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Questions tagged [parts-of-speech]

The traditional set of eight word classes: Noun, verb, adjective, adverb, preposition, conjunction, pronoun, and interjection.

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Is cum a conj. or relative adv., which introduces an adverbial subordinate clause? [closed]

Learn to Read Latin says on p119 cum (conj.) when; since; although Oxford Latin Dictionary says cum 1 prep. ... cum 2, quom rel. adv. [acc. of qui 1] 1 (introducing a cl. determining the time ...
Tim's user avatar
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subject predicate complements and object predicate complements

Is there an easy way of determining which part of a sentence subject predicate complement (PCs) and which is a object predicate complement (PCo)? my understanding is very surface level with ...
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Classifying word class of "where" in "They've got this big board near the entrance where they list the trials"

in "They've got this big board near the entrance where they list the trials", I think "where" is a preposition since it's providing additional information about the location of the ...
martinkleins's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
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What part of speech is "CQ"?

In radio communications, "CQ" (pronounced as individual letters, i.e. "see-queue", or as a mnemonic, "seek you") is a standardized term used to mean "calling all ...
Someone's user avatar
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What is "o'clock" in English?

Please don't say "adverb" because that is an ad hoc part of speech that means "anything that doesn't fit". Certain words in the English language, from a functional perspective, map ...
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When designing a dictionary for multiple languages, what should be a single "entry" (focusing on languages like English)?

I am looking at this dictionary guide and just looked up homophones to see how you might handle unrelated words with same spelling and pronunciation and part of speech. Google has basically separate ...
Lance's user avatar
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Can "words" ever have multiple parts of speech?

I am considering the design of database schemas for various word types, and wondering how the properties work. For example, it appears that a wordnet entry has 1 partOfSpeech and 1 lemma. But I don't ...
Lance's user avatar
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"come a long way" [V+OBJ/COMP/ADJUNCT]?

Can someone tell me i) in terms of constituent tree structure, if a long way is a complement as opposed to an adjunct ii) in terms of thematic roles, whether a long way takes on the role of location ...
Jenny's user avatar
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Alternate classification of Language objects?

In the normal Grammar that we learn in school, we have concepts such as nouns, verbs, adverbs and so on. In some languages, certain concepts of this framework have no resembling equivalent. For eg, in ...
Babu's user avatar
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COCA corpus: Is it possible to display a list search result as parts of speech?

I want to know what parts of speech (and in what frequency) follow a word or phrase. If I do a list search, for example "for the purpose of *", the result is a list of the actual words in ...
Seymour Azzes's user avatar
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1 answer
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The sequence of parts of speech in English

Considering the main eight parts of speech, every two adjacent words in a sentence can be one of the possible 64 pairs. The probability of these pairs significantly varies, as some might even be ...
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How can I tell if a word like "multiple" is being used as an adjective or determiner?

A new dashboard design, including multiple buttons, ... Dictionaries I've looked in only list "multiple" as an adjective. It makes sense to me that in the above sentence, it could be ...
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How do "transform into" and "turn into" function syntactically?

He turned into a car He transformed into a car What are the syntactic categories of "transform", "turn", and "into" in each sentence? I think that "turned into&...
minseong's user avatar
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2 votes
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Can "has been" be copular? Can the perfect tenses be copular?

Do any or all of these conjugations of 'be' count as copulae? I have been a plumber I could have been a plumber I have been startled I think they might not be, because they aren't really ...
minseong's user avatar
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How come you can say "I am glad that ...", but you can't say "I am fine that ..." [closed]

For example, you might say "I am glad that we are having pizza for dinner", but you wouldn't say "I am fine that we are having pizza for dinner". Or you might say "I am fine ...
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What's the term for changing a word's part of speech while maintaining the root?

I'm looking for a term that describes changing a word's part of speech while maintaining the root word. For example changing the verb "remember" into the noun "remembrance" or the ...
Deer's user avatar
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How can I tell the difference between types of assimilation?

I am currently studying linguistics (new to the subject) and I have a challenging time understanding the different assimilation forms. So far we studied these: Assimilation of voicing only (place and ...
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How can you 'test' for grammatical properties in A Student's Introduction to English Grammar?

According to the book A Student's Introduction to English Grammar (2005), grammatical terms, e.g., subject, object, noun, verb, adjective, etc. should not be defined by meaning, but by grammatical ...
Guest1023854's user avatar
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Does a possessive nominalize an adjective in Indonesian?

Fletch’s song “Laraku, Pilumu” “Sedih,” “lara,” “pilu”…. Those are all adjectives, yet they’re being modified by possessives (“-ku,” “-mu,” “kita manusia,” et cetera.). Does it mean that possessives ...
Константин Ван's user avatar
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What is a good multi language translation system for individual parts of speech such as verbs, nouns, adjectives?

I am developing a language learning tool in Python that generates dual-language books intended to be read as audio books. The system should work by giving single word translations after every ...
Holden's user avatar
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21 votes
3 answers
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What is the proper definition of a verb?

I do apologise if the question is wordy, but I feel some context is required for me to stand any chance of finding a satifactory answer. I have been struggling to understand why the word "is"...
user3273084's user avatar
2 votes
4 answers
372 views

Why words in many romance languages don't have more than one part of speech, unlike words in English

I have recently just realized that in English, sometimes the same word will have different part of speech depends on the way you pronounce it. For example, record can be a noun or a verb depends on ...
Yan Zhuang's user avatar
4 votes
2 answers
149 views

Understanding "inflection" and "grammatical category"

The Wikipedia article Morphology says: A further difference is that in word formation, the resultant word may differ from its source word's grammatical category whereas in the process of inflection ...
iBug's user avatar
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Are WH-determiner, WH-adverb and WH-pronoun mutually exclusive?

I was going through this article. It describes WH-determiners, WH-adverbs and WH-pronouns. Below are examples for each from the article: WH-determiners What book are you reading? Which plane is he ...
RajS's user avatar
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1 answer
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Possessive vs non possesive WH-pronouns

I was going through Jurafsky book. It says following about pronouns in the context of tag set: Wh-pronouns (what, who, whom, whoever) are used in certain question forms, or act as complementizers (...
RajS's user avatar
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4 votes
1 answer
156 views

Why are prepositions and subordinate conjunctions grouped as the same tag in the Penn Treebank tag set?

I was reading a book by Jurafsky et. al. It states following: English adpositions occur before nouns, hence are called prepositions. They can indicate spatial or temporal relations, whether literal (...
Mahesha999's user avatar
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Rationale for grouping my list of trauma collocates into nouns and adjectives

Context: I have a dataset of words within a 5-word window of trauma (i.e., trauma collocates) and they've been parsed into parts of speech (nouns, adjectives, verbs, etc.). I am wanting to look at the ...
n.baes's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
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What parts of speech and sentence constituents are "yes" and "no" words in answers?

Let's look at some examples: — Would you like some ice cream? — No. — Are you happy? — Yes. According to Wiktionary “yes” is a particle: ParticleyesUsed to show agreement or acceptance... “No” and “...
Eagle's user avatar
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English words that can be only used as nouns

Is there a term for words that can be only used as nouns? For example, I think "history" and "sofa" are such words, but "book" and "dog" are not. I'm looking ...
Avia Efrat's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
100 views

Are there any academic papers on the "Adjective like (article) Noun" construction/ phrase?

I am currently working on a paper about the "Adj like (article) Noun" construction. Some would consider that which comes after the "like"-part to be a prepositional phrase if "...
StructureOfAlogisms's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
256 views

How do you distinguish verbs, nouns, and adjectives in Chinese?

I am messing around with a conlang and trying to figure out how to write sentences. Man this is hard, there are so many possibilities and I don't know where to start. But basically, I am looking at ...
Lance's user avatar
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0 votes
1 answer
247 views

What parts of speech are common across every language?

I am trying to make a word game, and part of it requires dividing the words into types. I want it it to work across any language, but so far I can only see 3 things that seem to exist in every ...
Lance's user avatar
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-2 votes
1 answer
131 views

Is this phrase or clause a clause?

Is "lefty loosey, righty tighty" a clause? Or what is "lefty loosey, righty tighty"? Or what part of speech is "lefty loosey, righty tighty"? Or what part of speech is ...
user6779864's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
1k views

How to extract Subject-Verb-Object from a sentence?

Given a corpus of sentences, is there a way to extract subject-verb-object triplets? What is the state-of-art in detecting SVO triplets?
SanMelkote's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
63 views

Looking for a theoretical treatment of closed- and open-classes

The concept of open-class (e.g. English nouns) and closed-class (e.g. English prepositions) word categories seems to be taken as a given in a lot of papers and textbooks. I'm looking for a treatment ...
Azor Ahai -him-'s user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
146 views

What part of speech is a phoneme?

I wanted to know what part of speech a phoneme might be or I wanted to know if a phoneme might be a part of speech and I wanted to know if a phoneme can be an affix. I also wanted to know what a ...
user6779864's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
628 views

What part of speech is a letter?

I wanted to know what part of speech a letter might be or I wanted to see if I understand letters. Do people ask this question in this place? Or am I in the place where people would ask this? I asked ...
user6779864's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
105 views

Part of speech of the word 'board' when in a compound word

When splitting the compound adjective 'onboard', there are two words; 'on' and 'board'. 'On' is a preposition, but what part of speech is 'board'?
Springroll404's user avatar
7 votes
1 answer
95 views

What does 'MSP' stand for in the context of Chinese parts of speech?

The Part-Of-Speech Tagging Guidelines for the PennChineseTreebank(3.0) uses several acronyms without defining them. I am a hobbyist student of Chinese linguistics as part of my study of Chinese. I ...
Xavier Taylor's user avatar
4 votes
4 answers
4k views

Is ‘for’ a complementizer or a preposition in ‘prefer for John to stay’

As the title says, in ‘prefer for John to stay’, is ‘for’ a complementizer and the following is a CP, or a preposition?
Yola's user avatar
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1 vote
2 answers
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What is the relation between a specifier and a determiner?

Does specifier mean "the" and "possesser" and determiner mean "the" and "possessive 's"?
user avatar
3 votes
4 answers
271 views

What Non-Austronesian languages have a linker or ligature?

In Tagalog, there is a particle called a linker or a ligature, with two forms: na and -ng /-ŋ/. The ligature's main function is to link modifiers (like adjectives and adverbs) and the words that they ...
Noble_Bright_Life's user avatar
2 votes
3 answers
257 views

Buy one free one

In Malaysia it’s common to see “buy one free one” offers in supermarkets, pharmacies etc. I’m a speaker of British English and this construction hurts my ears, but apparently it’s perfectly idiomatic ...
rchivers's user avatar
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1 answer
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Is duck typing valid to identify parts of speech?

Let's say we're trying to identify a word or a phrase and on the surface it seems a bit strange and to not fit into an easily identified category/part of speech (POS). Is it valid to say "If it walks ...
CJ Dennis's user avatar
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3 votes
1 answer
671 views

Can adjectives assign thematic roles in English (or other languages)?

Example: The dog was very excited or he was a very excited dog Does excited assign the role of experiencer to dog in either case? Do adjectives assign them in other languages? Or would we say that ...
dylbro's user avatar
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0 votes
2 answers
185 views

The linguistic terms for "chains" of similar structures (review material)

Could someone help me identify what these are? I know that "noun chains" are called "noun phrases", and "verb chains" are called "verb phrases", but I don't know the equivalent for adverbs, ...
Lance's user avatar
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5 votes
2 answers
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Are words classified (PoS) according to their use in a sentence, or does classification precede usage?

This is a rather broad question, so I'd like to limit this to verbs, at least in this explication of the question. Verbs take many forms and roles in sentences. Present participles can take the role ...
Ubu English's user avatar
4 votes
0 answers
65 views

Can the shift in grammatical usage of "an X-ese [person]" be explained linguistically?

While reading An Introduction to Information Theory by John R. Pierce, I was distracted by a linguistic artifact (on page 251 of the second edition): We can tell our friends apart, […] but we find ...
natevw's user avatar
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2 votes
0 answers
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A question about Carnie's subcategories and features

From Carnie's "Syntax: A Generative Introduction": This notation is not explicitly explained. What does it mean? (I'll write my conjecture below) Recall that T is defined as follows: So I guess the ...
user avatar
16 votes
1 answer
588 views

Are nouns ever a closed class?

For pretty much any grammatical category, I can think of a language in which it's a closed class. Japanese has closed classes of verbs and (verb-like) adjectives, for example, while Swahili has a ...
Draconis's user avatar
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