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Questions tagged [parts-of-speech]

The traditional set of eight word classes: Noun, verb, adjective, adverb, preposition, conjunction, pronoun, and interjection.

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What is the proper terminology for “I touch” in this sentence?

I am trying to diagram this sentence for a personal project: Everything I touch with tenderness pricks like a bramble. From what I understand, Everything is the subject, and pricks is the ...
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59 views

Should Japanese postpositions be treated as belonging to the same category as English prepositions?

The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language and WALS, as well as Wikipedia, treat both English prepositions and Japanese postpositions (particles) as belonging to 'adpositions' (although CGEL ...
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What part of speech is “group” when used in a construct like “people group,” or “product group”

Given a class C, we may append it with the literal "group" to obtain a class of sets whose elements are instances of C, and which are related in some way. If you're not super familiar with object ...
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Connections between categories of type logical grammar and categories of combinatory categorial grammar?

There is nice book https://www.amazon.co.uk/Type-Logical-Grammar-Categorial-Logic/dp/0792332261/ that considers both Montague grammar (type logical grammar (TLG)) in chapters 1 and 2 and combinatory ...
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How can you know that a word in a sentence is a verb?

I am wondering what it takes to parse a sentence with incomplete knowledge. That is, take a sentence like this: If I use timeout I have to call again my function at the end of the execution of the ...
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27 views

Why are three tags necessary for the IOB format? What problem would be caused if we used I and O tags exclusively?

I'm trying to understand how representing chunks works by facing this question : The IOB format categorizes tagged tokens as I , O , and B . Why are three tags necessary? What problem would be ...
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59 views

Stolen, part of speech

I've checked several dictionaries for the word "stolen" only to find it labeled a verb. Virtually all of the examples sentences use it in a manner that I would have considered an adjective: "The ...
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This/that: a determiner or pronoun? [duplicate]

Is there commonly accepted opinion on what lexemes this/that are, determiners or pronouns? E.g. in the following phrase: ... can help you work these out these seem to show some properties of ...
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How to tag_pos in nltk for a language that is not English?

Hi my country's language is not in nltk in python. I have a wordlist that contains word and part of speech (noun, verd adj etc.) in excel. But I don't know how to build a corpus. My language is not in ...
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132 views

Ago and on vs. in

Consider the phrase a month in in the following sentences: [1] a. Richmond turned nineteen his third week in Vietnam. A̲l̲m̲o̲s̲t̲ ̲a̲ ̲m̲o&...
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50 views

What category is because? [closed]

sorry if this seems really basic! I am stuck on what to name 'because' in the syntax tree I am drawing, which is for the sentence: 'The boy gave Alice a present because he likes her'. I initially ...
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What do these morphemes' abbreviated glosses mean?

I am taking a course on linguistics and got introduced to a lot of abbreviations. Other than the obvious V for verb, I am having a lot of trouble finding out what the others mean. The book Speech and ...
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Where is the boundary between an adjective and a noun adjunct?

My working model is thus: An adjective should be flexible in that it can describe a variety of nouns. A noun adjunct looks like an adjective but can only be connected to a limited number of nouns. So, ...
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291 views

Have we observed classes changing from open to closed, or vice versa?

Classes of words in languages tend to be either "open" (accepting new members readily) or "closed" (rejecting new members). This distinction is fairly easy to see: compare how readily English accepted ...
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60 views

Any name for this proposition? : Sounds reflects P.O.S. of the word

I am using natural language processing/speech recognition techniques so that I can provide better tools to learn English pronounciation. While research on relevant topics, I found this fact: ...
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2answers
172 views

What's the difference between particle, marker and adposition?

The three lexical categories (or parts-of-speech) particles, markers, and adpositions are extremely vague to me. Some grammars call marker what others call particle or adposition. For example, the ...
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111 views

What is the part of speech of 'modifiers to adjectives'?

This is something I was just thinking about. Adjectives in a lot of languages can also take modifiers of their own: very big, more intelligent, etc... But is there an actual word for the part of ...
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How do you analyze a standalone hashtag like “#goals”?

For those not fluent in internet-ese, the semantics are something like "The subject under discussion has an aesthetic I want to emulate"; if I saw a picture of someone wearing an outfit I like, I ...
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66 views

What part of speech is the word “that” in “That you be happy!”

In the exclamation That you be happy! what part of speech is the word that? Is it a conjunction via ellipsis, i.e. "(I wish) that you be happy!" If yes, then does this poke a hole in the idea that ...
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123 views

Tests for determining NP status

What are the tests for determining whether a noun is part of a full NP or if it is simply a noun? I'm aware of tests for nounhood generally (plural, formation of an NP with a or the, modification by ...
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1answer
48 views

How would you describe X of Y phrases where X and Y are nouns?

What grammatical feature is being used, when we say something like, "I drink a cup of coffee"? In this sentence we have one noun modifying another noun, "coffee" modifying "cup". Would "cup" or even "...
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Does “a little” (en) correspond to the same grammatical class as “ein wenig” (de)?

If you want to say in German, "I speak a little German", you would say, Ich spreche ein wenig Deutsch. The phrase "ein wenig" is reminiscent of the English phrase "a little", but what is ...
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What's the name of the elements used to extend otherwise basic clauses?

Given the following sentence: "He wrote a love letter at night for his girlfriend". "He wrote a love letter" is the basic SVO clause, but what is the "at night" and "for his girlfriend" part called? ...
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65 views

Why can interrogatives so often be used-as/made-into intensifier adverbs?

Why does the ability to take normally interrogative words like "what" and "how", and turn them into intensifier adverbs, seem like such a language universal concept? In Japanese, you can take the ...
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What is it called when words like “what” and “how”, aren't acting interrogatively, and aren't relative-pronouns?

What's going on when words like "what" and "how" are used in the following, non-interrogative and relative-pronoun, way? "Oh, [how] kind of you! My, [what] a nice young man you've become, love!" Now,...
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What is the particular function of “lol” or “lmao” in the middle of sentences?

For example, look at this statement I found on an internet conversation: "Memes are the opener now I guess lmao but that seems pretty good to me." where the statement makes perfect sense without ...
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Is there any free, single-word wordlist with CLAWS7 part-of-speech tags?

I am looking for a wordlist which includes single-word entries and their part-of-speech tags in UCREL CLAWS7 format. The list must be comprised of scientifically collected data, for example words ...
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2answers
57 views

Where can I find a lexicon of adjectives?

I am currently looking for a list of adjectives that I can use as a seed for a machine learning model. These do not need to be annotated. Are there any open source lexicons that exist which could be ...
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1answer
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are what we translate as “adjectives”, “nouns”, etc, the same kind of words in no indo-european languages?

This question comes from questions in japanese SE. Keiyōshi 形容詞 are translated as adjectives. Meishi 名詞 are translated as nouns. But are they really the same kind of words that we mean with nouns, ...
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2answers
133 views

Given all languages ever existed, is there a limit for different parts of speeches?

I was told here several times, that a part of speech is not universal, but specific for each language as much as the A,T,C and G's are in everyone's genome. Nethertheless, occasionally the same terms ...
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387 views

Do all languages have the same set of grammatical relations?

As for parts of speech, I am quite sure it is not the case. For instance, some languages are problematic in separating clearly verbs from adjectives like Japanese and Korean, some native American ...
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Does each word category have a corresponding phrase category?

The word category noun has a corresponding phrase category noun phrase, adverb has adverb phrase, noun has noun phrase Other word categories like, for instance, determiners and quantifiers seem to m ...
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1answer
2k views

What is the idea behind calling the adverb the garbage can of words?

As chance would have it, I came across three unrelated persons each describing the adverb as the the garbage can among the word classes. It happened in Germany and the original wording was: ...
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2answers
122 views

how do SOV langues mark Subject?

I'm making a conlang and right now it is SVO. I want to make it more in line with an SOV language. Currently Nominatives are unmarked while only 1 Accusatives is marked in a group. So it reads "Bob ...
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1answer
584 views

Get “part of speech” for a Spanish word

I do a little linguistics as a hobby while working of my own software development projects. I am wondering if there is a database or online api where I can easily establish the possible "parts of ...
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54 views

What part of speech is 'echoes' when not a noun plural? [closed]

For example in the sentence: "I will say it loud enough so that it echoes" What part of speech is 'echoes'? Would it become a verb or an adverb?
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When analyzing a set of corpora, are there any standard practices with regard to the classification of gerunds?

In the article, "How Many Words Do You Need to Know in Spanish (or any other foreign language)? And WHICH Words Should You Be Learning?" I came upon the following: “Assume that a language learner ...
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4answers
308 views

What does every verb have in common?

Am trying to deduce what the essential function that all verbs have in common, they are defined as: a word used to describe an action, state, or occurrence To see the issue that am having, let my ...
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226 views

Corpus Linguistics: Is it possible to add a tag for “sentence ending”?

I'm new to Corpus Linguistics and I'm writing a paper about the English and Portuguese "because noun", a type of construction such as "I'm going home because GTA5". However, when I try to search this ...
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1answer
291 views

Part of Speech in English

I am familiar to the concept of Part of Speech changing from one grammatical category to another grammatical category. However, my question is, why would I need to change an existing word from one ...
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How should “at some time” be tagged in Universal Dependencies framework?

I want to tag a sentence Jones was unemployed at some time before he graduated. with UD tags. I'm not sure how to tag at some time. Stanford parser suggests the reading: case (time-6, at-4) ...
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1answer
148 views

Languages with a grammatical distinction between abstract and concrete nouns

Are there any languages making a grammatical distinction between abstract and concrete nouns? I suppose this should boil down to the question about the existence of languages having a morpheme ...
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2answers
244 views

Are there any languages with minimal distinctions between the noun and verb categories?

Are there any languages in which the, largely Indo-European/PIE, and more compartmentalized parts-of-speech system don't work very well? In particular, I am wondering if there are any languages in ...
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3answers
165 views

What part of speech is “as their native”?

In the sentence: The number of people who speak English as their native language will decline. what part of speech is as their native?
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1answer
67 views

Can “to” ever be a Prep or a Particle before “be”

Can “to” ever be a Prep or a Particle before “be”? If so can anyone think of an example?
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1answer
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What part of speech is “quiet” in “And quiet flows the Don”? [closed]

The Mikhail Sholokov novel "Тихий Дон" (Quiet Don) is translated "And quiet flows the Don". In this title, is the word "quiet" an adjective or adverb? If it's an adverb modifying the verb "flows", ...
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1answer
115 views

Parts-of-speech tagging and finding relevant phrases in documents

I've got a corpus of half a million text documents. I'd like to identify phrases in each document that are the most descriptive with which to build tag clouds. Let's say that I identify the most ...
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4answers
489 views

Are modal verbs lexical or grammatical categories?

Are modal verbs, such as must and can, considered lexical or grammatical categories?
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131 views

The Correct Research Methodology To Substantiate If an Expression is an Idiom?

Related: - Does linguistics have a concept of "set phrase" with a meaning differing from "idiom"? - In the Gospels, Can “Day of:” the Passover - be Interpreted Idiomatically? 1. ...
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4answers
169 views

Can training a Part-of-Speech tagger and parser at the same time improve parsing results?

I was wondering if training both a POS tagger and a parser (be it constituency or dependency) at the same time improve the results of parsing in a deep architecture since deep learning can take ...