Questions tagged [logic]

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5
votes
1answer
122 views

Louis Couturat on inclusive disjunction in Ido

In Ido, the constructed language he helped to build, Louis Couturat attempted to introduce vel, a conjunction that would express inclusive disjunction—so that, in logical sentences, the conjunction o(...
4
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0answers
401 views

Understanding Symbols in Chomsky's *Logical Structure of Linguistic Theory*

I've been reading Chomsky's The Logical Structure of Linguistic Theory, and have come up rather suddenly against a stumbling block. On page 133, he uses without explanation some notation that's ...
3
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1answer
3k views

What's the difference between metonymy, meronymy, meronomy and mereology?

I know that these terms are used in different subfields of linguistics: Metonymy and metonyms are used in rhetorics and metaphor theory. Meronymy and meronyms are used in lexical semantics. Meronomy, ...
3
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1answer
508 views

Is there a linguistic notion of a "static" vs "dynamic" noun?

I would have typed a clearer question in the title, but it would have been way too long. By "static," I mean a word or phrase that refers to one object, and one object only. ex. The Eiffel Tower The ...
3
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1answer
166 views

What do the semicolon and period mean in semantics?

What do the semicolon and period mean, please? For context, this is from Truswell's 'Events, Phrases and Questions' and this section in particular is talking about the causal ordering of events
3
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2answers
91 views

How can I represent "I sometimes pet bunnies" using lambda functions?

Update: Removed ancillary wording. My question was how to represent sometimes in propositional logic in the sentence: I sometimes pet bunnies.
3
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1answer
39 views

directed graph representation of LF

I am a logician new to linguistics. I am curious if there has been any work on using the formalism of directed graphs (as opposed to, say, lambda-calculus or first-order logic) to represent LF of ...
3
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1answer
326 views

Truth-conditions of predicate-logic formulas for donkey sentences

I'm current learning about compositional semantics, quantifier raising and scope ambiguity in my semantics class and I'm having trouble answering some questions. I've attempted to answer the questions ...
3
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0answers
90 views

Inverse scope reading

It is well known that any sentence with two or more quantifiers will result in in multiple possible readings depending on the ordering of the quantifiers. To take a known example (1), there will be ...
3
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0answers
42 views

Data set for reasoning?

I am looking data set for reasoning. Basically, more examples like this one: 1. I like food. 2. Cake is food. Conclusion: I like cake.
3
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0answers
145 views

Are there any computational linguists who still use prolog?

My understanding is that in the 90's and early 2000's, expert systems and logical rules dominated the field of natural language processing/computational linguistics, but that for the last 10 years, ...
3
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0answers
41 views

Neural Net advances in textual entailment and mathematical semantics/logic view on it

I wonder if researchers working on textual entailment using explicit modelling tools (mathematical semantics / logic /formal semantics) have an explanation of recent success of neural networks in ...
3
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0answers
30 views

Database of formalized english sentences?

(Not sure if this is the right site to ask) Is there an online (preferably free) database of English sentences and the corresponding first-order representations?
2
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2answers
304 views

How did the Latin stem '-duce' evolve to mean 'from an effect'?

From the following (on the 3 derivatives of ducere), both 'induction' and 'abduction' presuppose 'an effect', but 'deduction' produces (I intended this use of another derivative of ducere) 'the ...
2
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2answers
220 views

Conditional clauses, use of 'if, then, else' in major non-English languages?

Are there major languages in the world that construct conditional clauses differently than English? That is, the translation of "if" and associated words would not be direct due to different ...
2
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2answers
137 views

What is the best/state-of-the-art logic for representing English language?

I know people have used lambda terms which "compile into" first-order logic, but based on what I have seen that is not particularly great for representing complex sentences with causal or temporal ...
2
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1answer
2k views

The notion of monotonicity

I am slightly confused bu the notion of upward-monotonicity and downward-monotonicity. I cannot understand what exactly can be defined as upward-monoty and down-ward-monotony, is this definition of ...
2
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1answer
66 views

How to write 'x said they would do y but...' in predicate logic?

How do I write "X said to Y that they would do A today, but B happened yesterday" in predicate logic? So for example; Bart said to Lisa that he would braid her hair today, but he chopped his hand ...
2
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1answer
145 views

Universal/commonsense knowledge bases (OpenCog, OpenCyc) for representation of meaning in natural language processing (computational linguistics)

What is the status, endeavours and prospects for the use of universal/commonsense knowledge bases (KB) for the representation of the meaning of the natural languages in natural language processing / ...
2
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1answer
123 views

Logic disambiguation in composed sentences with negative predicates and "or" conjunction

Today, I've attended a psychological test for the master thesis of a friend of mine. The target is children and adults. So don't scare if you see in the following lines that I speak about animals. I ...
2
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0answers
60 views

rules of syllogistic logic in an OVS or OSV language

I am looking to write the present the rules of Aristotelian syllogistic logic in a language that would be unfamiliar to my mostly-American students. So I thought I would do it in an OVS or OSV ...
2
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0answers
63 views

Software for finding syllogisms in treebank data?

Is there treebank search software that can locate a syllogism, identifying its major and minor premises and terms? cf. Eyal Mozes, “A Deductive Database Based on Aristotelian Logic,” Journal of ...
2
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0answers
126 views

Truth-neutral, truth-indifferent, & truth-committed verbs?

In English, I go to the store. is understood to mean It is true that I go to the store. Suppose I want to succinctly express I am indifferent to whether it is true or false that I go to ...
1
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1answer
117 views

Which famous linguists embrace historical logic to understand language?

[Source:] As other commenters have noted, looking for logic in language is almost always futile. No natural language is logical. But there is a historical logic to language development; even if the ...
1
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3answers
752 views

On donkey sentences: why is this formalization incorrect?

Part of the difficulty surrounding donkey sentences, to my understanding, is about how hard they are to translate to FOL in a matter that is consistent with other translations to FOL in english. Take ...
1
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1answer
56 views

When are 'or' and 'unless' exclusive in (daily) English?

I have two questions since I saw this SE answer. First, for the following sentence: English 'or' is only exclusive when only one premise is possible: 'You hydrate or you don't hydrate.' or 'I saw a ...
1
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2answers
72 views

truth condition of 'uniqueness' in the (neo) Russellian theory

I'm trying to work out how (∀y (student(y) → y = x) represents uniqueness. How come we need that formula there? Doesn't just ∃x student(x) ⋀ met(j,x)) suffice? Or, would it be the expression for I ...
1
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2answers
59 views

Motivation behind the definition for existential quantifiers such as *some* in compositional semantics

Natural language quantifiers such as some and a are formalised for compositional semantics as λP.λQ.∃x.P(x)∧Q(x). Compared to the formalisation of quantifiers such as every or all I do not quite ...
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2answers
139 views

If we can only translate declarative sentences into symbolic logic, then how is symbolic logic useful for linguistics?

I can see how SL can be a decent metalanguage for doing cross-linguistic semantic work, but I feel like it's severely limited by the fact that you can't translate any kind of non-declarative sentence. ...
1
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2answers
110 views

Predicate logic and always?

How do I translate a sentence like this into predicate logic? Always if an amateur chef bakes a burnt cookie, then nobody eats that burnt cookie. My attempt is something like this ∀[chef’(x)∧ ...
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0answers
104 views

Is it true that neologisms (loaned words) have a more limited and specific meaning?

My impression was that many neologisms tend to provide a more specific meaning than the original, have a more limited application, and a less large sense than the origin-word. But I have seen some ...
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0answers
72 views

Carrying a mistake in a sentence until contradiction

I am new to the field of linguistics so please forgive any ignorance or naivety, but there is something I have been thinking about recently and cannot find anything about it online. I suppose there ...
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0answers
30 views

Necessity and Possibility, Domain Widen, Indeterminate Phrase

I wanna ask a question about semantics. It's on page 20 in the paper "Indeterminate Pronouns: The View from Japanese" (Kratzer & Shimoyama, 2002). What I don't understand is the part Computing ...
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0answers
48 views

Difference between linguistics and metamathematics [duplicate]

Pardon my ignorance but I don't know a whole lot about linguistics. I actually wasn't aware this was a subject until I started investigating the foundations of mathematics and came upon ...
0
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3answers
424 views

How does 'unless' mean 'or' or 'if not'? [closed]

Source: p 139, Introduction to Logic (2 ed, 2010) by Harry J. Gensler. [1.] Translate “unless” as “or.” ...     [eg: A unless B =  B unless A = Either A or B]. [2.] “Unless” is also ...
0
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1answer
57 views

(how) do natural languages distinguish classes and instances of things?

In data modeling and other areas of knowledge organization there is often a strict separation between abstract classes of things and individual objects. For instance I am an instance of the class ...
0
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1answer
308 views

Are there uses of linear logic in linguistics?

Are there uses of linear logic in linguistics? I've kind of heard of some applications but it's hard for me to see the big picture.
0
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1answer
82 views

The verb "to hit" does not change the form between active voice and passive voice - implications [closed]

As adults we confidently grasp the concept of searching for context when information in a few words spoken to us is not enough. Moreover, we apply logic and cause-effect dependencies, filtering out ...
0
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1answer
113 views

Does Syntactic Category determines Position in the sentence and the Position in the sentence determines Category?

Source: p 48, Syntax, A Generative Introduction (3 ed, 2012) by Andrew Carnie. The following is NOT a homework question as I am not studying Linguistics but I have endeavoured to evidence my effort. ...
0
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1answer
32 views

Responding to a question about differences of an entity [closed]

Say that someone asks you "What's the difference between those curves (see the image below)?" Given the definition of a curve as being "a line or outline which gradually deviates from being straight ...
0
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2answers
301 views

How to represent a dative verb in first order logic?

I understand that the representation of an intransitive verb, V in lambda calculus would be lambda x. V(x), where x is the subject. How do I represent an intransitive verb followed by a ...
0
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0answers
158 views

Is the Logical meaning of 'only if' produced by 'only' (that widens 'if')?

I'm asking for multiple languages, and use grey colour to refer to the concepts denoted by the English words. Abbreviate Necessary Condition to NC, Sufficient Condition to SC. I already know that: ...
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0answers
182 views

Predicate logic

Is anyone good at predicate logic and can help me to paraphrase the meaning of the following sentences? F=favour D=be a dog P=be a park (∀x) (Ǝy) Dx & Py > Fx,y H=hire M=be a manager E=be an ...
0
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1answer
179 views

"As long as", "So long as", in logic (ambiguity?)

I'd love an expert opinion on how to interpret "as long as" and "so long as" when doing logic (specifically, whether it's considered a necessary or sufficient conditional indicator). Also, I'd ...
-1
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2answers
356 views

Complete definition of logical connectives and quantifiers?

The list of logical connectives might be subject to debate, but what do you think is the most complete one? For English language and computational logic. I'm looking to implement a semantical ...
-1
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1answer
106 views

What are technical terms and treatments in the literature for the exactly the following special kind of pleonasm?

Question. What is an attested technical term for the following kind of pleonasm? Has this been described scientifically and where? What are other examples than the one I give below? Let N be a noun. ...
-1
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2answers
153 views

Is there a "logical background" theory to explain control-flow similarity in virtually all human languages?

In programming there are two very common aspects of logical operators and conditioning (I assume the border between the two isn't always well defined). Logical operators would include, for example: ...
-4
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1answer
119 views

Discrepancy between Classical Logic, Set Theory, Propositional Logic and Languages [closed]

In logic, "Or" strictly refers to logical disjuntion, while "And" strictly refers to logical conjuction. But in common parlance, both can fill the role of Logical Disjunction I understand that one ...