Questions tagged [notation]

Questions on notation used in linguistics

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49 views

How to write these rules in features?

I was wondering how do you write these rules in features using the minimum number of features to describe the segment(s) targeted by the rule in the input. I am still super new to linguistics! Thank ...
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2answers
803 views

What is “=” in transcriptions of Hittite

I have not yet seen this double-hyphen explained, which is written eg. in An Etymological Dictionary Of The Hittite Inherited Lexicon (Kloekhorsts 2007) -a (3rd.sg.pres.midd.-ending): see -a(ri) =a '...
2
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1answer
109 views

How to write phonology rules using features?

Is there a way to write the following phonology rule using features? The /u/ becomes [ɯ] word-finally when preceded with an unrounded vowel with 1 or more intervening consonants. .
2
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1answer
145 views

How to write exceptions in sound change notation

How does one write exceptions into formal sound change notation? For example, Pre-Old Japanese seems to have undergone vowel raising of /e/ and /o/ to /i/ and /u/ respectively everywhere except at ...
5
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2answers
1k views

Where this notation comes from and what it means

I have seen in a few places such as here and here this sort of notation: el-ler-imiz-in (Turkish) hand-plr.-1st plr.-genitive case, ‘of our hands’ or: kapi-ja-u-lau-nngit-tuq stab-PASS-be-PST-NEG-...
5
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0answers
126 views

What historical change(s) shortened vowels in Old and Middle English?

In a 1968 paper by Kiparsky ("Linguistic universals and linguistic change"), a historical-change argument is made for the brace notation of SPE, based on the history of vowel shortening. The premise ...
1
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1answer
31 views

Are there delimiters (parentheses, fonts, etc.) that convey that their content is a proposition?

I'm writing an essay on a (very old) functional exposition of judgement. I note that two functions of the mind respectively provide what is functionally equivalent to the statements 'If a ...
2
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1answer
124 views

What do half brackets mean in Akkadian transcriptions?

In Royal Inscriptions of Assyria sometimes there are half brackets around phrases. For example: In this excerpt from the online version of RIM we see raised half brackets around "ri-ik-DI-DINGIR" in ...
1
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1answer
135 views

What is the significance of the super prefixes in Akkadian transcription?

In transcriptions of the Akkadian language, there are frequently superscript prefixes. For example, in the transcription of Amarna Tablet #16: Here there are prefixes such as "matu" and "ilu". What ...
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0answers
49 views

How is the second touch of “DEAF” written in Stokoe notation?

I am trying to understand Stokoe notation, but I am not clear how to specify the location of a second contact, such as in the ASL sign “DEAF”. Presumably the general representation of that sign ...
1
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1answer
2k views

What is this 'OBL'?

I'm reading Goldberg's Constructions and find her employing the symbol 'OBL' to represent a category of syntactic constituent. SUBJ OBL OBJ I take it that 'OBL' is read 'oblique' in some sense; ...
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2answers
3k views

what is the feature notation for total assimilation?

I know the Arabic definite article /l/ is a common example of this, as it assimilates to the following consonant if it's coronal. This would probably be easier in auto-segmental notation but how would ...
5
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1answer
235 views

Linguistic typography documented?

There are some typographic conventions adhered to in most of linguistic literature where it applies. This includes punctuation affixes /phonemic/ [phonetic] and [±feature] ⟨graphemic⟩ or <...
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2answers
4k views

How can I use C's and V's to describe syllable structures in a way that rules out highly unlikely syllable structures?

How can I use C's and V's to describe syllable structures in a way that rules out highly unlikely syllable structures? For example, I recently looked up the fact that "The structure of the Hawaiian ...
2
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2answers
153 views

Do phrase structure rules for natural languages explicitly mark which constituents can consist of coordinated constituents of the same type?

I'm only beginning to review phrase structure rules, so let's take a very basic example: "A sentence consists of a noun phrase + a verb phrase." S --> NP + VP Now the NP can consist of "NP + NP," ...
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0answers
294 views

What is the notation used in Functional Discourse Grammar?

The paper Functional Discourse Grammar by Kees Hengeveld and J. Lachlan Mackenzie describes objects in FDG using notation like the formulae below. (π v1: [head (v1)Φ]: [σ (v1)Φ]) (π M1: [(A1) ... (A1+...
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1answer
329 views

What are *L and *W used to denote in Optimality Theory

In certain papers on Optimality Theory (e.g. this paper by McCarthy, or this) the tableaus contain the notations *L and *W, as seen in the image below: What is meant by these notations? The second ...
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2answers
6k views

Basic syntax notation: noun phrase vs determiner phrase

I'm a first-semester student in linguistics and I need clarifications regarding the following trees: (1) and (2) My course notes seem to stick with the first kind of notation but when I read ...
4
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1answer
272 views

What is the Aramaic transliteration system used in the “Aramaic of Jesus” Wikipedia article?

The Wikipedia article "Aramaic of Jesus" contains many instances of transliterated Aramaic, using a system I have not seen before. Some of the notations are well-established, like ŝ for /ʃ/ and ...
3
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2answers
696 views

How are these diagrams read?

I naively picked up a book in which the author assumes that the reader has a background in linguistics, so she often uses abbreviations without first explaining what they mean. I don't have such a ...
12
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1answer
2k views

IPA transcription of the American English “bunched” /r/

There are 2 common articulations of /r/ and /r̩/ in American English, one retroflex, and the other dorsal. This phone is called the molar or bunched r. It can be described roughly as a back-palatal or ...
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2answers
489 views

Abbreviations for “gerund”, “gerundive” and “supine”?

Are there some commonly used abbreviations for "gerund", "gerundive" and "supine"?
7
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2answers
265 views

What do reversed and dotted tone letters mean?

The IPA uses the 5 tone-letters ˥,˦,˧,˨,˩. Unicode also has reversed (꜒,꜓,꜔,꜕,꜖) and dotted tone bars (꜈,꜉,꜊,꜋,꜌; ꜍,꜎,꜏,꜐,꜑). What are these characters used for?