Questions tagged [parts-of-speech]

The traditional set of eight word classes: Noun, verb, adjective, adverb, preposition, conjunction, pronoun, and interjection.

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19
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3answers
808 views

How are mathematical operators like “plus” and “cos” analyzed?

Consider the mathematical statement 1 + 2 = 3 It is read in English as One plus two equals three. One plus two is equal to three. In English at least, equals is obviously an ordinary verb, ...
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6answers
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What's the global difference between nouns and verbs?

Is there a way to distinguish nouns and verbs that applies to all languages? This problem has been occupying my mind for some time now. I'm not quite sure how to approach this question, so I'll just ...
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1answer
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What is the idea behind calling the adverb the garbage can of words?

As chance would have it, I came across three unrelated persons each describing the adverb as the the garbage can among the word classes. It happened in Germany and the original wording was: ...
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3answers
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Are word classes universal?

I'm working on an application that takes a special database of words and its word class and determines the such from a given sentence. I'm now working to see if word classes that are found in English ...
15
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6answers
672 views

Have we observed classes changing from open to closed, or vice versa?

Classes of words in languages tend to be either "open" (accepting new members readily) or "closed" (rejecting new members). This distinction is fairly easy to see: compare how readily English accepted ...
14
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5answers
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What parts of speech / word classes do languages most frequently lack?

Among conlangers, AllNoun is a notable syntax because it only makes use one part of speech / word class, which is analagous to nouns. A natural language I've heard of (but I can't remember or find a ...
14
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2answers
274 views

How do linguists determine whether a language has an indefinite article?

Given: For those languages which have it, the indefinite article mostly if not always is derived from the numeral for "one". Most languages have numbers but many lack articles. How do linguists ...
11
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2answers
844 views

What is an “adjectival article”? Apparently Albanian “të” is one

Being in Albania I decided to sit down with a word frequency list of the language and look each up so I would know some of the common words I see around me. The second most common word in Albanian is ...
11
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0answers
269 views

Are nouns ever a closed class?

For pretty much any grammatical category, I can think of a language in which it's a closed class. Japanese has closed classes of verbs and (verb-like) adjectives, for example, while Swahili has a ...
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4answers
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Can prepositional phrases with “of” ever be adjuncts to nouns, or only complements in English? If they can't be adjuncts, why?

This question came up while doing syntax homework. It seems to me that prepositional phrases with "of" can only ever be complements to nouns, not adjuncts. The basis for my conclusion was that, while ...
10
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2answers
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What really makes adverbs different from adjectives?

I just tried to answer a question that amounted to knowing whether adverbs can be inflected. Then, doing a bit of search for examples, I came up with the impression that, in many cases, I could not ...
10
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2answers
392 views

Are there languages where adjectives are clearly neither noun-like nor verb-like?

Most language I have some knowledge of have adjectives with are either a) nominal in nature or b) verbal in nature. (apologies if this is not the best wording.) In German, Romanian, and Georgian, ...
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4answers
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Is a language possible without verbs or without nouns?

Is a language without nouns possible? And another one without verbs? And other ones without adjectives or adverbs? Is there some real examples? (In preference: non-constructed languages, because ...
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4answers
2k views

A list of parts of speech

I want to know if there are other parts of speech -other than particles- in other languages than English or other Romance/Germanic languages.
8
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2answers
242 views

What parts of speech do professional jargons tend to mint?

Many English-based jargons include newly created nouns, verbs and adjectives; and re-appropriate existing English nouns, verbs, and adjectives to new ends. I can't come up with an example of a newly ...
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2answers
643 views

Can the term “gerund” be linguistically defined?

The Wikipedia entry for gerund starts with a list that shows how the term is applied to various languages. And we can see that what the term actually means depends a lot on the specific language we ...
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1answer
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What is a determiner?

I asked a previous question related to this one about parts of speech. I need to figure out what a determiner (DT) is in Penn Treebank Tag Set. In the set examples found in the tag set, it appears ...
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3answers
477 views

Are there some analyses or linguists with the view that Chinese does not have lexical word class?

I'm not a linguist but a language enthusiast and I read lots of stuff about all languages mostly on the internet in blogs but also in accessible books and sometimes attempt to read some things not ...
7
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1answer
608 views

What diagnostics distinguish demonstratives from definite articles?

Historically, definite articles are often related to demonstratives. How might one characterize whether a word in a language is a definite article or a demonstrative?
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3answers
475 views

Are there any languages with minimal distinctions between the noun and verb categories?

Are there any languages in which the, largely Indo-European/PIE, and more compartmentalized parts-of-speech system don't work very well? In particular, I am wondering if there are any languages in ...
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5answers
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What part of speech is 'found' in this sentence?

I have recently applied for an English teaching position in Brazil and had to take a test in which they asked: Choose the correct part of speech for 'FOUND' in the setence "A whale found dead on the ...
6
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2answers
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Infinitive verbs in syntax tree

I am just a little curious about the construction of syntactic trees when they involve infinitives in English. Basically, I want to know what role does the the "to" play? I don't think it is like a ...
6
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3answers
636 views

What parts of speech are the most, and least, susceptible to linguistic change? And why?

What parts of speech are the most susceptible, and the least susceptible, to linguistic change? And why? I would think that nouns are the most susceptible, and that closed word classes, such as ...
6
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1answer
64 views

What does 'MSP' stand for in the context of Chinese parts of speech?

The Part-Of-Speech Tagging Guidelines for the PennChineseTreebank(3.0) uses several acronyms without defining them. I am a hobbyist student of Chinese linguistics as part of my study of Chinese. I ...
6
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1answer
216 views

Languages with a grammatical distinction between abstract and concrete nouns

Are there any languages making a grammatical distinction between abstract and concrete nouns? I suppose this should boil down to the question about the existence of languages having a morpheme ...
6
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2answers
211 views

'Ago' and 'on' vs. 'in'

Consider the phrase a month in in the following sentences: [1] a. Richmond turned nineteen his third week in Vietnam. A̲l̲m̲o̲s̲t̲ ̲a̲ ̲m̲o&...
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2answers
978 views

Are words classified (PoS) according to their use in a sentence, or does classification precede usage?

This is a rather broad question, so I'd like to limit this to verbs, at least in this explication of the question. Verbs take many forms and roles in sentences. Present participles can take the role ...
5
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2answers
195 views

What are “Auxilliary nouns” in Kyrgyz?

I have heard that the Kyrgyz language has some special words termed "auxilliary nouns" (жардамчы атоочтор in Kyrgyz), but I wasn't able to find out what those words are and how they work in that ...
5
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4answers
208 views

Can training a Part-of-Speech tagger and parser at the same time improve parsing results?

I was wondering if training both a POS tagger and a parser (be it constituency or dependency) at the same time improve the results of parsing in a deep architecture since deep learning can take ...
5
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4answers
923 views

Which language has verb/noun compounding features?

Often languages have compounding phrases with the same Part Of Speech (POS) and it becomes a morphological analysis problem in Natural Language Processing (NLP). The most notorious being infinite ...
5
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2answers
404 views

Are there languages which lack a full number system but which have an indefinite article?

Most languages have a fully developed concept of numbers but many do not, for instance most Australian Aboriginal languages lack numbers and counting beyond a few such as 1, 2, and 3. Many languages ...
5
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1answer
125 views

Parts-of-speech tagging and finding relevant phrases in documents

I've got a corpus of half a million text documents. I'd like to identify phrases in each document that are the most descriptive with which to build tag clouds. Let's say that I identify the most ...
5
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2answers
383 views

Multilingual POS tagging set

As you know: Almost all languages have the lexical categories noun and verb, but beyond these there are significant variations in different languages. We want tag POS of some text of a lot of ...
5
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1answer
2k views

Turn Penn Treebank into simpler POS tags

I'm working on some code for an open source package to analyze dialogic classroom transcripts. I came across an interesting article that calculates a formality measure that I wanted to try out (LINK) ...
5
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1answer
459 views

What part of speech is “quiet” in “And quiet flows the Don”? [closed]

The Mikhail Sholokov novel "Тихий Дон" (Quiet Don) is translated "And quiet flows the Don". In this title, is the word "quiet" an adjective or adverb? If it's an adverb modifying the verb "flows", ...
5
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3answers
146 views

What's the term for the use of “this” in “there's this guy called John, who…”?

What's the term for the use of "this" in "there's this guy called John, who..."? Here, the "this" is used like an "a", not literally "this". I'm not sure if there's a term for this.
5
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2answers
157 views

What is the name of this class of grammatical modifiers?

In French (and many other languages), adjectives and pronouns have different classes, e.g.: Adjectives demonstrative indefinite interrogative numerical possessive Pronouns demonstrative indefinite ...
5
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2answers
318 views

Corpus Linguistics: Is it possible to add a tag for “sentence ending”?

I'm new to Corpus Linguistics and I'm writing a paper about the English and Portuguese "because noun", a type of construction such as "I'm going home because GTA5". However, when I try to search this ...
5
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1answer
372 views

Semantic Relatedness metric across Parts of Speech

I am a student in psychology, but I have very little familiarity with linguistics. I am doing working on flexible cognition and memory, and we are developing a task that requires participants to ...
4
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2answers
270 views

What is it called when words like “what” and “how”, aren't acting interrogatively, and aren't relative-pronouns?

What's going on when words like "what" and "how" are used in the following, non-interrogative and relative-pronoun, way? "Oh, [how] kind of you! My, [what] a nice young man you've become, love!" Now,...
4
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1answer
733 views

Do all languages have the same set of grammatical relations?

As for parts of speech, I am quite sure it is not the case. For instance, some languages are problematic in separating clearly verbs from adjectives like Japanese and Korean, some native American ...
4
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2answers
206 views

Infinitive Marker

In English, is the infinitive marker a part of speech? I noticed that Oxford was using it in the PoS lexical entry position for one sense of "to": https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/us/to "...
4
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2answers
165 views

When analyzing a set of corpora, are there any standard practices with regard to the classification of gerunds?

In the article, "How Many Words Do You Need to Know in Spanish (or any other foreign language)? And WHICH Words Should You Be Learning?" I came upon the following: “Assume that a language learner ...
4
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1answer
697 views

What are uses of Dependency Parsing in NLP / Computational Linguistics?

Dependency Parsing seems to be present in most of the NLP toolkits out there. What is not clear and what I have trouble finding in Google is what are actual practical, or even research, applications ...
4
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1answer
94 views

What's the name of the elements used to extend otherwise basic clauses?

Given the following sentence: "He wrote a love letter at night for his girlfriend". "He wrote a love letter" is the basic SVO clause, but what is the "at night" and "for his girlfriend" part called? ...
4
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3answers
269 views

Does each word category have a corresponding phrase category?

The word category noun has a corresponding phrase category noun phrase, adverb has adverb phrase, noun has noun phrase Other word categories like, for instance, determiners and quantifiers seem to m ...
4
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2answers
194 views

Can one word be classified as two different word classes?

Over at German Language Stack Exchange, the question was asked what the structure of the sentence Ihr Antrag ist abgelehnt. is, and what the word abgelehnt can be classified as. Traditional German ...
4
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1answer
192 views

What part of speech is “city of”, “university of”, “county of”?

Is there a name for the phrases "city of", "university of", "county of", etc? As in, City of New York, University of Florida, County of Cork.
4
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1answer
219 views

are what we translate as “adjectives”, “nouns”, etc, the same kind of words in no indo-european languages?

This question comes from questions in japanese SE. Keiyōshi 形容詞 are translated as adjectives. Meishi 名詞 are translated as nouns. But are they really the same kind of words that we mean with nouns, ...
4
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1answer
577 views

Mine, Yours, Ours, His, Hers, Its, and Don't Forget Theirs

What exactly are the Indo-European predicative mine/yours/ours/his/hers/its/theirs forms, in terms of word class and inflection? Would they be considered the genitive (or even the dative) case of ...