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Questions tagged [lexical-semantics]

A branch of semantics, the study of the meaning of words, affixes and compounds too.

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Can 'to go ahead' imply 'to pave the way'? [migrated]

One meaning of English phrasal verb 'to go ahead' is 'to travel in front of other people in your group and arrive before them'. Starting from that meaning, it can potentially also be used in a ...
philo's user avatar
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2 answers
496 views

What effect does the wrong T-V pronoun have on truth-value?

Suppose someone uses the wrong T-V pronoun in a sentence, e.g. a French person uses "tu" instead of "vous". Is that considered to render the sentence (a) false or (b) without truth-...
Remster's user avatar
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4 votes
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Is there a linguistic term for a term in a language refering to a specific technology, outliving said technology?

In language, phrases and various semantic expressions referring to technologies often make their way into the language, even if that technology is mostly obsolete. Examples of this could include "...
Brock's user avatar
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36 views

Hyponymy and hypernymy for adjectives

Would the concepts of hyponymy and hypernymy be used for adjectives? Hyponymy and hypernymy are usually used for nouns. And for verbs the WordNet people have created the concept troponymy for a manner ...
Finn Årup Nielsen's user avatar
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Is there any mathematically studied ontology space?

I am considering “ontology generation”. I have not yet read the specifics of these techniques. Still, the point must surely be to identify some kind of cooccurrences / associations between words. ...
Julius Hamilton's user avatar
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1 answer
50 views

Is one way to define a word, to choose the word closest to its meaning and add distinctive qualities?

I'm trying to help people express themselves better, where they start with a thought or feeling inside their head, and then find the best word that matches it, before adding distinctive qualities. So ...
Christopher's user avatar
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0 answers
100 views

Is there an English dictionary of morphemes?

I'm currently working on a project that that's aimed at helping people find words that match their feelings and thoughts, as opposed to looking for words in a traditional dictionary. It would begin ...
Christopher's user avatar
2 votes
6 answers
747 views

Is there a shared word for "word" and "thing" in any language other than Hebrew?

The Hebrew word דבר has a dual meaning because it can mean "word/speak" and also "thing." Contemporary Kabbalists use this dual meaning to argue for a metaphysical connection ...
Reb Chaim HaQoton's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
287 views

Troponym vs hyponym vs hypernym

I came across following table in Jurafsky's book: Note that it calls noun subordinate as "hyponym" and verb subordinate as "troponym". But it names both noun superordinate and ...
Mahesha999's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
70 views

What's the name for a word/meaning pair of a polysemous word?

Is there a name use to describe tuples of the form (word, meaning)? Example: ("wood", the material made from trees) ("wood", a geographical area with many trees) In this case we ...
pseudosudo's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
102 views

What is morphological analysis of words to estimate their meaning called?

Is there a word for this? I'll use an example to show what I mean: Let's say you don't know what sepsis means, which is bacterial infection of blood. So, you start thinking. You break the word up into ...
A. Kvåle's user avatar
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2 answers
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polarity of a sentence

I read the post https://japanese.stackexchange.com/questions/60907/ and have a hard time understanding the meaning of "polarity" even after googling the term (I found "polarity item&...
5ru8ek's user avatar
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1 vote
0 answers
115 views

Do older adults perceive words in different ways than young adults?

Do you agree that older adults perceive words differently from young adults, and learn more innuendos and double meanings? I read a science article that stated that adults continue to learn words and ...
bandybabboon's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
260 views

Semantical and functional morphemes

I have this idea in my head that when it comes to morphemes, there are two divisions at the top: "semantical morphemes" and "functional morphemes". Semantical morphemes are those ...
A. Kvåle's user avatar
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Why do some abstract concepts get described as a liquid in English?

For example, work is completely abstract but we talk about workflows, which is something pertaining to fluids. Why does this happen?
Fomalhaut's user avatar
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3 votes
1 answer
130 views

Are there languages with separate words for 'mouth opening' and 'mouth cavity'?

I am looking for languages which have separate words for the visible opening of the mouth (the external part, including or not including the lips), and the cavity (the internal part). Put another way, ...
user3101366's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
63 views

Is it possible to infer the meaning of a word of a language based on corpus analysis, without prior knowledge of the language?

If I am totally foreign to a language, are there corpus analysis methodologies and theories that I can employ to figure out the meaning of a word in a corpus based on that language? If yes, do point ...
forgodsakehold's user avatar
1 vote
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124 views

What word category do twink, adonis, muse etc. belong to? [closed]

Terms such as candy, cutie, honey, princess, diamond, queen(?), stud and bunny are terms of endearment (these terms are often used in a relationship to show affection and may also be used, with ...
Karl L.'s user avatar
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1 answer
129 views

How can one describe the relation between concepts, nouns, verbs and other word classes

In Wikidata, we describe concepts (Q items) and lexemes (L items), where the lexemes may be nouns, verbs, adjectives, etc. It is usually straightforward to describe the relation from noun lexemes to ...
Finn Årup Nielsen's user avatar
3 votes
3 answers
198 views

Languages without generic term for animals

I'd recently read in a non-fiction work (reference lost) that there are some languages that have no generic term or category for animals, ie no equivalent of "animal." Does anyone have any information ...
richardjc's user avatar
-2 votes
3 answers
534 views

Etymological Fallacy

What is actually wrong with using Etymology to infer a word's meaning? I mean other than semantics( or more subtle meaning, nuance) of what other use could studying etymology be. I cannot see the ...
George Ntoulos's user avatar
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in search of nouns with a mismatch between morphological and semantic gender [duplicate]

I am currently trying to identify nouns whose morphological gender differs from their semantic gender. Here are three examples I could identify so far: French: Le laideron - masculine morpho-...
user3201's user avatar
5 votes
3 answers
287 views

What are the reasons to justify that some text is in X language?

Let us say that I am in a library alone and I have a text that I think that is in X language, for example, this fragment of the 9th chapter of the 2nd part of the novel 1984 by George Orwell, that I ...
algo's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
146 views

Was there a Proto-Germannic root of "miskunn"

I was not able to find an etymology of ON "miskunn" within PrG. Is the first syllable a prefix "mis-" indicating any "wrong kunn, lack of kunn" or a deformed "midi-" as in E "com-passion", G "Mit-leid"...
Hardtberger's user avatar
1 vote
3 answers
92 views

"but" usage (redundancy of "but")

We all know that "but" is used to replace "except" or indicate that the first clause is contrastive to the second in a way, or the logic these two sentences bear is somewhat contradictory. But, I see ...
Fadli Sheikh's user avatar
3 votes
5 answers
640 views

Word meaning as function of the composition of its phonemes

tl;dr Linguists like to claim that the mapping from sounds to word meanings is mostly arbitrary. Can you point out research that supports this claim? Specificllay I am looking for hard evidience in ...
lo tolmencre's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
1k views

How to understand semelfactive aspect of a verb? How is it varied/similar to iterative aspect?

How semelfactive aspect of a verb that represents a single occasion of an event like knock,hit etc..is perfective and moment defined. whereas,iterative aspect is event that is repeated on single ...
Sukanya C's user avatar
4 votes
3 answers
451 views

Is an empty morph a lexeme?

In the French "A-t-il soif ?" there are several (inflected) lexemes ("A", "il", "soif"), and an empty morph "t". The morph "t" has no meaning which is why it's an empty morph; it's there purely for ...
CJ Dennis's user avatar
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2 votes
0 answers
101 views

How relevant is WordNet nowadays?

How relevant is WordNet (both the original Princeton's and all other WordNets) as a tool for researchers now, decades later? Do researchers consider it valuable? And does the general research ...
JpegDot's user avatar
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8 votes
3 answers
433 views

How to define colors in the Natural Semantic Metalanguage?

The Natural Semantic Metalanguage (NSM) attempts to reduce the semantics of all lexicons down to a restricted set of semantic primitives. But in NSM, colors are not semantic primitives. How then to ...
Bob's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
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How can the Arabic word "Hijr" be translated as "perception" or "understanding" or "intellect" [closed]

The sentence I mention is from Quran (written at least 14 centuries ago) verse 89:5. Full phrase is : هل في ذلك قسم لذي حجر And this is translated as: Sahih International: Is there [not] in [all] ...
mehmetfa's user avatar
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1 vote
0 answers
51 views

Morphology to generate hyponyms or hypernyms

Is there a natural/constructed language which allows us to express hyponyms from hypernyms or hypernyms to hyponyms. For example, pigeon to bird or bird to pigeon, both don't have any relation to them ...
fahad aijaz's user avatar
3 votes
3 answers
115 views

Is there a word in which the concept and its complement is expressed?

Is there a word in which the concept and its complement is expressed, for example if I would like to express "the dichotomy of truth and falsehood" in one word. Obviously, the construction need not ...
fahad aijaz's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
203 views

What books to read about lexical semantics?

I want to have a systematic understanding on semantic field, lexical semantics, and semantic change. Skimming at Kate Kearns' Semantics, it seems that its focus is more about formal semantics, with ...
Ooker's user avatar
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1 vote
0 answers
60 views

How to apply TF-IDF on my bows after generating frequencies

I'm working on document similarity using WordNet, though I have no idea how to apply the IDF weighting at this point in my code. I'm sure this weighting is one of the most simple things out there, but ...
bemzoo's user avatar
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1 vote
0 answers
82 views

Word with separate translations in another language

Is there a name for the linguistic phenomenon of a word in language or dialect X with two or multiple meanings that have individual translations in language or dialect Y? For example, escada in ...
user23089's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
120 views

Algorithm for identifying "secondary roots"

In machine learning on text data (aka natural language processing), it's common to apply a stemming or lemmatization algorithm to the text. However, sometimes you want to go a step further. For ...
shadowtalker's user avatar
0 votes
2 answers
58 views

Metalanguage to describe expressing an idea in many different ways

I am looking for a term to describe expressing an idea in many different forms yet the meaning remains the same in each rendition. An example of this: The Australians, Australians, the Australian ...
Cesco's user avatar
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1 vote
0 answers
89 views

Definition of "concept" and "conceptual field in cognitive linguistics

I am writing a Master's thesis dedicated to the conception field "business" in Modern English Language. The definition of "concept" and "conceptional field" is greatly discussed by Russian linguists, ...
Kate Alexand's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
183 views

Can we use etymology to determine the nature of synchronic semantic and morphosyntactic differences between (near-)synonyms?

I've recently joined a discussion in which some of the participants insist that if one doesn't understand the nature of the difference between two or more words (the ones discussed by us are synonyms ...
Pavel Jetušek's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
92 views

'sibling-in-law' constructions: Why the polysemy/vagueness?

A holds the 'sibling-in-law' relation to B only in the case when: (1) A is a sibling of C and C is married to B; or (2) A is married to C and C is a sibling of B. What is common to (1) and (2) is ...
WhyNotTryCalmer's user avatar
6 votes
1 answer
479 views

(A)Telicity & Events

Dowty's (1979) classified predicates into: 1. States 'the woord is burning' ---Atelic 2. Activities 'Mary pushed the cart' ---Atelic 3. Accomplishments 'Mary melted the chocolate' ---Telic 4. ...
Tsutsu's user avatar
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3 votes
1 answer
79 views

Help with distributional analysis of verb phrases

For my semantics homework we are asked to test different verb phrases in different environments. I am asked to categorize the different verb phrases (on the basis of their distributions. I am not ...
lmeninato's user avatar
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0 answers
67 views

davidsonian semantics

I hope everyone is fine. I was wondering if you could help me with some suggestions about which book(s) should I start with to learn the Davidsonian semantics, so that I will be able to read and write ...
Tsutsu's user avatar
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6 votes
1 answer
305 views

4 or 5: is thumb a finger? Distribution across languages

Researching the origins of counting systems, I came across the question I cannot seem to find an answer for: what is the typological distribution of languages that consider thumb a finger (5 fingers ...
kkm mistrusts SE's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
593 views

formula for Brunét's index

I am having trouble figuring out the formula for Brunet's index which can be found in this paper http://csbapp.uncw.edu/data/mscsis/annalspaper.aspx?v=6&i=1&p=11. I tried to apply it to ...
kkawabat's user avatar
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2 votes
0 answers
47 views

What is the source of knowledge/discovery for the semantics? Automation of semantic science?

Natural sciences observe facts and make models. Mathematics more or less arbitrarly generates axioms and investigates all the possible consquences of them. What is the source of semantic knowledge (e....
TomR's user avatar
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1 vote
2 answers
111 views

Semantic parsing vs Propositional Representation

Propositional representation is explained on Wikipedia. How is semantic parsing different from propositional representation? Or is propositional representation the next step after you do semantic ...
The Wanderer's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
61 views

Name of the theory of lexical semantics that distinguishes consonants by the values "up" and "down"?

I'm reading "Cognitive interpretation of Czech verse" by Pavel Jiráček about a way to analyze poetry by reading how the consonants, syllables and words conotate "up" and "down". What is the best ...
Probably's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
104 views

What is the hypernym of names, unique titles, and definite descriptions?

The name Elizabeth Alexandra Mary, the unique title The Queen of England, and the definite description the elder daughter of Cecilia Bowes Lyon all refer to the same unique entity. We might think of ...
Hal's user avatar
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