Questions tagged [list-of-languages]

request for references of languages that satisfy the criteria set in the question.

22 questions with no upvoted or accepted answers
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Are nouns ever a closed class?

For pretty much any grammatical category, I can think of a language in which it's a closed class. Japanese has closed classes of verbs and (verb-like) adjectives, for example, while Swahili has a ...
8
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1answer
527 views

Which languages have zero markers of comparative degree that coexist with non-zero comparative markers?

The zero comparative marker and the non-zero one should be more or less interchangeable. (The etymology of the non-zero marker doesn't matter.) (A message asking to list such languages was originally ...
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51 views

Languages with nominalized verbs that specify the thematic relation of its possessor

In English, nominalized verbs have only one form regardless of the thematic relation of its possessor: The robot's destruction (of the city) terrified authorities. The robot's destruction (by the ...
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549 views

Comparative markers coming from low degree markers (“attenuatives”)? (List such languages.)

Which languages have a marker of the comparative degree of adjectives that coincides with a marker of a low degree? ...or which has evolved from such a low degree marker? (A message asking for the ...
4
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0answers
126 views

Are there any languages where the first person cannot be an object?

In some languages, nouns low on the animacy hierarchy, particularly inanimates cannot surface as A, and if a situation arises where they are underlyingly A, some reparative strategy such as a passive ...
4
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0answers
412 views

Is there a phoneme distribution graph for multiple European languages?

I am doing some research on a manuscript which I need to identify the language. My hypothesis is that it is written in phoneme by someone who does not understand the language. Spoken aloud, one that ...
4
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0answers
142 views

Month names variants

Regarding the question on TeX.stackexchange I am looking for generally used languages that use different cases for their month and day names. Based on Czech and Slovak languages I can imagine two ...
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0answers
59 views

Languages with a common, productive construction for marking heterogeneous groups

Are there any languages with a construction similar in meaning to an associative plural or elliptical construction that's used frequently within the language? I'm particularly interested in a ...
3
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0answers
72 views

Are there written languages that commonly start direct speech without marking?

In English and many common languages nowadays, punctuation marks are used to introduce direct speech. This makes it possible to start direct speech without lexical clue, as in the second example here: ...
3
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0answers
63 views

Incoordination (sentence-initial equivalents of “and”)

In Italian, the conjunction corresponding to "and" can be used in imperative constructions for emphatic purposes, as in: E smettila! ('And stop!', i.e: 'Do stop!'). This is probably the outcome of ...
3
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0answers
98 views

Are there any languages that have words for open and closing quotation marks in speech?

It seems to me that most languages have some way of bounding quotations in written form. European languages have their apostrophe quotes and angle-brackets, while eastern Asian languages have those ...
2
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0answers
70 views

Which non-Asian languages use a single morpheme for clausal and subject/agent nominalisation?

I'm looking for languages (as many as possible :P) outside the Mainland Southeast Asia region in which there is a single morpheme performing two roles: 1) Clausal nominalisation. I will define this ...
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0answers
65 views

Is there a language that begins range expressions with the higher/later datum?

If someone were to say There were between twenty and ten people at the event. or I will be there from the fifth to the second of July. that person would sound strange indeed, because in ...
2
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1answer
99 views

Which language expresses aspect most similarly to English?

I suppose there are at least two ways to read this question (forgive me, I'm not a linguist, just a struggling practical language student): 1) Which languages' aspects map onto those in English most ...
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118 views

Is Italian the only modern language that uses the feminine 3rd person singular pronoun for formal speech?

Is Italian the only modern language that uses the feminine 3rd person singular pronoun (Lei) for formal speech, regardless of the gender of the 2nd person singular addressee? cf. T–V_distinction#...
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90 views

Which other languages have discontinuous dependencies and how are cross or long ones managed in them?

Discontinuous dependencies are a part of English syntatic rules and also are something which linguists are still trying to deal with. My question: which other languages have this problem and how does ...
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117 views

Are there any languages with words for negative powers of 10 like Japanese?

In Japanese they use 分, 厘, 毛, 糸, 忽, 微, 繊, 沙, 塵, 埃 for negative powers of 10 from 10-1 to 10-10 respectively There's also another system with a little bit different value range https://en.wikipedia....
1
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0answers
51 views

Is there a language that uses some kind of second layer traits (signs of a two-dimensional character)?

I've just read about the Saussure's second primordial principle that states that language is linear. This is sometimes interpreted as the notion of one-dimensioness of language. The second dimension ...
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0answers
68 views

Must subjectless infinitives exhibit subject control when used as complements(traditionally direct objects) of other verbs?

In English, the answer will be yes in most cases, but one thesis cast doubt on this. The author provided an example taken from BNC: My mother helped [PRO] to cater for the funeral tea, which were ...
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69 views

Languages Or Dialects Not Distinguishing Between Taste And Smell

Are there any languages or dialects not distinguishing between taste and smell? Possible duplicate of this older and much more general question.
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55 views

Are there languages which have ways to distinguish between an adjunct noun and an adjective?

(Take some example). Do other languages (than English) have means distinguish between their adjunct nouns and adjectives or is it a very complex/grammatical structure that cannot possibly be ...
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1answer
246 views

Describing continuity and change (like mou and mada in Japanese)

In Japanese, mada まだ refers to a continuing state: 'still (as it was)' or 'not (changed) yet', and mou もう is about change: 'already (changed)' or 'no longer (the same)'. Are there other languages ...