Questions tagged [logic]

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62 views

truth condition of 'uniqueness' in the (neo) Russellian theory

I'm trying to work out how (∀y (student(y) → y = x) represents uniqueness. How come we need that formula there? Doesn't just ∃x student(x) ⋀ met(j,x)) suffice? Or, would it be the expression for I ...
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52 views

Predicate logic and always?

How do I translate a sentence like this into predicate logic? Always if an amateur chef bakes a burnt cookie, then nobody eats that burnt cookie. My attempt is something like this ∀[chef’(x)∧ ...
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144 views

Is there a “logical background” theory to explain control-flow similarity in virtually all human languages?

In programming there are two very common aspects of logical operators and conditioning (I assume the border between the two isn't always well defined). Logical operators would include, for example: ...
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109 views

Discrepancy between Classical Logic, Set Theory, Propositional Logic and Languages [closed]

In logic, "Or" strictly refers to logical disjuntion, while "And" strictly refers to logical conjuction. But in common parlance, both can fill the role of Logical Disjunction I understand that one ...
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63 views

Carrying a mistake in a sentence until contradiction

I am new to the field of linguistics so please forgive any ignorance or naivety, but there is something I have been thinking about recently and cannot find anything about it online. I suppose there ...
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41 views

Data set for reasoning?

I am looking data set for reasoning. Basically, more examples like this one: 1. I like food. 2. Cake is food. Conclusion: I like cake.
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26 views

Necessity and Possibility, Domain Widen, Indeterminate Phrase

I wanna ask a question about semantics. It's on page 20 in the paper "Indeterminate Pronouns: The View from Japanese" (Kratzer & Shimoyama, 2002). What I don't understand is the part Computing ...
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124 views

Are there any computational linguists who still use prolog?

My understanding is that in the 90's and early 2000's, expert systems and logical rules dominated the field of natural language processing/computational linguistics, but that for the last 10 years, ...
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38 views

Neural Net advances in textual entailment and mathematical semantics/logic view on it

I wonder if researchers working on textual entailment using explicit modelling tools (mathematical semantics / logic /formal semantics) have an explanation of recent success of neural networks in ...
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52 views

Software for finding syllogisms in treebank data?

Is there treebank search software that can locate a syllogism, identifying its major and minor premises and terms? cf. Eyal Mozes, “A Deductive Database Based on Aristotelian Logic,” Journal of ...
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1answer
38 views

directed graph representation of LF

I am a logician new to linguistics. I am curious if there has been any work on using the formalism of directed graphs (as opposed to, say, lambda-calculus or first-order logic) to represent LF of ...
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1answer
400 views

Is there a linguistic notion of a “static” vs “dynamic” noun?

I would have typed a clearer question in the title, but it would have been way too long. By "static," I mean a word or phrase that refers to one object, and one object only. ex. The Eiffel Tower The ...
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1answer
72 views

“As long as”, “So long as”, in logic (ambiguity?)

I'd love an expert opinion on how to interpret "as long as" and "so long as" when doing logic (specifically, whether it's considered a necessary or sufficient conditional indicator). Also, I'd ...
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1answer
139 views

What do the semicolon and period mean in semantics?

What do the semicolon and period mean, please? For context, this is from Truswell's 'Events, Phrases and Questions' and this section in particular is talking about the causal ordering of events
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1answer
64 views

How to write 'x said they would do y but…' in predicate logic?

How do I write "X said to Y that they would do A today, but B happened yesterday" in predicate logic? So for example; Bart said to Lisa that he would braid her hair today, but he chopped his hand ...
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2answers
52 views

Motivation behind the definition for existential quantifiers such as *some* in compositional semantics

Natural language quantifiers such as some and a are formalised for compositional semantics as λP.λQ.∃x.P(x)∧Q(x). Compared to the formalisation of quantifiers such as every or all I do not quite ...
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29 views

Database of formalized english sentences?

(Not sure if this is the right site to ask) Is there an online (preferably free) database of English sentences and the corresponding first-order representations?
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1answer
103 views

What are technical terms and treatments in the literature for the exactly the following special kind of pleonasm?

Question. What is an attested technical term for the following kind of pleonasm? Has this been described scientifically and where? What are other examples than the one I give below? Let N be a noun. ...
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2answers
127 views

What is the best/state-of-the-art logic for representing English language?

I know people have used lambda terms which "compile into" first-order logic, but based on what I have seen that is not particularly great for representing complex sentences with causal or temporal ...
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1answer
281 views

Truth-conditions of predicate-logic formulas for donkey sentences

I'm current learning about compositional semantics, quantifier raising and scope ambiguity in my semantics class and I'm having trouble answering some questions. I've attempted to answer the questions ...
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1answer
116 views

Louis Couturat on inclusive disjunction in Ido

In Ido, the constructed language he helped to build, Louis Couturat attempted to introduce vel, a conjunction that would express inclusive disjunction—so that, in logical sentences, the conjunction o(...
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1answer
2k views

What's the difference between metonymy, meronymy, meronomy and mereology?

I know that these terms are used in different subfields of linguistics: Metonymy and metonyms are used in rhetorics and metaphor theory. Meronymy and meronyms are used in lexical semantics. Meronomy, ...
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155 views

Is the Logical meaning of 'only if' produced by 'only' (that widens 'if')?

I'm asking for multiple languages, and use grey colour to refer to the concepts denoted by the English words. Abbreviate Necessary Condition to NC, Sufficient Condition to SC. I already know that: ...
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1answer
126 views

Universal/commonsense knowledge bases (OpenCog, OpenCyc) for representation of meaning in natural language processing (computational linguistics)

What is the status, endeavours and prospects for the use of universal/commonsense knowledge bases (KB) for the representation of the meaning of the natural languages in natural language processing / ...
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114 views

Truth-neutral, truth-indifferent, & truth-committed verbs?

In English, I go to the store. is understood to mean It is true that I go to the store. Suppose I want to succinctly express I am indifferent to whether it is true or false that I go to ...
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1answer
91 views

Does Syntactic Category determines Position in the sentence and the Position in the sentence determines Category?

Source: p 48, Syntax, A Generative Introduction (3 ed, 2012) by Andrew Carnie. The following is NOT a homework question as I am not studying Linguistics but I have endeavoured to evidence my effort. ...
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382 views

Understanding Symbols in Chomsky's *Logical Structure of Linguistic Theory*

I've been reading Chomsky's The Logical Structure of Linguistic Theory, and have come up rather suddenly against a stumbling block. On page 133, he uses without explanation some notation that's ...
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344 views

Complete definition of logical connectives and quantifiers?

The list of logical connectives might be subject to debate, but what do you think is the most complete one? For English language and computational logic. I'm looking to implement a semantical ...
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1answer
32 views

Responding to a question about differences of an entity [closed]

Say that someone asks you "What's the difference between those curves (see the image below)?" Given the definition of a curve as being "a line or outline which gradually deviates from being straight ...
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1answer
114 views

Logic disambiguation in composed sentences with negative predicates and “or” conjunction

Today, I've attended a psychological test for the master thesis of a friend of mine. The target is children and adults. So don't scare if you see in the following lines that I speak about animals. I ...
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2answers
87 views

How can I represent “I sometimes pet bunnies” using lambda functions?

Update: Removed ancillary wording. My question was how to represent sometimes in propositional logic in the sentence: I sometimes pet bunnies.
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1answer
114 views

Which famous linguists embrace historical logic to understand language?

[Source:] As other commenters have noted, looking for logic in language is almost always futile. No natural language is logical. But there is a historical logic to language development; even if the ...
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2answers
261 views

How did the Latin stem '-duce' evolve to mean 'from an effect'?

From the following (on the 3 derivatives of ducere), both 'induction' and 'abduction' presuppose 'an effect', but 'deduction' produces (I intended this use of another derivative of ducere) 'the ...
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47 views

Difference between linguistics and metamathematics [duplicate]

Pardon my ignorance but I don't know a whole lot about linguistics. I actually wasn't aware this was a subject until I started investigating the foundations of mathematics and came upon ...
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171 views

Predicate logic

Is anyone good at predicate logic and can help me to paraphrase the meaning of the following sentences? F=favour D=be a dog P=be a park (∀x) (Ǝy) Dx & Py > Fx,y H=hire M=be a manager E=be an ...
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1answer
285 views

Are there uses of linear logic in linguistics?

Are there uses of linear logic in linguistics? I've kind of heard of some applications but it's hard for me to see the big picture.
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3answers
346 views

How does 'unless' mean 'or' or 'if not'? [closed]

Source: p 139, Introduction to Logic (2 ed, 2010) by Harry J. Gensler. [1.] Translate “unless” as “or.” ...     [eg: A unless B =  B unless A = Either A or B]. [2.] “Unless” is also ...
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278 views

How to represent a dative verb in first order logic?

I understand that the representation of an intransitive verb, V in lambda calculus would be lambda x. V(x), where x is the subject. How do I represent an intransitive verb followed by a ...
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134 views

If we can only translate declarative sentences into symbolic logic, then how is symbolic logic useful for linguistics?

I can see how SL can be a decent metalanguage for doing cross-linguistic semantic work, but I feel like it's severely limited by the fact that you can't translate any kind of non-declarative sentence. ...
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676 views

On donkey sentences: why is this formalization incorrect?

Part of the difficulty surrounding donkey sentences, to my understanding, is about how hard they are to translate to FOL in a matter that is consistent with other translations to FOL in english. Take ...
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1answer
1k views

The notion of monotonicity

I am slightly confused bu the notion of upward-monotonicity and downward-monotonicity. I cannot understand what exactly can be defined as upward-monoty and down-ward-monotony, is this definition of ...