Questions tagged [parts-of-speech]

The traditional set of eight word classes: Noun, verb, adjective, adverb, preposition, conjunction, pronoun, and interjection.

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1answer
964 views

What part of speech is “group” when used in a construct like “people group,” or “product group”

Given a class C, we may append it with the literal "group" to obtain a class of sets whose elements are instances of C, and which are related in some way. If you're not super familiar with object ...
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When analyzing a set of corpora, are there any standard practices with regard to the classification of gerunds?

In the article, "How Many Words Do You Need to Know in Spanish (or any other foreign language)? And WHICH Words Should You Be Learning?" I came upon the following: “Assume that a language learner ...
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1answer
235 views

Why are three tags necessary for the IOB format? What problem would be caused if we used I and O tags exclusively?

I'm trying to understand how representing chunks works by facing this question : The IOB format categorizes tagged tokens as I , O , and B . Why are three tags necessary? What problem would be ...
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326 views

Stolen, part of speech

I've checked several dictionaries for the word "stolen" only to find it labeled a verb. Virtually all of the examples sentences use it in a manner that I would have considered an adjective: "The ...
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0answers
46 views

This/that: a determiner or pronoun? [duplicate]

Is there commonly accepted opinion on what lexemes this/that are, determiners or pronouns? E.g. in the following phrase: ... can help you work these out these seem to show some properties of ...
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1answer
759 views

How to tag_pos in nltk for a language that is not English?

Hi my country's language is not in nltk in python. I have a wordlist that contains word and part of speech (noun, verd adj etc.) in excel. But I don't know how to build a corpus. My language is not in ...
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3answers
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Are word classes universal?

I'm working on an application that takes a special database of words and its word class and determines the such from a given sentence. I'm now working to see if word classes that are found in English ...
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4answers
2k views

A list of parts of speech

I want to know if there are other parts of speech -other than particles- in other languages than English or other Romance/Germanic languages.
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1answer
803 views

What category is because? [closed]

sorry if this seems really basic! I am stuck on what to name 'because' in the syntax tree I am drawing, which is for the sentence: 'The boy gave Alice a present because he likes her'. I initially ...
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1answer
122 views

What do these morphemes' abbreviated glosses mean?

I am taking a course on linguistics and got introduced to a lot of abbreviations. Other than the obvious V for verb, I am having a lot of trouble finding out what the others mean. The book Speech and ...
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What's the global difference between nouns and verbs?

Is there a way to distinguish nouns and verbs that applies to all languages? This problem has been occupying my mind for some time now. I'm not quite sure how to approach this question, so I'll just ...
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Where is the boundary between an adjective and a noun adjunct?

My working model is thus: An adjective should be flexible in that it can describe a variety of nouns. A noun adjunct looks like an adjective but can only be connected to a limited number of nouns. So, ...
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Any name for this proposition? : Sounds reflects P.O.S. of the word

I am using natural language processing/speech recognition techniques so that I can provide better tools to learn English pronounciation. While research on relevant topics, I found this fact: ...
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What is the part of speech of 'modifiers to adjectives'?

This is something I was just thinking about. Adjectives in a lot of languages can also take modifiers of their own: very big, more intelligent, etc... But is there an actual word for the part of ...
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9k views

Infinitive verbs in syntax tree

I am just a little curious about the construction of syntactic trees when they involve infinitives in English. Basically, I want to know what role does the the "to" play? I don't think it is like a ...
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260 views

How would you describe X of Y phrases where X and Y are nouns?

What grammatical feature is being used, when we say something like, "I drink a cup of coffee"? In this sentence we have one noun modifying another noun, "coffee" modifying "cup". Would "cup" or even "...
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116 views

How do you analyze a standalone hashtag like “#goals”?

For those not fluent in internet-ese, the semantics are something like "The subject under discussion has an aesthetic I want to emulate"; if I saw a picture of someone wearing an outfit I like, I ...
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1answer
79 views

What part of speech is the word “that” in “That you be happy!”

In the exclamation That you be happy! what part of speech is the word that? Is it a conjunction via ellipsis, i.e. "(I wish) that you be happy!" If yes, then does this poke a hole in the idea that ...
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Tests for determining NP status

What are the tests for determining whether a noun is part of a full NP or if it is simply a noun? I'm aware of tests for nounhood generally (plural, formation of an NP with a or the, modification by ...
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Does “a little” (en) correspond to the same grammatical class as “ein wenig” (de)?

If you want to say in German, "I speak a little German", you would say, Ich spreche ein wenig Deutsch. The phrase "ein wenig" is reminiscent of the English phrase "a little", but what is ...
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1answer
120 views

Slot filling corpora

I was wondering if anyone knows of slot filling corpora such as ATIS. I tried finding ATIS but since I am not a member of LDC I couldnt get access to it. Do you know of any place where I can find a ...
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What's the name of the elements used to extend otherwise basic clauses?

Given the following sentence: "He wrote a love letter at night for his girlfriend". "He wrote a love letter" is the basic SVO clause, but what is the "at night" and "for his girlfriend" part called? ...
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75 views

Why can interrogatives so often be used-as/made-into intensifier adverbs?

Why does the ability to take normally interrogative words like "what" and "how", and turn them into intensifier adverbs, seem like such a language universal concept? In Japanese, you can take the ...
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Corpus Linguistics: Is it possible to add a tag for “sentence ending”?

I'm new to Corpus Linguistics and I'm writing a paper about the English and Portuguese "because noun", a type of construction such as "I'm going home because GTA5". However, when I try to search this ...
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1answer
755 views

What is the particular function of “lol” or “lmao” in the middle of sentences?

For example, look at this statement I found on an internet conversation: "Memes are the opener now I guess lmao but that seems pretty good to me." where the statement makes perfect sense without ...
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4answers
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Can training a Part-of-Speech tagger and parser at the same time improve parsing results?

I was wondering if training both a POS tagger and a parser (be it constituency or dependency) at the same time improve the results of parsing in a deep architecture since deep learning can take ...
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116 views

Where can I find a lexicon of adjectives?

I am currently looking for a list of adjectives that I can use as a seed for a machine learning model. These do not need to be annotated. Are there any open source lexicons that exist which could be ...
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1answer
752 views

Do all languages have the same set of grammatical relations?

As for parts of speech, I am quite sure it is not the case. For instance, some languages are problematic in separating clearly verbs from adjectives like Japanese and Korean, some native American ...
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3answers
271 views

Does each word category have a corresponding phrase category?

The word category noun has a corresponding phrase category noun phrase, adverb has adverb phrase, noun has noun phrase Other word categories like, for instance, determiners and quantifiers seem to m ...
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1answer
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What is the idea behind calling the adverb the garbage can of words?

As chance would have it, I came across three unrelated persons each describing the adverb as the the garbage can among the word classes. It happened in Germany and the original wording was: ...
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1answer
976 views

Get “part of speech” for a Spanish word

I do a little linguistics as a hobby while working of my own software development projects. I am wondering if there is a database or online api where I can easily establish the possible "parts of ...
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2answers
179 views

how do SOV langues mark Subject?

I'm making a conlang and right now it is SVO. I want to make it more in line with an SOV language. Currently Nominatives are unmarked while only 1 Accusatives is marked in a group. So it reads "Bob ...
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1answer
60 views

What part of speech is 'echoes' when not a noun plural? [closed]

For example in the sentence: "I will say it loud enough so that it echoes" What part of speech is 'echoes'? Would it become a verb or an adverb?
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3answers
351 views

Can syntax be part of semantics?

Is it possible to consider a POS category of a word as semantic aspect? Assume we have unknown word. But when we know part-of-speech it can give us a hint about semantic meaning. Is that right?
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4answers
1k views

Are modal verbs lexical or grammatical categories?

Are modal verbs, such as must and can, considered lexical or grammatical categories?
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404 views

Part of Speech in English

I am familiar to the concept of Part of Speech changing from one grammatical category to another grammatical category. However, my question is, why would I need to change an existing word from one ...
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1answer
217 views

Languages with a grammatical distinction between abstract and concrete nouns

Are there any languages making a grammatical distinction between abstract and concrete nouns? I suppose this should boil down to the question about the existence of languages having a morpheme ...
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50 views

How should “at some time” be tagged in Universal Dependencies framework?

I want to tag a sentence Jones was unemployed at some time before he graduated. with UD tags. I'm not sure how to tag at some time. Stanford parser suggests the reading: case (time-6, at-4) det (...
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3answers
215 views

What part of speech is “as their native”?

In the sentence: The number of people who speak English as their native language will decline. what part of speech is as their native?
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4answers
933 views

Which language has verb/noun compounding features?

Often languages have compounding phrases with the same Part Of Speech (POS) and it becomes a morphological analysis problem in Natural Language Processing (NLP). The most notorious being infinite ...
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2answers
101 views

References and sources to help me explain the semantics of the word 'over'

So I'm doing an assignment on the semantics of the word 'over'. Everyone in our semantics class was asked by the lecturer to pick a piece of paper out of a hat, he then said that we were required to ...
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201 views

The Correct Research Methodology To Substantiate If an Expression is an Idiom?

Related: - Does linguistics have a concept of "set phrase" with a meaning differing from "idiom"? - In the Gospels, Can “Day of:” the Passover - be Interpreted Idiomatically? 1. ...
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1answer
125 views

Parts-of-speech tagging and finding relevant phrases in documents

I've got a corpus of half a million text documents. I'd like to identify phrases in each document that are the most descriptive with which to build tag clouds. Let's say that I identify the most ...
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1answer
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Can “to” ever be a Prep or a Particle before “be”

Can “to” ever be a Prep or a Particle before “be”? If so can anyone think of an example?
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1answer
461 views

What part of speech is “quiet” in “And quiet flows the Don”? [closed]

The Mikhail Sholokov novel "Тихий Дон" (Quiet Don) is translated "And quiet flows the Don". In this title, is the word "quiet" an adjective or adverb? If it's an adverb modifying the verb "flows", ...
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2answers
157 views

What is the name of this class of grammatical modifiers?

In French (and many other languages), adjectives and pronouns have different classes, e.g.: Adjectives demonstrative indefinite interrogative numerical possessive Pronouns demonstrative indefinite ...
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1answer
177 views

How do distinctive features work?

I'm currently working my way through a book on syntax by Andrew Carnie, and I've come up against something that isn't entirely clear to me. In a chapter about syntactic categories, Carnie writes: One ...
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2answers
569 views

singular part of speech for multi-word units and expressions?

Part of speech assignment provides a pos to a word. In many pos systems this can occasionally produce errors due multi-word expressions of one form or another. When 'we' look at the text, we may see ...
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1answer
373 views

Semantic Relatedness metric across Parts of Speech

I am a student in psychology, but I have very little familiarity with linguistics. I am doing working on flexible cognition and memory, and we are developing a task that requires participants to ...
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2answers
2k views

Does adding the suffix -ly to a noun or an adjective provide morphological evidence for word class?

For example, adding -ly to quick to make quickly. Or adding -ly to gentleman to make gentlemanly.