Questions tagged [phonetic-symbols]

Symbols used for the visual representation of speech sounds.

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9
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3answers
2k views

Is there a reason that /w/ isn't represented on the IPA chart?

The sound that represents the English <w>, as in "week", is the voiced labio-velar approximant /w/. In the "Consonant" section of the Wiki page for the IPA, however, /w/ isn'...
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1answer
55 views

Use of asterisk in middle of word of an attempted proto-language; does it refer to everything that follows?

In the word t*amano, does the asterisk imply that everyrthinng following the asterisk is questionable, even if the area of uncertainty is a specific sound in the word, in this hypothetical example,...
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4answers
153 views

What is the most universally understood way to represent the “ay” sound of “CAKE” substituting the standard a for a single character?

I am making up an imaginary word to be used as a name. Right now I seem to have it ending in "tata", but want it to be clear it is pronounced as "tay-tah" not "tah-tah" I admit that I do not know my ...
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2answers
745 views

Cyrillic phonetic alphabet?

Is there any attempt to make phonetic alphabet (like IPA) based on Cyrillic script? Or does the Russian phonology covers enough?
2
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2answers
230 views

How can I write an interdental lateral in phonetic transcription?

Inspired by this answer here is my question: How can I write a interdental lateral in phonetic transcription (IPA preferred, but not a necessary requirement, other wide spread phonetic notation ...
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2answers
117 views

Narrow Phonetic Transcription: Stretching?

I use narrow phonetic transcription in my job. The one symbol I need but can't seem to find is a way to mark stretching of the tongue from side to side. Does this exist? I have made up my own, but I'd ...
0
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2answers
79 views

British English offglides

The offglide of the English diphthongs /aʊ/ and /əʊ/ is represented by the vowel /ʊ/. In other languages, such as Portuguese and Spanish, they are represented in the same way, but they sound ...
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1answer
71 views

With SSML phoneme tags using IPA phonetic symbols, how can I insert pauses to slow down pronounciation?

Note For my text to speech engine (I use Cereproc, William Voice). The engine can be used on the website here: https://www.cereproc.com/ and it supports the ssml tags used in this question.. ...
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1answer
151 views

What is the maximum number of IPA diacritics that can be added on a vowel?

What would the symbol look like, and how would it sound like? E.g. a long rhotacized nasalized vowel with tone?
3
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2answers
539 views

Choice of phonemic symbol for /b/, /d/, /g/, /ʝ/ in Spanish

Wikipedia states this on the Spanish consonants /b/, /d/, /ɡ/ and /ʝ/: The phonemes /b/, /d/, and /ɡ/ are realized as approximants (namely [β̞, ð̞, ɣ˕]) or fricatives in all places except after a ...
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3answers
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What is the meaning of the number 2 in Proto-Indo European reconstructions? e.g. As in *tewtéh₂, meaning “people” or “tribe”

I am a writer doing some research into ancient languages for a story I am creating. Despite having done some formal and informal study on linguistics (I am familiar with a phonetic chart) and informal ...
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0answers
81 views

Glides offset: ɪ/ʊ or j/w? [closed]

I've seen linguistics arguing in favour of using either ɪ/ʊ or j/w sets in glides offset. What are your arguments regarding the use of them?
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1answer
84 views

Can anyone send me a link or recommend me a book about IPA diacritics?

What I am interested in knowing is what exactly a specific diacritic does to a sound, and which muscles in the vocal tract are responsible for making those sounds.
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2answers
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Does “You” or “Unicorn” begin with a vowel sound

"You" sounds like "U". U is a vowel. so does "You" begin with a vowel?
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1answer
165 views

Discussions around symbols included/excluded in the IPA

Are there are IPA symbols which are the subject of some controversy? For example, I suppose there are some who would like to have a unitary"tS" t-esh sound as a unitary phoneme... but I bet there ...
0
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2answers
176 views

Some questions on how I pronounce “l” [closed]

I hope you can help as I'm teaching English overseas and I want to teach the standard pronunciation to students. I have a South African accent but I am starting to get paranoid and wonder if I ...
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2answers
2k views

Is IPA machine-readable?

I saw that SAMPA was created to be machine-readable. Does that mean that IPA isn't? If it isn't, why is that so? EDIT: By machine-readable, I meant that it could be directly interpreted by a parser/...
4
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2answers
4k views

Difference between [i] and [j] or [u] and [w]

I am having a little trouble understanding the actual difference between these sets of sounds. What would be the difference in pronunciation between /hau nau braun kau/ and /haw naw brawn kaw/?
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2answers
437 views

How many phonetic symbols are in total languages?

my goal is to know all the sounds of other languages and compare if there are similarities. I only found the English http://soundsofspeech.uiowa.edu/english/english_main.swf http://www.stuff.co.uk/...
4
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2answers
595 views

Is there a featural equivalent of the International Phonetic Alphabet?

The IPA arbitrarily borrows and derives graphemes from the Greek, Latin and Cyrillic. The graphemes do not display basic features (i.e. place and manner of articulation) shared between phones like ...
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4answers
179 views

How do they separate phones' length?

In phonetics we use below symbols to talk about phones' length. My question is that how do we measure it? In other words, since these terms (long, half-long extra-short) are relative, how do we ...
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2answers
180 views

which kind of phonetic symbol is it?

I read a electric dictionary in which the phonetic symbol are descirbed in the weird form. For example: afar / E5fB:(r); E`fBr/ which kind of phonetic symbol is it? Is there a full mapping list ...
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2answers
1k views

How is an archiphoneme represented on the phonetic level?

Consider an archiphoneme N that can be realized as n, ng, or as a nasal on a vowel depending on the context. Is this representation, below, standard i.e. with the archiphoneme as a capital letter on ...
3
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1answer
506 views

What is X in a syllable C=consonant, V=vowel

I don't under stand (X) and (s/sh) in this sentence. As opposed to Hebrew CV(X)(C), the non-Semitic syllable structure of Israeli, (s/sh)(C)(C)V(C)(C)(s/sh)
2
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1answer
567 views

What is the history of /ɨ/ vs /ï/?

The Close central unrounded vowel has two symbols in the IPA: /ɨ/ /ï/ It appears (from my completely unscientific survey of having seen the symbols in use) that the former is the more common. What ...
5
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2answers
602 views

Phonology vs phonetics : /ʁɔz/ vs [ʁoz]

It's written on French Wikipedia that the noun “rose” is represented in phonology by /ʁɔz/ whereas Wiktionary is claiming that it should be /ʁoz/. In both case, the associated representation in common ...
0
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1answer
437 views

What are the different ways prosodic features of a language are represented throughout the history of linguistics?

I can name a few: 1. Tones as numbers 2. Intonation contour as a line above the sentence 3. Tones as lines above segments 4. Stress marks before stress syllables ['white house] vs [white 'house] But ...
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3answers
4k views

Determining underlying representation

I'm really confused about how to determine underlying representation. Every thing I read seems to contradict the last. Trying desperately to solve this problem and I just seem to be going in circles ...
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2answers
1k views

What is the history of the International Phonetic Alphabet?

I know it has its origins in the International Phonetic Association, but the idea of a unique alphabet for each speech sound of the world's languages organized by place and manner must've had an ...
5
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3answers
2k views

Why don't any languages have strictly one character for every single phonetic sound?

Of the languages I know about, most of them (not Chinese, Japanese, etc.) only have characters or character groups for specific sounds, and also can have a single specific sound generated by placing ...
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1answer
394 views

SAMPA of a language - phones or phonemes?

I currently hear a lecture with the topic "Spoken Language Processing" and I have problems to understand SAMPA. I know that the IPA encodes the phones of human languages, so its possible to encode the ...
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2answers
158 views

IPA notation for syllabic [n] after another [n]

Written German has verbs like <können> ‘can’, but some (quick, lazy, …) speakers – myself included – pronounce this word form without any /e/ or schwa sound in the second nucleus. There are still ...
4
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1answer
812 views

For the 'ch' sound in Chilean Spanish, do these symbols differ?

I am researching dialects in Chilean Spanish , and one feature that is often mentioned (and one that you can hear all across Chile in conversation) is the varying pronunciation of the 'ch' sound. I ...
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0answers
82 views

Symbols for IPA categories

In IPA a consonant can have different places of articulation such as Bilabial, Labio-dental, Dental etc. I want to create a IPA chart that doesn't take much space. For that purposes the words are too ...
5
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2answers
4k views

Are there any good open source English text to IPA/other phonetics alphabet transcription programs?

I'm writing a computer program which requires some of this functionality at one point, so I wanted to get into a (better-written) code and have a look, to get some inspiration. Are there any good ones ...
4
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1answer
3k views

Where can I find a dataset of language phoneme sets?

I'm looking for a dataset of phoneme sets for the most widely spoken languages. Something like the sort of thing available here: http://web.phonetik.uni-frankfurt.de/upsid.html though the data there ...
3
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1answer
1k views

Is there a way to learn Icelandic phonetics online?

I want to learn Icelandic online, but am struggling to produce some phonemes. I am unable to find an IPA translator for Icelandic and think it'd be easier for me if I could see some of what I learn ...
3
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1answer
346 views

Is phonics still considered a strong teaching tool for teaching reading skills?

A number of years ago there was a company called "Hooked on Phonics", which made a name for itself with a successful ad campaign, and whose aim was to emphasize connecting different phonemes of words ...
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1answer
97 views

Several Questions Please Help with Answers [closed]

a. Some English words have more letters in their spelling than they have sounds in their pronunciation, but none have more sounds than they have letters. b. If an English word has 3 vowels sounds, ...
9
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1answer
812 views

How can I differentiate between syllable-initial [ɣ] and [ə] using Praat or other software?

I am currently studying Amdo Tibetan. In this language the voiced velar fricative [ɣ] is reported to occur as the first sound in some syllable-initial consonant clusters. More specifically, this sound ...
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2answers
1k views

What do the “less-than” and “greater-than” signs mean when used as IPA vowel diacritics?

I was recently reading an academic paper on Amdo Tibetan phonetics and the author uses IPA vowel diacritics that look like "less-than" and "greater-than" signs. Here is a picture so you know what I'm ...
7
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2answers
264 views

What do reversed and dotted tone letters mean?

The IPA uses the 5 tone-letters ˥,˦,˧,˨,˩. Unicode also has reversed (꜒,꜓,꜔,꜕,꜖) and dotted tone bars (꜈,꜉,꜊,꜋,꜌; ꜍,꜎,꜏,꜐,꜑). What are these characters used for?
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1answer
375 views

Cents symbol in phonology

In examining Chol's phonology, I came across the (old?) cents symbol ¢ (with a slanted line) as a phoneme symbol. I have not been able to track what it corresponds to in IPA terms, but I suspect it's ...