Questions tagged [phonetics]

The study of the production and perception of sounds or "phones".

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1answer
43 views

What is a “vertical scale” in a discussion of intonation contours?

In Ladd, D. R., & Morton, R. (1997), the authors write: It is customary to think of an intonation contour as having a linguistically distinctive shape or pattern and an independently ...
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479 views

How is stress marked in IPA?

I would just like to know if this is correct. I have this text, I'm having a hard time trying to figure out this; mark primary stress (and secondary, if appropriate) on the correct syllables using ...
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2answers
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ə after vowels and dipthongs and pronunciation of æ

I'm having some practice with American English sounds and I don't understand why some native speakers seem to add a schwa after vowel sounds. For example the word cat is pronounced in this lesson on ...
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0answers
79 views

Tongue position issues in the American bunched r sound

I'm training my american bunched r sound and I'd really need someone to help me solve my linguistic issues. 1) should I feel every part of my tongue tight or just the back sides are enough? 2) If I ...
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1answer
56 views

How can listeners perceive male f0 on the telephone

So I know that F0 need not be present for pitch to perceived (at least for men!) because the telephone filters out frequencies <300Hz (at least in the 90s, maybe there have been innovations in the ...
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2answers
1k views

What is the phonetic difference between “White House” and “white house”?

I guess this is really a difference of stress (though I confess, as a non-native, I barely perceive it). Obama lives in the White House (white has primary stress?) I live in the white house on this ...
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1answer
92 views

Perceptual salience of two consecutive syllables

Imagine the f0 of two subsequent syllables. The first rises from 200Hz to 300Hz and the second from 300Hz to 400Hz In other words, rises are both 100 Hz. Why is it the case that the first has more ...
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1answer
483 views

transliterate from IPA to Roman alphabet [closed]

I'm trying to figure out what is this in Roman Alphabet ʔə ʤoʷk (ʔə ˈmɛ ɹə ˌkʰɪn): seʲ, wʌʦ jɹ̩ ʤɐːb? (ˈʔɪ̃ŋ gɫɪʃ mə̃n): ʔɐ̃͡ɪ mə kʰlaːk. (ʔə ˈmɛ ɹə ˌkʰɪn): ...
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1answer
109 views

How do language differences develop? [closed]

What are all the ways a group of people can start to pronounce or say things differently? And what are the factors that can affect those "mutations" apart from a random shift in pronunciation of the ...
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2answers
446 views

How many phonetic symbols are in total languages?

my goal is to know all the sounds of other languages and compare if there are similarities. I only found the English http://soundsofspeech.uiowa.edu/english/english_main.swf http://www.stuff.co.uk/...
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2answers
464 views

Why is the word “Puyallup” difficult for most English speakers to pronounce? [closed]

Why linguistically the word of the city of Puyallup is difficult for non Seattleites to pronounce? It only contains sounds found in English.
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1answer
385 views

Best phonetic/ phonology resource for learning accents?

I'm a non-native English speaker at a California university absolutely fascinated by the variety of English accents I encounter in my day-to-day life. I have a co-worker with a Singaporean accent, for ...
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0answers
738 views

An analogy to understand phonetics and phonology

Is it accurate to make this statement? An analogy of the difference between phonetics and phonology can be made with music. Phonetics would be the study of the vocals and sounds made by instruments ...
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0answers
302 views

Matching Textgrid transcript to sound in Praat

I'm measuring the vowels in a whole boatload of recordings of the same item (e.g. 100 recordings of different people saying "my dog") in Praat. I am not very experienced in Praat, but figured out how ...
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2answers
470 views

Do English and French share the same international phonetic symbol?

[e] and [ε] are pronounced almost the same in English. But there is obvious difference between them in french , french [e] sounds like ‘ay’ in english ‘bay’, really close to the first English letter “...
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1answer
54 views

How to add a spectrogram to a paper

I would like to include some examples of spectrograms in a paper I am writing. What are some of the ways to get a picture to include? I thought it might be the "draw" feature in Praat but it doesn't ...
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2answers
861 views

zh sound with a flat tongue?

This is from the Wikipedia article on retroflex consonant, but isn't this wrong? I assume that Mandarin zh, ch, sh, and r sound should be pronounced with your tongue curled up, rather than "flat?" ...
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4answers
689 views

How and when did some European languages acquire retroflex d and t?

It seems the retroflex d and t are present in some Germanic languages but not in most Romance, Slavic, and other IE languages. I know that it occurs in IE languages of Asia, like Sanskrit, Pashto, ...
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2answers
311 views

Can Ernie's laughter be classified phonetically?

Recently I was trying to explain that I had (mis?)interpreted a Portuguese way of writing laughter, "kkkkkk", as the kind of sound Ernie from Sesame Street makes when he laughs. Here's a video with ...
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2answers
640 views

Is there a featural equivalent of the International Phonetic Alphabet?

The IPA arbitrarily borrows and derives graphemes from the Greek, Latin and Cyrillic. The graphemes do not display basic features (i.e. place and manner of articulation) shared between phones like ...
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1answer
158 views

Recording of nonsyllabic voiceless schwa?

I'm not sure if the nonsyllabic voiceless schwa (ə̯̊ ) occurs in any natural language, but are there any recordings of it being said out there, nonetheless? I would like to learn how to say it. Maybe ...
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1answer
2k views

Japanese ji versus dji and zu versus dzu (pronunciation and keyboard input issue)

I have found the following partial hiragana chart on t he internet. I was wondering, in IPA, how does ji (じ) differ from dji and zu (ず) differ from dzu? Technically, how are these pronounced? Thanks. ...
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1answer
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Where can I find a vowel analyzer app or program?

I'm looking for a smartphone app or computer program that will listen to me pronouncing a vowel and will tell me where exactly the vowel is located in the IPA vowel chart. Does anyone know of apps or ...
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0answers
116 views

Arabic sin and shin sounds in Classical times

What sounds did س and ش‎ make in (early) Classical Arabic? I have heard that maybe they were not [s] and [ʃ]. Is that a widely accepted truth? If that's true, what is the evidence for that?
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2answers
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How many vowels and how many consonants did the Proto-Indo-European Language have?

I am interested in development paths of Russian and English sound systems. At present the situation is as follows: according to WALS, the consonant inventory of modern Russian is classed as "...
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Human Vocal Tract: possibilities and impossibilities

I'm currently looking at an old past paper which asks why it would be impossible for a human vocal tract to produce a pharyngeal nasal and a uvular click. Could anyone help me out?
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1answer
2k views

Voiced obstruents (and sonority in general)

I (think that I) understand that sonorants are sonorous because airflow is continuous, non-turbulent, and so resonate at such a frequency that the vocal tract acoustic filter amplifies them. And I ...
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166 views

Finnish data, Consonant Gradatition

I am working on the blow Finnish data. As far as I understand there are 3 alternatives: 1) K -> 0 ( in "fault" group) 2) kk-> k (in "firplace" and "dot" group) 3) k-> k ( in "sledgehammer") The ...
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5answers
537 views

Phonemic Transcription Ambiguity?

I recently learned the the flap [ɾ] letter is part of both the /t/ and /d/ phonemes. A common example is writer /ˈraɪtər/ and rider /ˈraɪdər/. If they're both pronounced [raɪɾər], then shouldn't the ...
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2answers
268 views

English stress, abstract analysis

I am reading introductory phonology by Bruce Hayes, in chapter 12 he proposed an abstract analysis for English stress.Based on his proposed a word like cassette has been through a process like below: ...
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3answers
1k views

What is the phonetic reason for the occurence Sun and Moon letters in Arabic?

In Arabic, letters (or more accurately phonemes) are categroised into two categories: Sun letter and Moon letter in regard to what happen if we add Al (the) to them. Moon letters don't cause any ...
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0answers
63 views

Computational production of diphthongs

I am trying to generate vowels on MATLAB by using source-filter model. In case of monophthongs I'm using Rosenberg pulse as my source signal and then this source signal is convoluted with sounds ...
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3answers
328 views

Help with palatalisation and syllabification

Does palatalisation only occur at the beginning of a given word? All textbook examples (muse, beauty...) are at the beginning. Could somebody also explain syllabification? (Lecturer hardly covered ...
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4answers
190 views

How do they separate phones' length?

In phonetics we use below symbols to talk about phones' length. My question is that how do we measure it? In other words, since these terms (long, half-long extra-short) are relative, how do we ...
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2answers
2k views

What is syntagmatic axis?

I sort of know that syntagmatic axis is how phonemes arrange in a language, is it true? What is it in general?
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2answers
2k views

what are natural classes and how are they classified?

I know the general concept behind natural classes but what is the philosophy for some classes like syllabic? and are there any relationship between any two classes (like being sonorant and being ...
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0answers
142 views

Tips for pronouncing sounds that does not exist in the student's mother thongue [closed]

This is my first post here. My name is Bruno and I'm a native (Brazilian) Portuguese speaker. Besides Portuguese, I only have a rough knowledge of American English. I spite of that, I am trying to ...
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2answers
78 views

What is the philosophy of prosodic transcription?

Why are we transcribing prosody? and what is the philosophy behind it? In general what is the purpose of it?
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1answer
129 views

Can we have “rhoticized consonant”?

I presume that if your tongue tip is free while you're articulating a consonant, you can make a secondary narrowing with your tongue tip towards the alveolar ridge to produce a double-articulated ...
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2answers
1k views

Is there any way to draw a pitch track, sound wave, and annotation in Praat?

I can draw a combination of a Sound and a TextGrid, and the combination of a Pitch and a TextGrid, but I cannot draw the combination of all three, like it appears in the editor window. Is this a ...
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1answer
395 views

What is Fall-plus-Rise (phonetics)?

1) Is it a tone? 2) How do you pronounce it? How it would look like in the intonogram? 3) Is it the same thing as Divided (Extended) Fall-Rise? Are there any differences? 4) Is this tone used for a ...
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2answers
1k views

How to save the process of your work in PRAAT?

Is it possible to save the process of your project (not a result of it) in PRAAT programme so that you can change smth later etc and do not do the same things over again?
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1answer
50 views

do the vocal folds vibrate when producing oral stops of zero VOT?

we usually say voiceless stops are produced with vocal folds not vibrating. but when we introduce the idea of VOT, we say VOT is a specific feature for stop consonants that measures the amount of time ...
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2answers
312 views

Amplitude as the y-axis on a waveform

I just noticed, perhaps naively, that the representation of amplitude on the y-axis of a waveform is somewhat paradoxical. Although the space between each value on the y-axis is identical, the units ...
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2answers
556 views

What, precisely, is a phoneme? [duplicate]

I'm currently enrolled in an introductory linguistics course at my school, and I am having a hard time pinning down what phonemes are. My text defines phonemes as: "A distinctive structural element ...
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9answers
5k views

Is there an easy way to type IPA?

I'm currently using the virtual IPA keyboard on TypeIt, but it takes forever. Is there an easy way to type IPA? I've found this list of Unicode keyboards on SIL.org but I'm not too sure how to ...
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1answer
548 views

So, if we fix our mouth & tongue in a particular position then we can make ONE & ONLY ONE distinct vowel sound right?

Ok see the following IPA vowel chart Let say to make the long /i/ sound then the front of the tongue need to be as front as possible in the mouth and as close as possible to the roof of the mouth. ...
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1answer
302 views

Finding segments in Praat textgrids

I need to find the second to last segment in a segment tier (1) within a word on the word tier (3). So far, I have: # Find the word in the word tier n = Get number of intervals: 3 for i to n label$ ...
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2answers
2k views

The drop/weakening of “h” sound in General American English

I noticed that the speakers with the General American accent occasionally weaken the "h" sound in words like "had" e.g. "You had this and that." becomes kind of like "You ad this and that." (I can't ...
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1answer
114 views

Any suggestions for real-time phonetic analysis packages?

I'm writing some software that will need to do a bit of phonetic analysis. Are there any programs, libraries, or software packages that I can extend to my program which are commonly used for real-time ...

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