Questions tagged [parts-of-speech]

The traditional set of eight word classes: Noun, verb, adjective, adverb, preposition, conjunction, pronoun, and interjection.

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60 views

Are symbols a part of speech? [closed]

I was thinking or wondering if symbols are a part of speech Or what part of speech a symbol might be And what symbols might be if it is not a part of speech. When I say or show "symbols", I'...
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49 views

Is this phrase or clause a clause?

Is "lefty loosey, righty tighty" a clause? Or what is "lefty loosey, righty tighty"? Or what part of speech is "lefty loosey, righty tighty"? Or what part of speech is ...
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31 views

How to extract Subject-Verb-Object from a sentence?

Given a corpus of sentences, is there a way to extract subject-verb-object triplets? What is the state-of-art in detecting SVO triplets?
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1answer
43 views

Looking for a theoretical treatment of closed- and open-classes

The concept of open-class (e.g. English nouns) and closed-class (e.g. English prepositions) word categories seems to be taken as a given in a lot of papers and textbooks. I'm looking for a treatment ...
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80 views

What part of speech is a phoneme?

I wanted to know what part of speech a phoneme might be or I wanted to know if a phoneme might be a part of speech and I wanted to know if a phoneme can be an affix. I also wanted to know what a ...
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114 views

What part of speech is a letter?

I wanted to know what part of speech a letter might be or I wanted to see if I understand letters. Do people ask this question in this place? Or am I in the place where people would ask this? I asked ...
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55 views

Part of speech of the word 'board' when in a compound word

When splitting the compound adjective 'onboard', there are two words; 'on' and 'board'. 'On' is a preposition, but what part of speech is 'board'?
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1answer
63 views

What does 'MSP' stand for in the context of Chinese parts of speech?

The Part-Of-Speech Tagging Guidelines for the PennChineseTreebank(3.0) uses several acronyms without defining them. I am a hobbyist student of Chinese linguistics as part of my study of Chinese. I ...
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4answers
393 views

Is ‘for’ a complementizer or a preposition in ‘prefer for John to stay’

As the title says, in ‘prefer for John to stay’, is ‘for’ a complementizer and the following is a CP, or a preposition?
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2answers
307 views

What is the relation between a specifier and a determiner?

Does specifier mean "the" and "possesser" and determiner mean "the" and "possessive 's"?
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4answers
117 views

What Non-Austronesian languages have a linker or ligature?

In Tagalog, there is a particle called a linker or a ligature, with two forms: na and -ng /-ŋ/. The ligature's main function is to link modifiers (like adjectives and adverbs) and the words that they ...
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3answers
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Buy one free one

In Malaysia it’s common to see “buy one free one” offers in supermarkets, pharmacies etc. I’m a speaker of British English and this construction hurts my ears, but apparently it’s perfectly idiomatic ...
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89 views

Is duck typing valid to identify parts of speech?

Let's say we're trying to identify a word or a phrase and on the surface it seems a bit strange and to not fit into an easily identified category/part of speech (POS). Is it valid to say "If it walks ...
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1answer
197 views

Can adjectives assign thematic roles in English (or other languages)?

Example: The dog was very excited or he was a very excited dog Does excited assign the role of experiencer to dog in either case? Do adjectives assign them in other languages? Or would we say that ...
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2answers
69 views

The linguistic terms for “chains” of similar structures (review material)

Could someone help me identify what these are? I know that "noun chains" are called "noun phrases", and "verb chains" are called "verb phrases", but I don't know the equivalent for adverbs, ...
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972 views

Are words classified (PoS) according to their use in a sentence, or does classification precede usage?

This is a rather broad question, so I'd like to limit this to verbs, at least in this explication of the question. Verbs take many forms and roles in sentences. Present participles can take the role ...
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22 views

Automated Verb Correction for Subject Agreement Using Penn Treebank Tags

I'm working on a software method to correct the verb in an English sentence based on the subject count (singular or plural) and using a corpus of verbs tagged with their Penn Treebank Tags. (I have ...
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55 views

Can the shift in grammatical usage of “an X-ese [person]” be explained linguistically?

While reading An Introduction to Information Theory by John R. Pierce, I was distracted by a linguistic artifact (on page 251 of the second edition): We can tell our friends apart, […] but we find ...
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A question about Carnie's subcategories and features

From Carnie's "Syntax: A Generative Introduction": This notation is not explicitly explained. What does it mean? (I'll write my conjecture below) Recall that T is defined as follows: So I guess the ...
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255 views

Are nouns ever a closed class?

For pretty much any grammatical category, I can think of a language in which it's a closed class. Japanese has closed classes of verbs and (verb-like) adjectives, for example, while Swahili has a ...
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2answers
121 views

( New formulation) Are parts of speech syntactic categories? ( A question on generative grammer)

I only have a rudimentary ( or even less than rudimentary) knowledge of generative grammar. But what strikes me is that the sentence formation rules are coinded using parts of speech. For example ( ...
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1answer
68 views

Literature on contemporaneous analyses of languages that pre-date or are not influenced by Aristotle's “Categories” and the grammatici

Does anyone know of literature on contemporaneous analyses of languages that pre-date or are not influenced by Aristotle's "Categories" and the grammatici? For example, did the Chinese analyze Chinese ...
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194 views

Infinitive Marker

In English, is the infinitive marker a part of speech? I noticed that Oxford was using it in the PoS lexical entry position for one sense of "to": https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/us/to "...
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194 views

What are “Auxilliary nouns” in Kyrgyz?

I have heard that the Kyrgyz language has some special words termed "auxilliary nouns" (жардамчы атоочтор in Kyrgyz), but I wasn't able to find out what those words are and how they work in that ...
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117 views

How to determine temporal prepositions

I have several phrases in my text such as 'The changes are consistent with post radiotherapy phrases' I would like to pick these sentences up Is there a way of using parts of speech to determine ...
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1answer
645 views

What are uses of Dependency Parsing in NLP / Computational Linguistics?

Dependency Parsing seems to be present in most of the NLP toolkits out there. What is not clear and what I have trouble finding in Google is what are actual practical, or even research, applications ...
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How to derive that a sentence is a question from parts of speech

I have recently discovered extraction of parts of speech and I'd like to see what I can get from patterns once a sentence is POS tagged. I am aware that some sentences will be difficult to categorise ...
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174 views

When is a conjunction not a conjunction?

I am trying to get to the bottom of Thai constructions which I can only gloss along the lines of: (1) Because of the fact that her friends helped her escape prevented the soldiers from catching her; ...
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1answer
55 views

Why not use a Lookup taggers?

I do understand that a lookup tagger is one of the simplest ones to implement as it is able to map each word a single POS. Why shouldn't we use it compared to bigram tagger?
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80 views

What is the proper terminology for “I touch” in this sentence?

I am trying to diagram this sentence for a personal project: Everything I touch with tenderness pricks like a bramble. From what I understand, Everything is the subject, and pricks is the ...
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1answer
273 views

Should Japanese postpositions be treated as belonging to the same category as English prepositions?

The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language and WALS, as well as Wikipedia, treat both English prepositions and Japanese postpositions (particles) as belonging to 'adpositions' (although CGEL ...
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760 views

What part of speech is “group” when used in a construct like “people group,” or “product group”

Given a class C, we may append it with the literal "group" to obtain a class of sets whose elements are instances of C, and which are related in some way. If you're not super familiar with object ...
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Connections between categories of type logical grammar and categories of combinatory categorial grammar?

There is nice book https://www.amazon.co.uk/Type-Logical-Grammar-Categorial-Logic/dp/0792332261/ that considers both Montague grammar (type logical grammar (TLG)) in chapters 1 and 2 and combinatory ...
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3answers
189 views

How can you know that a word in a sentence is a verb?

I am wondering what it takes to parse a sentence with incomplete knowledge. That is, take a sentence like this: If I use timeout I have to call again my function at the end of the execution of the ...
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1answer
76 views

Terminology around non-word, but word-like, structures

In traditional linguistics literatures there is a clear separation between words and non-words. Words are basically what you'd find in a dictionary. But in todays world you find all kinds of word-like ...
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1answer
221 views

Why are three tags necessary for the IOB format? What problem would be caused if we used I and O tags exclusively?

I'm trying to understand how representing chunks works by facing this question : The IOB format categorizes tagged tokens as I , O , and B . Why are three tags necessary? What problem would be ...
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304 views

Stolen, part of speech

I've checked several dictionaries for the word "stolen" only to find it labeled a verb. Virtually all of the examples sentences use it in a manner that I would have considered an adjective: "The ...
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46 views

This/that: a determiner or pronoun? [duplicate]

Is there commonly accepted opinion on what lexemes this/that are, determiners or pronouns? E.g. in the following phrase: ... can help you work these out these seem to show some properties of ...
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1answer
670 views

How to tag_pos in nltk for a language that is not English?

Hi my country's language is not in nltk in python. I have a wordlist that contains word and part of speech (noun, verd adj etc.) in excel. But I don't know how to build a corpus. My language is not in ...
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208 views

'Ago' and 'on' vs. 'in'

Consider the phrase a month in in the following sentences: [1] a. Richmond turned nineteen his third week in Vietnam. A̲l̲m̲o̲s̲t̲ ̲a̲ ̲m̲o&...
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1answer
700 views

What category is because? [closed]

sorry if this seems really basic! I am stuck on what to name 'because' in the syntax tree I am drawing, which is for the sentence: 'The boy gave Alice a present because he likes her'. I initially ...
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117 views

What do these morphemes' abbreviated glosses mean?

I am taking a course on linguistics and got introduced to a lot of abbreviations. Other than the obvious V for verb, I am having a lot of trouble finding out what the others mean. The book Speech and ...
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Where is the boundary between an adjective and a noun adjunct?

My working model is thus: An adjective should be flexible in that it can describe a variety of nouns. A noun adjunct looks like an adjective but can only be connected to a limited number of nouns. So, ...
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664 views

Have we observed classes changing from open to closed, or vice versa?

Classes of words in languages tend to be either "open" (accepting new members readily) or "closed" (rejecting new members). This distinction is fairly easy to see: compare how readily English accepted ...
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Any name for this proposition? : Sounds reflects P.O.S. of the word

I am using natural language processing/speech recognition techniques so that I can provide better tools to learn English pronounciation. While research on relevant topics, I found this fact: ...
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2answers
425 views

What's the difference between particle, marker and adposition?

The three lexical categories (or parts-of-speech) particles, markers, and adpositions are extremely vague to me. Some grammars call marker what others call particle or adposition. For example, the ...
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292 views

What is the part of speech of 'modifiers to adjectives'?

This is something I was just thinking about. Adjectives in a lot of languages can also take modifiers of their own: very big, more intelligent, etc... But is there an actual word for the part of ...
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2answers
116 views

How do you analyze a standalone hashtag like “#goals”?

For those not fluent in internet-ese, the semantics are something like "The subject under discussion has an aesthetic I want to emulate"; if I saw a picture of someone wearing an outfit I like, I ...
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1answer
79 views

What part of speech is the word “that” in “That you be happy!”

In the exclamation That you be happy! what part of speech is the word that? Is it a conjunction via ellipsis, i.e. "(I wish) that you be happy!" If yes, then does this poke a hole in the idea that ...
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151 views

Tests for determining NP status

What are the tests for determining whether a noun is part of a full NP or if it is simply a noun? I'm aware of tests for nounhood generally (plural, formation of an NP with a or the, modification by ...