Questions tagged [list-of-languages]

request for references of languages that satisfy the criteria set in the question.

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8
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2answers
549 views

Are there any languages with a case system like Esperanto's?

Thinking about Esperanto's case system, if I saw that in a natural language, I would think it was rather odd. Esperanto only has two cases: accusative and non-accusative. The non-accusative, on is ...
7
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0answers
51 views

Languages with nominalized verbs that specify the thematic relation of its possessor

In English, nominalized verbs have only one form regardless of the thematic relation of its possessor: The robot's destruction (of the city) terrified authorities. The robot's destruction (by the ...
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0answers
90 views

Which other languages have discontinuous dependencies and how are cross or long ones managed in them?

Discontinuous dependencies are a part of English syntatic rules and also are something which linguists are still trying to deal with. My question: which other languages have this problem and how does ...
3
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0answers
63 views

Incoordination (sentence-initial equivalents of “and”)

In Italian, the conjunction corresponding to "and" can be used in imperative constructions for emphatic purposes, as in: E smettila! ('And stop!', i.e: 'Do stop!'). This is probably the outcome of ...
3
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0answers
98 views

Are there any languages that have words for open and closing quotation marks in speech?

It seems to me that most languages have some way of bounding quotations in written form. European languages have their apostrophe quotes and angle-brackets, while eastern Asian languages have those ...
4
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1answer
98 views

What language pairs are underserved, and would most benefit from machine-learned bilingual tools?

What language pairs are under-served by current resources — like human translators, bilingual dictionaries, and parallel corpuses — relative to their linguistic importance, economic potential, or ...
3
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1answer
469 views

Are there some languages that do not have infinitives/participles/gerunds?

Are there some languages that do not take their verbs and convert them into verbals (infinitives/participles/gerunds, et al.)? I noticed the Wikipedia article on participles has a number of language ...
0
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2answers
132 views

Are there examples of phonetic mood markers at syllable/word boundaries?

Generally, Mood is marked by suffixes, prefixes, infixes etc. But are there languages which have mood marked by phonetic changes at syllable / word boundaries?
10
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2answers
2k views

Are there any languages that only allow CV syllables?

In my research online, I have found a truism that CV is the most basic syllable type cross-linguistically, and is in fact present in all languages. Other syllable types are not present in all ...
6
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1answer
1k views

Are there languages where the tense depends on time elapsed between events?

In all the languages I am familiar with (mostly English and my native German as well as some rudimentary Italian and French, so all somewhat related.), the tense of a verb only indicates the time of ...
4
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0answers
126 views

Are there any languages where the first person cannot be an object?

In some languages, nouns low on the animacy hierarchy, particularly inanimates cannot surface as A, and if a situation arises where they are underlyingly A, some reparative strategy such as a passive ...
4
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1answer
243 views

Are there any European languages that read out dates in the order of year, month, day?

In (usually British) English the date "2018/02/13" is pronounced "13th of February, 2018", which corresponds to the DD/MM/YYYY date format. Same thing is true for Russian, for example ("тринадцатое ...
0
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2answers
212 views

Are there the languages that have writing systems consisting only numbers? [closed]

When I knew about Major Mnemonic System, I thought: "Are there the languages that have writing systems consisting only numbers?" Do they exist?
2
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1answer
99 views

Which language expresses aspect most similarly to English?

I suppose there are at least two ways to read this question (forgive me, I'm not a linguist, just a struggling practical language student): 1) Which languages' aspects map onto those in English most ...
3
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1answer
139 views

Are there any languages that use rapidly repeated or stammered/stuttered sounds for differentiation?

Ignoring languages such as spanish that distinguish between /ɾ/ and /r/, as such is not what I refer to, are there any languages that would differentiate between say, /p/ and /ppp/. It is a weird ...
1
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1answer
172 views

Are there any configurational languages that AREN'T verb-medial?

Is it true that has a rule, a language where subject and object aren't explicately marked will always have SVO or OVS order? I've been thinking that it may be possible to get away with having no ...
4
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1answer
136 views

Are there any languages that place subjects and direct objects before the verbs, but everything else after?

I know the Romance languages do this with pronouns, but they don't do this with noun phrases. Are there any natlangs out there where the subject and direct object always precedes the verb, but ...
0
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1answer
298 views

“Dash” dialog punctuation in different languages

I know that a punctuation of dialogues in literary texts in Russian and French may use dashes: — Hé, arrête avec ça, dit-il. (In French) — Эй, прекрати, — сказал он. (In Russian) But in English the ...
4
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2answers
216 views

Is there a language with distinct, non-compound words for cardinal diagonal directions?

That is, is there a language, natural or constructed, which has, for example, a word for top right (up right), separate from their word for top (up) and their word for right? Or a word for northeast, ...
8
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5answers
1k views

Languages where articles occur to the right of nouns

Are there languages where articles appear—as independent words—on the right-hand side of the noun phrases they occur in - in other words after the head noun in the noun phrase?
8
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4answers
3k views

Geolinguistics: how many languages to talk to 50|90%

If someone wanted to talk to 50 or even 75% of the population, how many languages would he have to learn? Are there maps showing how language speakers are distributed? In many cases it's not safe to ...
7
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2answers
252 views

Were/are there any languages that decline(d) articles but not nouns?

This question is actually spawned from a rather embarrassing personal blunder years ago, that was that when I had first begun to learning an heavily inflected language, I had made the mistake of ...
2
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1answer
74 views

What languages have extraction markers?

I'm looking for languages that have extraction markers or wh-agreement markers like those cited in Chung (1994) in Chamorro below: The example shows wh-agreement morphology on the verb when the ...
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0answers
117 views

Are there any languages with words for negative powers of 10 like Japanese?

In Japanese they use 分, 厘, 毛, 糸, 忽, 微, 繊, 沙, 塵, 埃 for negative powers of 10 from 10-1 to 10-10 respectively There's also another system with a little bit different value range https://en.wikipedia....
6
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2answers
3k views

Are there any purely monosyllabic languages in use today?

All languages in the world that I know of use words with more than one syllable. Are there any where all words have strictly one syllable? That would mean that there is just one vocal cluster per word,...
5
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1answer
104 views

Are there languages with both the singulative and the main verb 'have'?

Celtic and Arabic both exhibit singulative forms and both lack the verb 'have'. I would like to know whether there are are singulative languages that have the main verb 'have'.
0
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1answer
625 views

How to get the similarity between languages?

Is there a good dataset or library or some trick for getting the similarity between languages, or n most similar languages? Similarity here means lexical and structural similarity for the purposes of ...
15
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3answers
6k views

Are there languages without words for “father” or “mother” but only “parent”?

I'd like to know if there are languages where there aren't words for father and mother, but for parent, and how one would say [something like] this to their father in that language: where's mom? I ...
13
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5answers
1k views

Are there natural languages with the following properties (seen in Esperanto)?

Are there natural languages that have the following set of properties: The language possesses nouns, adjectives, and definite articles Nouns and adjective are both inflected for number and case (or ...
4
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0answers
412 views

Is there a phoneme distribution graph for multiple European languages?

I am doing some research on a manuscript which I need to identify the language. My hypothesis is that it is written in phoneme by someone who does not understand the language. Spoken aloud, one that ...
-6
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1answer
438 views

What language is this? And, what does it mean? [closed]

I've been trying to figure out the meaning of this image, but I couldn't find anything. Anyone knows?
10
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2answers
291 views

Is there any language with number system that uses subtraction? (Other than Ainu)

Generally all number systems use addition or multiplication to express numbers like - '12*3 + 6 for 42 in a base 12 system', '2 on the way to 50' or 'even 10+10+10+10+2 in some'. But, are there number ...
1
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3answers
207 views

Languages having same word to denote “count” and “think”

In Tamil, there is a single word எண்(eN) which means 'count', 'number', 'think'. I am wondering if this is unique to Tamil? I am wondering if the other old classical languages have a similar word.
2
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1answer
226 views

Is there any “fully” agglutinative language (con- or real)?

By "fully" agglutinative I mean a language in which a sentence can be only expressed with a single word and a bunch of affixes. I know that in Klingon some complex concepts may be stated with a single ...
9
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8answers
1k views

Is there any language where verb inflection takes place word-initially?

In the languages I know, verbal tense, number, gender, etc. is applied after the word stem. Is there any language where verb conjugation morphologically affects the beginning of a word and not the end ...
3
votes
1answer
236 views

Languages Spoken in 7500 BCE?

What reconstructed languages were spoken around 7500 BCE and which of those was likely to have the most speakers? I know nothing is concrete about this, but best guesses would be appreciated. Also ...
1
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0answers
51 views

Is there a language that uses some kind of second layer traits (signs of a two-dimensional character)?

I've just read about the Saussure's second primordial principle that states that language is linear. This is sometimes interpreted as the notion of one-dimensioness of language. The second dimension ...
2
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3answers
690 views

Are there any languages with different plural forms for different numbers?

Are there any languages where there are different plural forms depending on the count? For example: 1 cook 2 cooks 10 cooks (this would be a different word)
1
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1answer
158 views

Is there any language other than Japanese in which a phone call is answered by a greeting using repeated phonetics?

It came to my attention that a way to answer phone calls, in Japanese, is by saying "もしもし" (transliterated Moshi Moshi). Please note that the "もし" (transliterated Moshi) is repeated twice. I was ...
5
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1answer
280 views

Which language code set (WALS, Linguasphere, ISO 639‑3 or Glottolog) should be the basis for a comparative linguistic project?

To compile a word-list database which includes the available scattered word lists (mainly Swadesh lists), which language code should one use? WALS with 2679 entries, lots of linguistic data included....
5
votes
1answer
196 views

What languages have rounding assimilation/harmony with glides?

Specifically, I'm looking for languages with a [j]/[ɥ] or [j]/[w] alternation that is triggered by the presence of a round vowel. For a hypothetical example with nonce words consider: (1) a. [ken] + [...
9
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5answers
275 views

Are there any known natural languages in which tense is never (or very rarely) expressed through the modification of verbs?

I should probably confess up front that I don't have a great deal of knowledge of foreign languages, but I have lately taken a strong interest in the structure and nature of language, and have spent a ...
-5
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1answer
89 views

Where to get lists of words in all languages in text format? [closed]

I want to get the list of words in text format in all possible languages and make my deck for ankidriod by exporting alphabetically from Excel. After that I will try to make a phonetic analysis.
1
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1answer
236 views

Modern IE languages which do not permit consonant cluster at the begining of syllables

and also please guide me how to acquire such information from online linguistics resources (for example WALS.info).
2
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1answer
215 views

Written languages that acquired negative concord?

In Shakespeare's time, double and even triple negatives could be used to strengthen a negative (see e.g. Is Shakespeare's Double Negative Grammatically Wrong? on English SE). In present-day Standard ...
2
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0answers
70 views

Which non-Asian languages use a single morpheme for clausal and subject/agent nominalisation?

I'm looking for languages (as many as possible :P) outside the Mainland Southeast Asia region in which there is a single morpheme performing two roles: 1) Clausal nominalisation. I will define this ...
5
votes
3answers
751 views

Language that uses IPA

Is there a language that uses the International Phonetic Alphabet as their official writing system? Basically, Is there a language using [a less strict version of] IPA as their writing system? Is ...
3
votes
2answers
291 views

'Before'/'after' as a spatial metaphor: is the opposite possible?

In English (and, apparently, most Indo-European languages, if not in all), a common trait can be noticed concerning the prepositions/adverbs of temporal reference: 'before' and (to a lesser extent in ...
8
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6answers
732 views

Do there exist languages with wh-prepositions?

I can imagine a language where instead of "what did you put a toy on?" one says something like "whon did you put a toy?". Do such languages exist?
17
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3answers
4k views

Do any languages use {woman} as the root for human?

In English, along with some other Latinate languages, the word for our species as a whole is related specifically to that of the male sex: 'Latin humanus "of man, human," – Etymoline' This, ...