Questions tagged [phonemes]

The discrete and distinctive units constituting the internalized inventory of sounds of a language. A sequence of phonemes is the preverbal form of a word. Phonemes may be systematically distorted upon verbalization, resulting in an allophone. Phonemes and allophones are both "phones".

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54 views

Experiment to show that phonemes are not invariant: stimuli!

The fact that phonemes are not invariant is shown in many studies. The first one, so far as I know, is that of Liberman, Delattre and Cooper (1952) in their report on the identification of synthetic, ...
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Where are the original research papers on when phonemes are acquired developmentally?

I received this as a guide to when the phonemes are acquired developmentally, such as: 1-2 years - The child is able to say the following sounds in words - /p/, /b/, /m/, /n/, /t/, /d/ Where can I ...
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Languages without phonemes?

Based on my understanding and reading of Wikipedia, phonemes help distinguish one word from another and each phoneme is an "abstraction over of a set (or equivalence class) of speech sounds (...
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Proper phonetic names and IPA symbols for Russian [i] in линия and English [i] in happy

They have [i] on both IPA:Russian wiki and IPA:English wiki On the Russian page the example is линия and on the English page it's happy. And in practice these are similar but clearly different sounds ...
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Is there any site where I can find the list of natural languages that dont have a list of phonemes?

Is there any site where I can find the list of natural languages that dont have a list of phonemes? I want to discover the minimum amount of vowels needed to make sure each natural language has at ...
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What is the difference between ðˤ and ðʕ in Arabic?

I am wondering if the emphatic and pharyngealized sounds of Arabic are the same thing as the letter followed by /ʕ/. So ðˤ, sˤ, tˤ, and dˤ would be ðʕ, sʕ, tʕ, and dʕ. If it's not the case, can you ...
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Why's IPA constrainted by phonemic, not phonetic, contrastivity?

To try to understand phonetics vs. phonology, I already read What's the difference between phonetics and phonology?, Oxford Univ. Prof. John Coleman's page, ResearchGate, Univ. of Pennsylvania ...
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Is there a way to classify all languages that have a guttural ch (as in Achmed) sound?

Some languages, like Hebrew, Arabic, and Gaelic, have a guttural ch sound, like the clearing of your throat, as in "Achmed". What is the term for this sound and is there a term to classify ...
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Is there an effort to prove phonemes?

For 44 claimed phonemes, we need 44*43/2 = 946 minimal pairs. If we can't find even one of them, then it is possible to claim that English has 43 phonemes and not 44 due to complementary distribution (...
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When did the vocalic allophones of the consonant phonemes in PIE become independent vowel phonemes?

The sonants in PIE have consonantal and vocalic allophones, so the consonantal sonant and the vocalic sonant are regarded as one consonant phoneme. But many daughter languages of PIE (at least at some ...
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Is there a British English language minimal pair for the schwa and the 'long schwa?'

I know that we can find phonemes by looking for minimal pairs. However, I cannot find a minimal pair for the schwa, on the one hand, and the vowel that usually appears on British English vowel charts ...
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How does the nonsense word "frabjous" conform to English phonotactics?

I am aware that this question is rather more complex than I am treating it, but I am looking for a few general rules (e.g. basic phonotactic constraints) that would lead to the conclusion that the ...
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Visemes analogue for phoneme pangram?

There are several famous short texts which covers most of the English phonemes. For example "With tenure, Suzie'd have all the more leisure for yachting, but her publications are no good." ...
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How to find allophones and phonemes in a foreign language?

I have problems with finding allophones and phonemes in foreign languages. My paper says this: Consider the phones [e], [æ] and [ɛ] in the Russian data. Are they allophones of a single phoneme, or do ...
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Any languages that consider the alveolar and uvular trill distinct consonant phonemes?

I am intrigued by the difference between alveolar and uvular trills (and related phones) within and across languages, e.g., per this map of European /r/ usage (taken from this comment), which seems to ...
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Who decides the phonemes of a given language?

Who decides the phonemes of a given language and on what basis do they decide? Do the phonemes of a language change over time, if so, who changes them? I am extremely confused about this question ...
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Intuitive phonemic transcription systems for various languages

When a text or video about pronunciation is aimed at the average reader, it often doesn't use the IPA to represent sounds. Instead, it might talk about the "AW" sound as in law, the "AH&...
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35 views

Phoneme production metrics

(Apologies in advance for the expected misuse of terminology; I am not a linguist. Please correct as appropriate.) I am considering a Deep Learning language evolution experiment and would like to ...
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173 views

What is the difference between phone (speech sound) and a sound?

I am not sure if I am asking a question in the right site. I don't know know if I am even asking a biological, linguistic or physics question. But I recently started learning about language and its ...
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67 views

is there a /c/ vs. /k/ or /g/ vs /ɟ/ minimal pair in turkish

i checked the wiki subarticle "Consonants" and there is an example of /kar/ vs /ca:r/ (youglish link, as evidence for ":") which might not be a good minimal pair. do you know one? /...
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What is the percentage of words that are phonemically regular in english?

I know that English has a deep orthography. I am wondering whether someone could tell me what the percentage of English words are governed by regular letter-sound rules? Thank you
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What part of speech is a phoneme?

I wanted to know what part of speech a phoneme might be or I wanted to know if a phoneme might be a part of speech and I wanted to know if a phoneme can be an affix. I also wanted to know what a ...
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540 views

Voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate in english?

The "officially" voiceless alveolar-palatine affricate does not exist in English. But I can clearly hear it in the sentence "Ouch that hurt" (when the computer reads this sentence ...
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Looking for contrastive feature hierarchies for Irish, Manx and/or Scottish Gaelic

Where might I find ready-made contrastive feature hierarchy trees for these languages? In the case that they aren’t available anywhere online, I may need to make my own, in which case I’m looking for ...
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Evidence that ø and œ are separate phonemes in French?

Are there any minimal pairs between ø and œ or other evidence that these are separate phonemes? I have been studying French, and so far it seems like ø is found in open syllables and œ is found in ...
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Is mouthing phonemic in American Sign Language or other sign languages?

To be precise about my question: are there any pairs of signs in ASL or other sign languages where mouthing different words is the only thing which distinguishes two signs from one another? I’m asking ...
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Amharic Emphatics vs Arabic pharyngeals

I grew up speaking Arabic, and I am very comfortable with sounds like ص,ط,ض, etc. However, I was looking at Amharic out of curiosity, and noticed that in place of these pharyngeals, Amharic has ...
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Are there any languages in which a simple puff of air (like blowing out a candle) is phonemic?

There are languages (English among them) that have a voiceless labialized velar approximant (ʍ in IPA), but that's not quite the sound I'm after. I'm also trying to distinguish this sound from ...
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Resource for finding languages that contain certain phonemes [duplicate]

In particular /w~b/ or other sounds that could be transcribed as <w> or <b>. Background: A person gave his name variously as 'John Barosa' or 'John Warosa' in writing from which I figured ...
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175 views

What is the dividing line between phonetics and phonology? [duplicate]

From my understanding, Phonetics is the study of physical aspect of sounds, including how sounds are produced (articulatory phonetics), how they are perceived (auditory phonetics) and the physics ...
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What's the right phonetic transcription of the word man?

Is it [mɛən] or [mæən] ? I've seen both of them in some videos; however, I'm not really sure Which one of them truly represents the sound (with the æ raising).
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Do stressed (in e.g. English) or pitched (in e.g. Japanese) phones contribute to different phonemes?

In proper tonal languages such as cantonese or mandarin, the phones a phoneme comprises of share the same tone. In other words, mā (in pinyin) and má are clearly different phonemes. If I were to look ...
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Frequency of phonemes in Indian languages

I would like to know the relative frequency of phonemes in Indian languages whose sript is basically very close to Devanagiri. We need this data to make a pronunciation based keyboard layout for ...
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158 views

Why does the NATO Spelling alphabet contain words with more than two syllables

I always wondered why the NATO Spelling Alphabet has words with three syllables in it. I know it was extensively researched, so there must be a reason, but it seems odd to me. One syllable seems ...
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Can loudness of speech sounds influence meaning?

In Chinese, words can have different meanings if their tones are changed, e.g. 是 (shì) and 十 (shí). In Italian, words can have different meanings if a consonant is geminated, e.g. sete and sette. My ...
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Phonemes or allophones?

In our coursebook, introducing phonology by David Odden, one of the exercise questions asks us to decide if the obstruents of Thai are phonemes or allophones. My teacher says they are allophones but ...
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Is there a sound that we make when speaking that is not resonant?

Is there a sound that we make when speaking that is not resonant? I just recorded myself humming a vowel sound, and when I play it back there seems to be a resonant sound, one defined by the movement ...
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Is the "p" in "spin" really a "b"?

Daniel Everett claims in Don't Sleep, There Are Snakes (Ch. 11) that the English "p" and "b" in "pin" and "bin" are separate phonemes, since they alone distinguish the words "pin" and "bin," whereas ...
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What is the phonetic transcription of the Lithuanian name Austėja? [closed]

I do not know how to transcribe this name.
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Is the study of triphthongs a must to master English phonology?

Most universities in India are teaching only pure vowels (monophthongs), and diphthongs. Now we find triphthongs. ... Is the study of triphthongs a must to master the phonology of English? ...
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Phonetic distortion when words are borrowed among languages

When languages borrow words from other languages, they sometimes deliberately distort words to make them phonetically easier to pronounce. For example, when Japanese speakers are taught the word "...
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Phonetic characters of Arabic emphatic consonants

My native language is Korean. I'm not learning Arabic, but I'm curious anyway. Refer to the following link for the letter names I recorded myself: Arabic pharyngeal consonants I think I can ...
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107 views

Relationship between Uvular and Dorsal Consonants articulation

I have a question regarding the physiological production of uvular and dorsal consonants. what are the physiological aspect of both consonants articulation? As uvular consonants articulated with the ...
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How can I write an interdental lateral in phonetic transcription?

Inspired by this answer here is my question: How can I write a interdental lateral in phonetic transcription (IPA preferred, but not a necessary requirement, other wide spread phonetic notation ...
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English phonemes audio database

I need an audio file database with any audio format which will contain the 44 English phonemes spoken by different speakers.
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132 views

Marking phoneme boundaries - how to decide on the transitions?

I'm currently labelling some singing data, which contains very slow transitions between vowels. The data often have prenuclear glides and diphthongs together. The picture below is an instance (the ...
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Is the distinction between phoneme and allophone useful in language learning?

IPA purpose seems straightforward to me: map all the known ways to produce sounds using the mouth to symbols and, for a specific language standard/dialect, map the possible sounds of it to these ...
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Which language has the most vowel phonemes?

Which language has the largest number of vowels with minimal pairs?
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Are any of the Old Chinese reconstructions for「能」plausible descendants of Proto-Sino-Tibetan /*dɣwjəm/?

(Apologies if this is off-topic.) The Chinese character「能」was originally a picture of a kind of bear. The character was once used to represent a word meaning bear, but this word doesn't appear to ...
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With SSML phoneme tags using IPA phonetic symbols, how can I insert pauses to slow down pronounciation?

Note For my text to speech engine (I use Cereproc, William Voice). The engine can be used on the website here: https://www.cereproc.com/ and it supports the ssml tags used in this question.. ...