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Questions tagged [morphology]

The study of the structure and formation of words and their component parts, "morphemes".

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Does Hittite ever have "morphographemic writings"?

In Akkadian, we often see "morphographemic" spellings, where signs are divided up by morpheme boundaries instead of syllable boundaries. For example, išpur=am "he sent it to me" ...
Draconis's user avatar
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Georgian "suffixal nominal marker"

Let me conjugate აშენება asheneba "to build" as an example. In the present indicative: ვაშენებ v-a-shen-eb-Ø "I build" აშენებ Ø-a-shen-eb-Ø "you build" აშენებს Ø-a-shen-...
Arcaeca's user avatar
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What grammatical number is assigned to noun phrases formed by the conjunction "and"?

In a language with number agreement on determiners, would the phrase "the good boy and girl" have an adjective and article that is marked as plural since "the" and "good" ...
Quinali Solaji's user avatar
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3 answers
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Can ergative languages have a passive construction?

I've recently started reading more about ergative languages, such as Basque. I understand that cases in ergative languages differ from nominal-accusative languages. For example, a sentence like "...
LarenEmpty's user avatar
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"Focussed for locus"

Wikipedia mentions that one of the slots in the Sumerian verb template is the "conjugation prefixes", whose meaning no one apparently knows for sure, other than that every verb has to have ...
Arcaeca's user avatar
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10 examples of complex infix / circumfix words which also contain prefixes and/or suffixes (cross language)? [closed]

I am putting together a cheatsheet of complex word forms across languages, so myself and others if so desired want to have a test suite of words to work with to figure out how to handle their complex ...
Lance's user avatar
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Semantic loans; words borrowing a meaning already there?

What exactly is a semantic loan, how can a word borrow a meaning it already has? I am trying to figure out whether there are any limitations (can we choose any morphemes) on the recipient word and the ...
George Ntoulos's user avatar
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Propositional fusions?

I was wondering if there are any examples from natural or constructed languages that offer a syntactic form equating to a sentence like “I used to live in Japan and my mom is from Japan”. The above ...
Julius Hamilton's user avatar
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Any morphemes that affect valency and aspect?

I'll give an example of what I mean by this. In Tongan, there is a verbal suffix -'i that can either introduce a new argument or seemingly alter the aspect of the verb. In (1) below, ‘the girl’ is an ...
Patrickk's user avatar
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Polynonpersonal agreement: agreement for noun class of multiple arguments

Among languages that inflect their verbs for person, a majority index both the agent and patient arguments in a transitive clause. There are also languages that index one argument for non-person ...
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Are words like "five-minute" or "two-storey" considered phrasal words?

In my Morphology course, my lecturer introduced something called "phrasal word". Basically, a phrasal word has the structure of a phrase, yet it can function like a word. For example, "...
Nora's user avatar
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Dependent-marking on adpositions?

Is there a language such that an adposition is dependent-marked so that one can infer that it depends on head X but not Y? As a possible example, an affix is attached to an adposition to show that it ...
Shpekard's user avatar
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Could the initial d- in the word for tongue be originally a prefix?

I am looking for the most ancient proto-world lemmas and it seems, the word for tongue is shared by many families from over the world. Here are some selected examples: Niger-Congo: * Proto-Heiban: ...
Anixx's user avatar
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What is the difference between 'free morpheme' and 'root'?

It is said that: • in free morphemes the word form consists of exactly one morpheme (e.g., word, act, etc). • root: is the morpheme left over when all inflectional and derivational affixes have ...
J.a.deb's user avatar
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What is Double Zero Grade?

The double zero grade *ǵʰi-m- is preserved in the compounds with numerals. (de Vaan, Etymological Dictionary of Latin 2013: hiems) E.g. *dwi-ǵʰim-os “two years old”, literally “of two winters” (en....
vectory's user avatar
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Are there any examples of morphology changes when combining two "word parts", which changes more than prefixes/suffixes/infixes/circumfixes do?

In learning about the Hunspell dictionary format, I came across the paper Implementation of infixes and circumfixes in the spellcheckers, where they describe an extension to Hunspell for better ...
Lance's user avatar
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Can the Hunspell dictionary format capture things beyond prefixes and suffixes?

I know this is mostly a technical / data question, but it is majorly about linguistics too and I don't think this is really up the alley of a lot of software engineers, so I am asking here. So the ...
Lance's user avatar
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What's the gender of "nice" in "Mary is a nice person"?

I just read this rule in Greek Essential Grammar: This passage says that, in the Greek sentence for "Mary is a nice person", the adjective nice is masculine because it must agree with the ...
chocojunkie's user avatar
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5 answers
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Does there exist a pair of words with the same parts of speech, same base form, but different inflections?

I will attempt to illustrate my question via example. Let's say we have two verbs which are homonyms of eachother: "fleeber" and "fleeber". The first means "to create a soft ...
Bunny's user avatar
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Are there any languages where inflectional processes apply before word formation processes?

I just read that usually word formation processes occur before any inflectional processes. Are there any languages in the world where the opposite happens?
h061's user avatar
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Which non-Indoeuropean languages have noun-adjective agreement?

For example, agglutinative/fusional languages where case or possessive suffixes/endings must be attached both to a noun and all adjectives that modify it. Or any other kind of noun-adjective agreement....
Slavus's user avatar
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Are there languages with free argument order that lack a passive voice? If not, why not?

Consider German, with its four cases and relatively free argument-order. Now consider the following German sentence, courtesy of Google Translate. Johan schenkte dem Mädchen eine Katze. (Johan gave ...
James Grossmann's user avatar
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2 answers
65 views

How can the morphology of a language be formally represented i.e. computerized? [closed]

Languages can have very different morphologies. For instance, Sanskrit has a morphology that is heavily based on the root, and the combination of roots with other roots results in new words (it is ...
Fomalhaut's user avatar
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Distinction between allomorphy and homophony

My understanding of allomorphy, is that it is the case where a single functional morpheme is realized with many different Vocabulary Items. But homophony (that is accidental) is also found with Roots, ...
Yili Xia's user avatar
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Is morphology of English mostly done by its etymology?

I have the following observations and not sure if they are correct. Whenever I want to learn about the morphology of a word in English, e.g. the affixes and root of the word, my search on the ...
Tim's user avatar
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Multiple plurals per inflectional paradigm slot (Arabic)

Lexemes are generally associated with inflectional paradigms; let us take a nominal for the purpose of this discussion, and more specifically an Arabic nominal. Let's say that we are dealing with a ...
chriscay's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
253 views

How do I determine the underlying form of allomorphs when the word stem is also alternating?

Full disclosure: this is a course assignment so I'd just like some guidance on how to untangle things rather than straight answers! I'm really struggling to wrap my head around this and the course ...
Sam's user avatar
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Are there any natural languages that have one or more morphemes that each stand for both "other(s)" and "more"?

I've been working on the quantifiers for a conlang of mine and noticed that the concepts "other" and "more" are each related to the notion of additional quantities. So, we have ...
James Grossmann's user avatar
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What is the leipzig convention for glossing nonce words?

How do you gloss nonce words (words which are created for a single occasion and have no meaning on their own) in interlinear glossing?
Mrloory's user avatar
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How to "properly" name a "reduced" form of a word when it's used in a compound word?

I am trying to find a proper name for forms, that do not exist by themselves, but kinda happen when this word is combined with another to form a compound word, example in Estonian: ratsionaliseerimine ...
62mkv's user avatar
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is "together" a monomorphemic word or can it be broken into "to" (derivational prefix) "geth" (bound root) "er" (inflectional suffix)

is "together" a monomorphemic word or can it be broken into "to" (derivational prefix) "geth" (bound root) "er" (inflectional suffix). or could it be I a free ...
sarah's user avatar
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How common is it for languages in contact to exchange inflectional morphemes?

So languages in contact will of course borrow vocabulary from each other. And languages in contact for a really long time might converge on a common sentence structure or other morphological typology -...
Arcaeca's user avatar
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Does the morphological analysis of complex words acknowledge/allow multiple derivations?

I have been watching videos in Youtube concerning the morphological composition of complex words, e.g. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PQKJNBAbYqM. Phrase structure (as opposed to dependency structure)...
Tim Osborne's user avatar
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Where can I find all of the consonant/vowel word formation formulas for a given language? And what is the name of this?

I'm new to linguistics. I've seen that there are CVC or VVC or similar structures presented in online resources (for example Wikipedia) to denote the possible combinations of sounds. I want to find a ...
Ali Radan's user avatar
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5 answers
118 views

Do some languages use lexical stress to differentiate words with unrelated meanings?

In English, lexical stress is occasionally used to differentiate words with the same consonant and vowel phonemes and that have related meanings. (Please forgive the incomplete definitions.) re ˈpeat ...
James Grossmann's user avatar
-2 votes
1 answer
44 views

How to create a generic model for terms that works cross-linguistically?

I am thinking how to create a "dictionary term" data model, and notice I don't have a real clear definition of a "term" which works across languages. Focusing on a "term" ...
Lance's user avatar
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3 votes
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What do Georgian thematic suffixes even do, and where do they come from?

Georgian has two sets of verb affixes that don't really mark a specific tense or aspect themselves, but the combination of them narrows down which TAM-indicating conjugation you're looking at - the ...
Arcaeca's user avatar
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4 votes
1 answer
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Is compounding a universal word-formation strategy?

From what I've read, compounding is one of a number of word-formation processes. By word-formation, I mean "the process of creating new lexemes in a language." One common process is the ...
James Grossmann's user avatar
6 votes
2 answers
553 views

Are inflectional morphemes considered affixes in English?

From what I remember to have learned in SPANISH, which is my mother tongue, affixes just refer to derivational morphemes such as suffixes and prefixes which can change the meaning of words when added ...
Irene Domingo's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
98 views

Nominal umlaut alteration in German

I am trying to understand how umlaut came to be as a marker for various inflectional forms in Germanic. The obvious answer is that there was i-umlaut, a-umlaut, u-umlaut, R-umlaut, breaking and ...
Hlakkar's user avatar
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2 answers
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Can someone explain the ambiguity of the vowel [ø] and null segment [∅]?

Typically the IPA avoids using the same glyph in different scales to represent similar ideas however it seems to me that the representation of the Close-mid Front Rounded Vowel [ø] and the null marker ...
An Amateurish Linguist's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
57 views

Are there specified names for categories of morphemes (or words that can combine with morphemes) in morphotactics?

Morphotactics is the study of the rules in a language by which morphemes are allowed to combine. So at least in how I think of if, morphotactics is like grammar, but at the level of morphemes instead ...
Nathan BeDell's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
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Derivation of Morpheme for "Raising" in NACLO Problem

The Problem The Solution Partial Explanation chak appears in both (11) and (12), both of which are about catching. It doesn't appear anywhere else, so we can assume it is some form of "catching&...
MeltedStatementRecognizing's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
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How do theories of inflection account for syntactic expressions of a grammatical category?

If an inflectional paradigm is as Gregory Stump describes in his 2015 book Inflectional Paradigms: a complete set of a lexeme L's cells, where a cell is a "pairing [of] the lexical content of L ...
minseong's user avatar
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3 votes
1 answer
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Origin of Latin Non-Finite Verbal Endings

I'm wondering about the origins of the various non-finite verbal endings in Latin. My understanding so far of their PIE origins: Infinitives: Present Active: -s-ey (dative of an s-stem verbal noun) ...
Tristan's user avatar
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Are words such as sandwich,pumpkin and dictionary monomorphemic?

Can the above words be divided further or are they monomorphemic words?
Noora's user avatar
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Is -ing a derivational suffix in leading?

If leading is used as an adjective here,is -ing a derivational suffix or is it only an inflectional suffix?
user40381's user avatar
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Can you provide a cheat-sheet for turning Proto-Indo-European dictionaries from the older style into laryngeal notation?

Much of the resources I have for Proto-Indo-European itself (not etymological dictionaries for other languages) either use Laryngeal notation but are limited in scope (like Wiktionary) or are written ...
Oron61's user avatar
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If English adj → adv "-ly" suffix were inflectional, which grammatical category is it related to?

Wikipedia introduces inflection as a word is modified to express different grammatical categories such as tense, case, voice, aspect, person, number, gender, mood, animacy, and definiteness. ...
minseong's user avatar
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Does (latin) 'cor' count as a stem of the English word 'courage'?

Looking up the etymology of "courage" reveals that it comes from Old French corage which comes from Latin coraticum, which is the Latin word cor ("heart") + the noun-forming suffix ...
minseong's user avatar
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