Questions tagged [phonemes]

The discrete and distinctive units constituting the internalized inventory of sounds of a language. A sequence of phonemes is the preverbal form of a word. Phonemes may be systematically distorted upon verbalization, resulting in an allophone. Phonemes and allophones are both "phones".

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Vowel Symbols and Sounds [closed]

Are there any differences between vowel symbols and vowel sounds? Do i need to use / / when writing IPA symbols?
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Which types of phonemes mark syllable boundaries?

I'm developing a library that takes words broken down into phonemes and counts the number of syllables in them. The phonemes provided by the CMU Pronouncing Dictionary fall into eight types: ...
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Labialisation and palatisation in IPA: one consonant or two phones?

When is a consonant simply followed by labliasing sound like /u/ or /w/ and when is the consonant itself considered palatised or labialised? For instance, French point, in IPA, /pwɛ̃/ and Croatian ...
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What are the features of English diphthongs?

Do diphthongs adopt all the features of their components? For example, ɔɪ consists of ɔ (sonorant, continuant, approximant, voice, round, back, syllabic) and ɪ (sonorant, continuant, approximant, ...
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Is there any standard way to sort phonemes?

Is there a defined way to order phonemes, phones, or other qualities of speech, such as those represented in the IPA? Suppose I'm listing the following sounds (and their descriptions, say, or links ...
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How to read Spectrograms using Praat Script

I am new to Praat and trying to read the spectrograms of different sound files using these videos. I am learning to read the specrograms using the UI of Praat but I am unable to find any way through ...
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How to find amplitude values on each time unit in a sound file

I am new to Praat and tryingt to get the selected region in Praat script using the the amplitude values i.e. when amplitude gets larger than a threshold then I should start capturing the region and ...
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American English : are [ə] and [ʌ] different phonemes? (schwa vs. chevron)

What case can be made for considering whether [ə] and [ʌ] are different phonemes or not in American English? Please note the focus is on standard American English. EDIT: i.e.: on General American. ...
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Can one tell interdental n, l, from alveolar n, l, by hearing?

According to several well documented linguistic studies, a few languages like Mapudungun make a phonemic difference between interdental n, l, (let us spell it nd, ld), and a so called "alveolar n, l". ...
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Where can I find a list of English words that contain a rare combination of phonemes

I am looking for a wake up word for a digital product that would be easily detected with a voice recognition engine. This calls for a word that has a rare combination of phonemes so the product is ...
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Any languages without the following list of consonants?

I was wondering if there are any living languages without any of the following: /ɬ/ or /ɮ/, postaveolars and palatals—with the exception of /j/? Again, a list of the excluded consonants are- ...
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Are there minimal pairs between normal length and long vowels in English?

Are there minimal pairs between vowels of normal length such as a and vowels of long length such as aː?
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Why are there many different ways to pronounce a phoneme?

A phoneme may be pronounced in different ways, depending on its position in the utterance, and still remain the same phoneme. Why?
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How strong was the r/l distinction in Proto-Afro-Asiatic?

The East Asian languages do not distinguish r and l. The PIE had r/l alternation in suffixes: -tlom/-trom, -dhlom/-dhrom, -ter/-tel, -ros/-los. What can be said in this context about Afro-Asiatic ...
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Phonemic Transcription Ambiguity?

I recently learned the the flap [ɾ] letter is part of both the /t/ and /d/ phonemes. A common example is writer /ˈraɪtər/ and rider /ˈraɪdər/. If they're both pronounced [raɪɾər], then shouldn't the ...
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Tips for pronouncing sounds that does not exist in the student's mother thongue [closed]

This is my first post here. My name is Bruno and I'm a native (Brazilian) Portuguese speaker. Besides Portuguese, I only have a rough knowledge of American English. I spite of that, I am trying to ...
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How do allophones become distinct phonemes?

The title pretty much sums up my question, but to elaborate, how do allophones of phonemes become their own distinct phonemes? For example: in Old English, /θ/ became /ð/ between vowels, but in ...
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How similar are phonemes across different languages?

As a side thought to my current efforts looking at types of minimal-pairs, the similarity between sounds across other languages has occurred to me. After some searching, I failed to find an answer to ...
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The difference/realtionship between allophones and diaphonemes

I'm trying to understand the difference/relationship between the concepts "allophone" and "diaphoneme." The Wikipedia article for allophone says this: For example, [pʰ] (as in pin) and [p] (as in ...
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Given a vowel system, how do I find the tendencies and universals that are manifested with it?

Suppose I am given a vowel system (for example, 'i', 'upside down and then flipped e', 'a' and 'u'). How do I figure out the tendencies and universals manifested in the vowel system? Based on my ...
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If two glyphs representing one phoneme is a "digraph," what is one glyph representing two phonemes called?

Two glyphs representing one phoneme is a "digraph," but what is it called when one glyph represent two phonemes? For example, the Greek letter ξ (represents the two grouped phonemes, /ks/) or ψ (...
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Phoneticians versus phonologists

What is the difference between a phonetician and a phonologist? I've seen these two terms somewhere on this site but can't figure out the difference.
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How is an archiphoneme represented on the phonetic level?

Consider an archiphoneme N that can be realized as n, ng, or as a nasal on a vowel depending on the context. Is this representation, below, standard i.e. with the archiphoneme as a capital letter on ...
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What are the basic principles of optimality theory?

I'm trying to conduct research on the definiteness system (how is definiteness marked) in my dialect. I want to do this in the light of Optimality Theory (Prince and Smolensky) and am struggling to ...
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Mapping graphemes to phonemes in CMUDict

I'm trying to make a fun little "Halloweenify" feature where a user types in his or her name and gets a scary version. (Julie becomes "Ghoulie", Robert becomes "Macabert"). I have a huge list of ...
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Labiodental sounds in languages

I noticed that IE languages often derive /v/ from /w/. It is a bit of a rare sound (predominantly IE?). I wonder how /v/ came about in various languages? In general, labiodentals seem to be a more "...
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If two phonemes are merged in pronunciation across a morpheme boundary, are the corresponding letters a digraph?

I want a third, preferrably referenced opinion on a terminological dispute here. The problem is the following (though I am avoiding the actual example to avoid unnecessary complication): In German ...
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Influence of the climate and geography on the phonemes

I would like to construct a language for a fictional world. From what I gathered in different places, the first element to consider are the phoneme used by the speakers. However, since I already have ...
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Was the change in spelling from "cw" to "qu" in English associated with any difference in pronunciation?

I always thought that "cw" in Old English represented /kw/, and the same for modern English "qu", and that the change from one to the other was purely orthographic, since the "qu" digraph was more ...
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From where I can get phonemes in audio format?

I am working on a speech recognition system and to begin with I need all phonemes of English in audio format by which I will be able to compare with my speech fragments.
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Frequency of phonemes consisting of two phones in world languages

I want to create nice name for international service. My idea is based on the fact, the word which consisting of phonemes that have high frequency in the native language, sounds good. So, the same ...
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Is there a comprehensive list of all (or many) phonological rules (specifically allophonic) of the English language available anywhere online?

It would be very helpful to have for a programming project I'm working on involving grapheme-to-phoneme translation. I've been able to find many rules for phonemes but not too many for allophones.
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Which English phonemes are the easiest to distinguish from each other?

I work as a literacy tutor in a preschool and part of my job is to help students develop phonological awareness by teaching them how to identify rhymes and alliteration. To make it as easy as possible ...
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Phonemes: German vs. English

How many of the same phonemes in the German language are found in the English language? Same consonants? Vowels? Resources for this?
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Determining underlying representation

I'm really confused about how to determine underlying representation. Every thing I read seems to contradict the last. Trying desperately to solve this problem and I just seem to be going in circles ...
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Theoretical implications of different models of distinctive features

There are multiple models of distinctive features. Wikipedia distinguishes between three main approaches: Acoustic: Jakobson and colleagues defined them in acoustic terms,[11] Articulatory: ...
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Glottal stops that aren't tenuis

Is any language known to contain a glottal stop [ʔ] that isn't tenuis? For example, an aspirated glottal stop [ʔʰ], a palatalized glottal stop [ʔʲ], or a labialized glottal stop [ʔʷ]. CORRECTION: It ...
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Are there Tai languages (or Tai-Kadai) which have a voiced velar stop phoneme?

Thai and Lao each have three series of stops, unvoiced unaspirated, aspirated, and voiced. For labials and alveolars, all three exist, but for velars there is no voiced stop. Is this the case for ...
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Why don't any languages have strictly one character for every single phonetic sound?

Of the languages I know about, most of them (not Chinese, Japanese, etc.) only have characters or character groups for specific sounds, and also can have a single specific sound generated by placing ...
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Size of phonemic inventory of individual speakers across different accents and dialects of English

This started out as a trivially simple question: How many phonemes are there in the different dialects and accents of English? I just needed a simple reference for a point about the teaching of ...
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Does sample text exist that includes most English sounds represented by the International Phonetic Alphabet?

My understanding of the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is that it aims to provide a set of letter-based values that represent and map to fundamental sounds present in human languages. My ...
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acoustic features for english phonems

in this following paper , if we go to page no- 126 we will find a table with all acoustic features of all german Phonemes. http://pub.uni-bielefeld.de/luur/download?func=downloadFile&recordOId=...
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Can a vowel and a consonant be allophones of the same phoneme?

Are there languages where a vowel and a consonant can be allophones of the same phoneme?
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SAMPA of a language - phones or phonemes?

I currently hear a lecture with the topic "Spoken Language Processing" and I have problems to understand SAMPA. I know that the IPA encodes the phones of human languages, so its possible to encode the ...
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When I hear the sound "s" am I hearing [s] or /s/... or?

This is really a terminological issue. The phoneme is only in the mind of the speaker /s/ The phonological segment is that which the speaker articulates [s] What is it that the speaker "hears"? Is ...
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Does any language using the Latin alphabet have a unique name for "w"?

In English, we call w "double-u", referring to the original representation of [w], which looked like uu, or two us. Then, in French, they pronounce it "double-veh", presumably because the modern form ...
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Consonantal innovations in Hungarian

The Hungarian language seems to have many phonetic features uncommon in other Uralic languages- for example, phonemic voicing in its stops and sibilants and the presence of a labiodental fricative /f/....
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List of French minimal pairs

I recently asked a general question about minimal pairs (i.e. words that differ by one phoneme) and got a link to a website that provides a comprehensive list of English minimal pairs. Is there a ...
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Which English phonemes can be distinguished via lip-reading?

Is there a comprehensive list about which phonemes in the English language can be distinguished via lip-reading and which can't?
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Resource for German minimal pairs

I recently asked a general question about minimal pairs and got a link to a website that provides a comprehensive list of English minimal pairs. Is there a similar list for German minimal pairs?