Questions tagged [parts-of-speech]

The traditional set of eight word classes: Noun, verb, adjective, adverb, preposition, conjunction, pronoun, and interjection.

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18 views

Some participles are defined as adjectives, some aren't

Both excited and rattled are past participles derived from excite and rattle, respectively. However, excited also has a separate entry in the dictionaries where it is described as an adjective, ...
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22 views

Are WH-determiner, WH-adverb and WH-pronoun mutually exclusive?

I was going through this article. It describes WH-determiners, WH-adverbs and WH-pronouns. Below are examples for each from the article: WH-determiners What book are you reading? Which plane is he ...
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40 views

Possessive vs non possesive WH-pronouns

I was going through Jurafsky book. It says following about pronouns in the context of tag set: Wh-pronouns (what, who, whom, whoever) are used in certain question forms, or act as complementizers (...
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48 views

Why are prepositions and subordinate conjunctions grouped as the same tag in the Penn Treebank tag set?

I was reading a book by Jurafsky et. al. It states following: English adpositions occur before nouns, hence are called prepositions. They can indicate spatial or temporal relations, whether literal (...
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34 views

Rationale for grouping my list of trauma collocates into nouns and adjectives

Context: I have a dataset of words within a 5-word window of trauma (i.e., trauma collocates) and they've been parsed into parts of speech (nouns, adjectives, verbs, etc.). I am wanting to look at the ...
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62 views

What parts of speech and sentence constituents are "yes" and "no" words in answers?

Let's look at some examples: — Would you like some ice cream? — No. — Are you happy? — Yes. According to Wiktionary “yes” is a particle: ParticleyesUsed to show agreement or acceptance... “No” and “...
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83 views

English words that can be only used as nouns

Is there a term for words that can be only used as nouns? For example, I think "history" and "sofa" are such words, but "book" and "dog" are not. I'm looking ...
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75 views

Are there any academic papers on the "Adjective like (article) Noun" construction/ phrase?

I am currently working on a paper about the "Adj like (article) Noun" construction. Some would consider that which comes after the "like"-part to be a prepositional phrase if "...
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86 views

How do you distinguish verbs, nouns, and adjectives in Chinese?

I am messing around with a conlang and trying to figure out how to write sentences. Man this is hard, there are so many possibilities and I don't know where to start. But basically, I am looking at ...
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61 views

What parts of speech are common across every language?

I am trying to make a word game, and part of it requires dividing the words into types. I want it it to work across any language, but so far I can only see 3 things that seem to exist in every ...
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119 views

Is this phrase or clause a clause?

Is "lefty loosey, righty tighty" a clause? Or what is "lefty loosey, righty tighty"? Or what part of speech is "lefty loosey, righty tighty"? Or what part of speech is ...
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114 views

How to extract Subject-Verb-Object from a sentence?

Given a corpus of sentences, is there a way to extract subject-verb-object triplets? What is the state-of-art in detecting SVO triplets?
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46 views

Looking for a theoretical treatment of closed- and open-classes

The concept of open-class (e.g. English nouns) and closed-class (e.g. English prepositions) word categories seems to be taken as a given in a lot of papers and textbooks. I'm looking for a treatment ...
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100 views

What part of speech is a phoneme?

I wanted to know what part of speech a phoneme might be or I wanted to know if a phoneme might be a part of speech and I wanted to know if a phoneme can be an affix. I also wanted to know what a ...
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152 views

What part of speech is a letter?

I wanted to know what part of speech a letter might be or I wanted to see if I understand letters. Do people ask this question in this place? Or am I in the place where people would ask this? I asked ...
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Part of speech of the word 'board' when in a compound word

When splitting the compound adjective 'onboard', there are two words; 'on' and 'board'. 'On' is a preposition, but what part of speech is 'board'?
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What does 'MSP' stand for in the context of Chinese parts of speech?

The Part-Of-Speech Tagging Guidelines for the PennChineseTreebank(3.0) uses several acronyms without defining them. I am a hobbyist student of Chinese linguistics as part of my study of Chinese. I ...
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4answers
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Is ‘for’ a complementizer or a preposition in ‘prefer for John to stay’

As the title says, in ‘prefer for John to stay’, is ‘for’ a complementizer and the following is a CP, or a preposition?
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654 views

What is the relation between a specifier and a determiner?

Does specifier mean "the" and "possesser" and determiner mean "the" and "possessive 's"?
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4answers
157 views

What Non-Austronesian languages have a linker or ligature?

In Tagalog, there is a particle called a linker or a ligature, with two forms: na and -ng /-ŋ/. The ligature's main function is to link modifiers (like adjectives and adverbs) and the words that they ...
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3answers
202 views

Buy one free one

In Malaysia it’s common to see “buy one free one” offers in supermarkets, pharmacies etc. I’m a speaker of British English and this construction hurts my ears, but apparently it’s perfectly idiomatic ...
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1answer
91 views

Is duck typing valid to identify parts of speech?

Let's say we're trying to identify a word or a phrase and on the surface it seems a bit strange and to not fit into an easily identified category/part of speech (POS). Is it valid to say "If it walks ...
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308 views

Can adjectives assign thematic roles in English (or other languages)?

Example: The dog was very excited or he was a very excited dog Does excited assign the role of experiencer to dog in either case? Do adjectives assign them in other languages? Or would we say that ...
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2answers
85 views

The linguistic terms for "chains" of similar structures (review material)

Could someone help me identify what these are? I know that "noun chains" are called "noun phrases", and "verb chains" are called "verb phrases", but I don't know the equivalent for adverbs, ...
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Are words classified (PoS) according to their use in a sentence, or does classification precede usage?

This is a rather broad question, so I'd like to limit this to verbs, at least in this explication of the question. Verbs take many forms and roles in sentences. Present participles can take the role ...
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Can the shift in grammatical usage of "an X-ese [person]" be explained linguistically?

While reading An Introduction to Information Theory by John R. Pierce, I was distracted by a linguistic artifact (on page 251 of the second edition): We can tell our friends apart, […] but we find ...
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A question about Carnie's subcategories and features

From Carnie's "Syntax: A Generative Introduction": This notation is not explicitly explained. What does it mean? (I'll write my conjecture below) Recall that T is defined as follows: So I guess the ...
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319 views

Are nouns ever a closed class?

For pretty much any grammatical category, I can think of a language in which it's a closed class. Japanese has closed classes of verbs and (verb-like) adjectives, for example, while Swahili has a ...
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2answers
132 views

( New formulation) Are parts of speech syntactic categories? ( A question on generative grammer)

I only have a rudimentary ( or even less than rudimentary) knowledge of generative grammar. But what strikes me is that the sentence formation rules are coinded using parts of speech. For example ( ...
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68 views

Literature on contemporaneous analyses of languages that pre-date or are not influenced by Aristotle's "Categories" and the grammatici

Does anyone know of literature on contemporaneous analyses of languages that pre-date or are not influenced by Aristotle's "Categories" and the grammatici? For example, did the Chinese analyze Chinese ...
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271 views

Infinitive Marker

In English, is the infinitive marker a part of speech? I noticed that Oxford was using it in the PoS lexical entry position for one sense of "to": https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/us/to "...
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206 views

What are "Auxilliary nouns" in Kyrgyz?

I have heard that the Kyrgyz language has some special words termed "auxilliary nouns" (жардамчы атоочтор in Kyrgyz), but I wasn't able to find out what those words are and how they work in that ...
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125 views

How to determine temporal prepositions

I have several phrases in my text such as 'The changes are consistent with post radiotherapy phrases' I would like to pick these sentences up Is there a way of using parts of speech to determine ...
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1answer
963 views

What are uses of Dependency Parsing in NLP / Computational Linguistics?

Dependency Parsing seems to be present in most of the NLP toolkits out there. What is not clear and what I have trouble finding in Google is what are actual practical, or even research, applications ...
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61 views

How to derive that a sentence is a question from parts of speech

I have recently discovered extraction of parts of speech and I'd like to see what I can get from patterns once a sentence is POS tagged. I am aware that some sentences will be difficult to categorise ...
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1answer
187 views

When is a conjunction not a conjunction?

I am trying to get to the bottom of Thai constructions which I can only gloss along the lines of: (1) Because of the fact that her friends helped her escape prevented the soldiers from catching her; ...
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61 views

Why not use a Lookup taggers?

I do understand that a lookup tagger is one of the simplest ones to implement as it is able to map each word a single POS. Why shouldn't we use it compared to bigram tagger?
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What is the proper terminology for "I touch" in this sentence?

I am trying to diagram this sentence for a personal project: Everything I touch with tenderness pricks like a bramble. From what I understand, Everything is the subject, and pricks is the ...
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383 views

Should Japanese postpositions be treated as belonging to the same category as English prepositions?

The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language and WALS, as well as Wikipedia, treat both English prepositions and Japanese postpositions (particles) as belonging to 'adpositions' (although CGEL ...
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What part of speech is "group" when used in a construct like "people group," or "product group"

Given a class C, we may append it with the literal "group" to obtain a class of sets whose elements are instances of C, and which are related in some way. If you're not super familiar with object ...
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61 views

Connections between categories of type logical grammar and categories of combinatory categorial grammar?

There is nice book https://www.amazon.co.uk/Type-Logical-Grammar-Categorial-Logic/dp/0792332261/ that considers both Montague grammar (type logical grammar (TLG)) in chapters 1 and 2 and combinatory ...
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3answers
225 views

How can you know that a word in a sentence is a verb?

I am wondering what it takes to parse a sentence with incomplete knowledge. That is, take a sentence like this: If I use timeout I have to call again my function at the end of the execution of the ...
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83 views

Terminology around non-word, but word-like, structures

In traditional linguistics literatures there is a clear separation between words and non-words. Words are basically what you'd find in a dictionary. But in todays world you find all kinds of word-like ...
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266 views

Why are three tags necessary for the IOB format? What problem would be caused if we used I and O tags exclusively?

I'm trying to understand how representing chunks works by facing this question : The IOB format categorizes tagged tokens as I , O , and B . Why are three tags necessary? What problem would be ...
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364 views

Stolen, part of speech

I've checked several dictionaries for the word "stolen" only to find it labeled a verb. Virtually all of the examples sentences use it in a manner that I would have considered an adjective: "The ...
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This/that: a determiner or pronoun? [duplicate]

Is there commonly accepted opinion on what lexemes this/that are, determiners or pronouns? E.g. in the following phrase: ... can help you work these out these seem to show some properties of ...
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1answer
961 views

How to tag_pos in nltk for a language that is not English?

Hi my country's language is not in nltk in python. I have a wordlist that contains word and part of speech (noun, verd adj etc.) in excel. But I don't know how to build a corpus. My language is not in ...
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222 views

'Ago' and 'on' vs. 'in'

Consider the phrase a month in in the following sentences: [1] a. Richmond turned nineteen his third week in Vietnam. A̲l̲m̲o̲s̲t̲ ̲a̲ ̲m̲o&...
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987 views

What category is because? [closed]

sorry if this seems really basic! I am stuck on what to name 'because' in the syntax tree I am drawing, which is for the sentence: 'The boy gave Alice a present because he likes her'. I initially ...
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125 views

What do these morphemes' abbreviated glosses mean?

I am taking a course on linguistics and got introduced to a lot of abbreviations. Other than the obvious V for verb, I am having a lot of trouble finding out what the others mean. The book Speech and ...