familiar with most of the manners and places thus far. However, I am not sure which consonant chart to reference. The 2 charts I am considering seem quite different, ...
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193 views

Correctness of Wiktionary IPA Translation

The logo for Wikimedia's Wiktionary project features a narrow transcription IPA of the term: Adding English syllabification produces [ˈwɪk.ʃənˌrɪ] (WICK-shun-rih), which I find strange. I personally ...
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69 views

Has anyone ever ranked the prevalence of phones by number of speakers worldwide?

I'm interested in knowing the most-used and least-used phones worldwide. According to Wikipedia, the IPA charts about 140 pulmonic consonants, 80 non-pulmonic consonants, 30 co-articulated consonants, ...
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85 views

IPA Terminology--Articulatory Target versus Articulators

In phonetics (IPA) terminology, what is the difference between an Articulatory Target and an Articulator. I used to think that the former is just another name for the Passive Articulator or the Place ...
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104 views

Is there software (eg. desktop or mobile app) out there that helps learners learn all the sounds of the world with the IPA?

I wished there was one where the app would synthesise a sound for some phoneme X, displaying the IPA symbol at the same time, then ask the user to repeat the sound, which the software checks for the ...
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72 views

Where to download phonetic word list for Dutch/ Nederlandse fonetische woordenlijst downloaden

I cannot find phonetic word lists / dictionaries online for Dutch. Please provide me with a url. What do you use? What is available?
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159 views

pronunciation of [əj]

According to Wiedenhof's A Grammar of Mandarin, page 42, The pronunciation of the final -ui [weı] vary with the accompanying tone for some speakers. With first or second tone, the u sound tends ...
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117 views

German corpus for grapheme-phoneme (G2P or P2G) mapping

TIMIT is a well known, publicly accessible corpus that contains phonetic and lexicalic transcription of language (American English). A sample sentence of TIMIT looks like: She had your dark suit in ...
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128 views

What is the difference in articulation between /CjV/ and /CʲV/?

I have been looking into words like "pure" and "cube" and I sometimes get /pʲɔɹ/ and /kʲub/, but other times I get /pjɔɹ/ and /cjub/. I know some Slavic languages make the distinction between those ...
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385 views

Is there an API that converts a word into an IPA Transcriptions?

We want to automatically generate the IPA Transcription for a person's name when we create a record for them in our application. Does anyone know of an API service that can do this?
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273 views

Why do we transcribe the vowel sound in 'how' as /aʊ/?

The diphthong /aʊ/ doesn't really make sense to me as a transcription. I'm a Southern British English speaker, and when I say and hear 'how' it sounds to me like /hæɒw/. /a/ doesn't seem to exist as ...
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108 views

Glides offset: ɪ/ʊ or j/w? [closed]

I've seen linguistics arguing in favour of using either ɪ/ʊ or j/w sets in glides offset. What are your arguments regarding the use of them?
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Conversational IPA

Is there any online dictionary which shows conversational version of phrases e.g. /ə ˈkʌpə tiː/ instead of /ˈə ˈkʌp ˈəv ˈtiː/ ? And if there's no one, where can I obtain conversation versions of ...
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759 views

Egyptian Arabic to IPA conversion?

I am trying to transcript some text from Egyptian Arabic to IPA, but I can't seem to find an Egyptian Arabic dictionary with IPA transcription, an automatic transcriptor, or even comprehensive ...
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143 views

Plotting Points on an IPA Chart

I would like to plot points on the "Consonants" and "Vowels" charts, as seen in the image below. I will extract each one separately, so they are individual images. Is there a way to make a coordinate ...
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85 views

Symbols for IPA categories

In IPA a consonant can have different places of articulation such as Bilabial, Labio-dental, Dental etc. I want to create a IPA chart that doesn't take much space. For that purposes the words are too ...
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626 views

Labialisation and palatisation in IPA: one consonant or two phones?

When is a consonant simply followed by labliasing sound like /u/ or /w/ and when is the consonant itself considered palatised or labialised? For instance, French point, in IPA, /pwɛ̃/ and Croatian ...
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Are there any letters in the International Phonetic Alphabet that are considered universal?

English is full of sounds that are difficult for people of other cultures to hear and pronounce. H (for the French), L (for many Asian languages), Th (for pretty much everyone), etc. What, if any, ...
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276 views

Why are two versions of a word written in the same IPA pronounced differently?

My question is to be applied on any language; why do I find for instance two versions of the same word written in the same IPA symbols pronounced differently, in case of different accents for example. ...
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118 views

Is [ë̞] another symbol for [ə]?

I know that the diacritic ̈ is for centralization and ̞ for lowered. So when [e] is centralized, it becomes [ɘ] and when lowered it becomes [ə]. See the diagram: If someone gives me the ...
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191 views

What is the IPA notation for Chinese zuo4cuo4 做错?

zuo4cuo4 is the pinyin-notation for 做错 = doing wrong. To my ear zuo4 and cuo4 sound very similar. I need the IPA notation to understand the difference in articulation.
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162 views

Do we have acoustic phonetics alphabet?

After looking for something like this, I have found only IPA as a system that tries to represent human sounds with symbols; but there is an argument that IPA does not actually represents the sounds ...
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Why is the "long i" sound in English written /aɪ/?

The "long i" sound in English, as in "fight" is usually written /aɪ/, so fight = /faɪt/. But /a/ is the sound in "hat", and /ɪ/ is the sound in "hit". When I say the two together it doesn't sound ...
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96 views

Why does IPA have only finitely many symbols? Isn't the human voice box capable of producing a continuous range of sounds?

There are two things I've noticed: Every language has only finitely many sounds in it IPA, which is a notation for representing all possible sounds in all possible languages, has only finitely many ...
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104 views

What is the difference between ðˤ and ðʕ in Arabic?

I am wondering if the emphatic and pharyngealized sounds of Arabic are the same thing as the letter followed by /ʕ/. So ðˤ, sˤ, tˤ, and dˤ would be ðʕ, sʕ, tʕ, and dʕ. If it's not the case, can you ...
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307 views

How to represent acronyms using IPA?

As we all know in IPA isn’t used capital letters. There is also the 2nd option for representation acronyms which is to use dots, but in IPA dots is used to represent syllables. And therefore I'd like ...
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109 views

How can I find IPA charts that pairs each language's phonemes, with a common word feat. that phoneme in that language?

How can I find equivalents to the following chart (for American English), but for the world's currently most spoken e-languages? E.g., the chart for Modern German must SCHEMATICALLY map out each of ...
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77 views

Resources for Bantu Language IPA

I am a developer for a Bantu language, Shona to be specific. Where can I find resources that allow me to learn the IPA for this language. Is there an IPA alphabet that I can use. Thank you
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134 views

Accurately representing stress

Wondering how to accurately represent stress. In IPA, stress, is marked with ˈ◌. But in languages like Spanish (don't know of other languages that use acute accent, other than Ancient Greek), you have ...
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841 views

Diagram of all IPA sound places

Wondering if there is a diagram similar to the following one, but that lists all of the mouth configurations such as for ʃ and everything else.
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195 views

Any languages without the following list of consonants?

I was wondering if there are any living languages without any of the following: /ɬ/ or /ɮ/, postaveolars and palatals—with the exception of /j/? Again, a list of the excluded consonants are- ...
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58 views

What is the use or quality of the orthography-to-IPA mapping charts?

In relation to How to build a robust transliteration scheme across languages? I am now confused about orthography-to-IPA mappings, such as for Turkish. When you see the orthograph like the letter a ...
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2k views

Complete list of sounds in all languages (IPA)

Wondering if there is a list of all the IPA sound combinations and how to pronounce them. Searching brings up a bunch of partial and not too well done lists, so wondering if there is a standard or ...
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454 views

How many phonetic symbols are in total languages?

my goal is to know all the sounds of other languages and compare if there are similarities. I only found the English http://soundsofspeech.uiowa.edu/english/english_main.swf http://www.stuff.co.uk/...
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331 views

Help with palatalisation and syllabification

Does palatalisation only occur at the beginning of a given word? All textbook examples (muse, beauty...) are at the beginning. Could somebody also explain syllabification? (Lecturer hardly covered ...
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340 views

The difference/realtionship between allophones and diaphonemes

I'm trying to understand the difference/relationship between the concepts "allophone" and "diaphoneme." The Wikipedia article for allophone says this: For example, [pʰ] (as in pin) and [p] (as in ...
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274 views

How to work with an IPA chart?

I am trying to learn French vowel sounds using this IPA chart. My question is about this chart. I use it for the first time and I am interested how comprehensive it is. Does a position at this chart ...
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195 views

ʃ pronounced with tongue

Some people pronounce their [ʃ] not in the 'classic' way but by curving the tongue and bringing it forward toward the upper set of teeth. Here's an audio example I've created. My question: is there a ...
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Breaking a word down into its constituent phonemes [duplicate]

How should the nonsense word 'frabjous' be broken down into its constituent phonemes (e.g. the consonant blend -fr)? I would like to determine how this word is regular in English phonotactics.
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Strange Vocal Trills (L, Th, and Q)

I’m currently spending my quarantine working on the language for my novel. The language is alien-like, so I wanted to make it extremely difficult in it’s phonology. There are several trills. The ...
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429 views

General American English words for IPA vowel sounds

Looking at the Danish vowels, it came up with this translation: a hat ɑ art ɑː father ʌ off ɒ og ɒː dog æ bet æː bed e face ɛ ? eː phase ɛː ? i leaf iː leave o oak ɔ thought ...
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68 views

When we breathe through the nose, do we normally make an unvoiced uvular nasal?

I was thinking about what sounds we make when we breathe through our nose. I realized that we make a sound that is very far back, farther than the velar nasal. Do we normally make this sound, and is ...
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121 views

Differences between /ᵐb/ (prenasalization) and /mb/

What's the difference between prenasalized voced plosive /ᵐb/ and just the sound /mb/, if any? I've watched this video where /ᵐbʷ/ is pronounced, and I'd pronounce /mbʷ/ in the same way.
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Why is the vowel speech sound (called "ash") in "Tank" and "Cat" considered the same?

The vowel in "Tank" sounds more like ɛ to me, yet the IPA spelling for "Tank" (as pronounced in General American English) employs the ash [æ] to represent the vowel. The same for the word "thank" in ...
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172 views

Transcription of this computer-generated pronunciation of 1991 in Danish

I came across this Google Translate pronunciation of 1991 (which it appears to be interpreting as the year rather than the cardinal or ordinal); click the thumbnail for the video on YouTube: I don’t ...
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233 views

The TRAP vowel: a or ä?

If my mouth is open and my tongue is completely relaxed, do I make an [a] or an [ä]? Which one is more common for the TRAP vowel in British English?
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165 views

How to annotate the difference between blended vowels and non-blended vowels

Similar to this question about consonants, I'm wondering how you annotate with IPA (or any other system if IPA doesn't support it) the difference between blending vowels together (morphing between ...
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522 views

How to transcribe 'courage' in IPA

I am very new to linguistics, and am trying to transcribe the word 'courage' into IPA. I have come across a few different transcriptions, but I think the correct one might be "kʌrɪdʒ". Is this correct?...
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169 views

Realisations of T - affrication

Spanish T and English T are quite different. I was wondering if the difference is just about laminar/apical realisations. I'm talking about unstressed T; that is, no aspiration included. Recently I ...
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494 views

transliterate from IPA to Roman alphabet [closed]

I'm trying to figure out what is this in Roman Alphabet ʔə ʤoʷk (ʔə ˈmɛ ɹə ˌkʰɪn): seʲ, wʌʦ jɹ̩ ʤɐːb? (ˈʔɪ̃ŋ gɫɪʃ mə̃n): ʔɐ̃͡ɪ mə kʰlaːk. (ʔə ˈmɛ ɹə ˌkʰɪn): ...