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Questions tagged [phonology]

The study of the abstract aspect of the sounds or *phonemes* in a given language.

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How is "a" pronounced in the end of words in Provençal Occitan?

Is there any rule? For exemple "santa" is pronounced ['sãtə]. I think that in Nissard it is pronounced [a] but I'm not sure. I would also like to know for Auvergnat and Gascon.
Raggi_2009's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
111 views

Is the Alveolar Tap the Same as a Very Brief Alveolar Plosive?

Is the alveolar tap executed with the same tongue movement as in the alveolar plosive except that in the case of the alveolar tap, the tongue tip strikes and moves away from the alveolar ridge so ...
André's user avatar
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Reverse Alveolar

Is there a name for Reverse Alveolar? Putting the tip of the tongue on the bottom tidge behind the teeth, if there's a name, I would think it would be along the lines of Alveolar or so something ...
Fox P's user avatar
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Do second language learners, at times, perceive the language to be acquired as more quiet or more difficult to hear when uttered, volume independent?

Has any person experienced the perceived lowering of volume or difficulty in hearing (perception of increased noise, for example) when attempting to listen to a second language? Is the effect ...
Matthew Michel's user avatar
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1 answer
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How commonly are [u] and cardinal close-mid [o] allophones?

I ask because I listened to the recordings of [o] here: https://www.internationalphoneticassociation.org/IPAcharts/inter_chart_2018/IPA_2018.html For me (being a speaker of Finnish) all but the first ...
Someone211's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
90 views

Schwa vowel in indonesian

I am starting to study indonesian, and every manual/grammar that I consulted so far (and even the teacher of our course and some youtubers who teach the language) insist that indonesian has five ...
dsp's user avatar
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Is it possible for two words to have the same underlying representation but different surface forms?

I'm trying to wrap my head around a mental concept and I was wondering if this was even possible, and how you would seperate the two using the exact same rules?
Inmydreams's user avatar
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Lip rounding doesn't transform the close-mid back vowels into each other, so why is the only difference between their names roundedness?

I don't understand why ⟨o⟩ is called the "close-mid back rounded vowel" while ⟨ɤ⟩ is called the "close-mid back unrounded vowel" - they sound completely different and they feel ...
Xiang Yu's user avatar
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1 answer
101 views

Is it not true that large phoneme inventories allow more syllables?

In the world of conlanging, its often said the best way to minimize the number of long words is to allow more short words. The main ways to do this is to have a large consonant inventory, liberal ...
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Languages with palatal vowel harmony

The abstract to one of the chapters of Asymmetries in Vowel Harmony (I don't have access to the full book) says: Palatal harmony is common in, and almost confined to, Finno-Ugric and Altaic languages....
Someone211's user avatar
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Origin of Singapore Cantonese /œː/ being realised as [jɔ]

I've recently been taking Cantonese lessons from a Hong Kong native speaker, and as a result I realised that the Cantonese speakers in my family (who are also native speakers, but from Singapore) all ...
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Romanian â and î: Is /ɨ/ more close /i/ than it is to /ə/?

In Romanian, there are currently two letters used for the /ɨ/ (i with bar) sound (close central unrounded vowel), namely "â" and "î" – there used to be other letters as well, in ...
Dan's user avatar
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How many dimensions do phonemes have?

I was wondering if there was a better or alternative ordering for the letters of the English alphabet, than the standard “a b c d e …”. This led me to wonder by what parameters they would be ordered. ...
Julius Hamilton's user avatar
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What is the distribution of the French uvular trill vs uvular fricative?

In French, the most common realizations of the phoneme /r/ are [ʀ] (uvular trill) and [ʁ] (voiced uvular fricative). I am able to consistently distinguish them and produce either, and I'm interested ...
maritsm's user avatar
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Were يانيه and یانیه interchangeable in Ottoman Turkish?

Copy/pasting from this official pdf from the Turkish government produces يانيه. Czech Wiki uses the same spelling. English Wikipedia and Wiktionary, however, both use the spelling یانیه. Those look ...
lly's user avatar
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Do liquid consonants ever become dental fricatives?

Is a sound change from /l/ or /r/ to a voiced dental fricative attested in any languages? (Furthermore is there some database for searching sound changes?)
Someone211's user avatar
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How can Kisserberth's idea of conspiracy is applicable in the generative explanation of word stress rules of a language X?

I am struggling to understand how can Kisserberth's concept of conspiracy is applicable in the generative explanation of word stress rules of a particular language X? Now, if we refer to Kager's (...
Shimi's user avatar
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1 answer
131 views

What's this linguistic phenomenon in English speaking?

I was enjoying the relaxing vibes that the hotel provided. When Americans say the above sentence, do they sometimes say "vibes that" in a way that sounds like "vibesat"? Does it ...
Tim's user avatar
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Finnish diphthongs and long vowels

From Reconsidering the Nganasan vowel system (Fejes 2021): One argument for the vowel sequence analysis is that Nganasan long vowels and diphthongs are twice as long as a single vowel (Helimski 1998: ...
Someone211's user avatar
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Typological frequency of sound changes; the case of s > h sound change

I was wondering how can I infer the typological "frequency" of given sound changes? How can I find out how typical is a given sound change typologically? Is there a catalogue of attested ...
Ali Koohpaee's user avatar
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1 answer
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Why does PIE *ǵn̥h₁tós yield Latin nātus?

I'm an undergraduate classicist doing a PIE paper! It's absolutely fascinating, but I'm still getting there with my understanding, so apologies if my questions are a bit silly! I have been looking at ...
fruitcheesy's user avatar
2 votes
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75 views

Do "chuckle" phonemes, or even non-phonemic realizations, exist in any languages?

When you try to stop yourself from laughing and fail, you make a "chuckle" sound: a stop-like release when the air from your laughter-compressed lungs, prevented from escaping through your ...
Szczepan Hołyszewski's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
134 views

What makes linguolabial consonants rare?

Even though I don't speak a language with linguolabial consonants, it seems to me that these sounds are easy to produce and also auditorily quite distinct, e.g. the difference between bilabial or ...
Someone211's user avatar
1 vote
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58 views

Which Indo-Aryan languages exhibit full assimiliation of voiced stops after nasal segments?

In which Indo-Aryan languages, if any, is full assimilation of voiced stops after nasal segments a characteristic feature? Particularly among Punjabi, Sindhi, Saraiki, Kashmiri, Dogri, Kangri, ...
stein's user avatar
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Did Cretan Greek have [s] as an allophone of /ts/ after a nasal?

Wikipedia cites Hinge (2001) as reporting the claim that Cretan Greek had [s] as an allophone of /ts/ after a nasal. I’m not a German speaker so I can’t verify this. The relevant section from the ...
Quinali Solaji's user avatar
2 votes
3 answers
804 views

Spurious Fs' spawning

As advised, I am posting a separate question, but I still think it is a better fit for linguistics (because of phonetics and phonology); feel free to migrate to latin SE. Famagusta is supposed to be a ...
George Ntoulos's user avatar
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0 answers
82 views

What precisely is the distinction between Finnish /p k/ and /b g/?

In Finnish /p k/ are formally voiceless, but in casual speech they can become fully voiced (Suomi et al), yet they are never mistaken for /b g/. What exactly is the distinction?
Someone211's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
196 views

Does California English have an additional vowel phoneme?

I've noticed that my pronunciation of the word only differs from the General American pronunciation (I'm from coastal California). This is the pronunciation of only that I assume is General American: ...
BilliamOrWobForShort's user avatar
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Why does Danish have more short-long vowel pairs than Swedish?

In Danish, the pair /ø/ and /ø:/ are distinguished from the pair /œ/ and /œ:/. In Swedish, the phonemes /ø:/ and /œ/ are treated as a short-long pair. In Danish, the pair /ɔ/ and /ɔ:/ are ...
Quinali Solaji's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
75 views

What is the rule in Turkish called where /e/ becomes [æ] when preceding a syllable final nasal or liquid consonant?

Examples of these are words like "sen" [sæn] vs [se̞n] (you) "sel" [sæl] vs [se̞l] (flood) where the latter realizations sound less natural to the average Istanbul Turkish speaker. ...
vef4's user avatar
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5 votes
2 answers
848 views

Languages with [yø̯]

The Finnish language has the (presumably) extremely rare diphthong [yø̯], which is a front rounded vowel opening and falling diphthong. I know that this diphthong also exists in some other Finnic ...
Someone211's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
90 views

When the short /i/ sound in English is lenthened very much (in singing, for example), will its quality change so it resembles long /i:/?

In singing, when a singer lengthens a word that contains short /i/, will it cause any confusion (between that short /i/ and the long /i:/) for the native English speaker's ear? When I listened to this ...
Tran Khanh's user avatar
2 votes
3 answers
304 views

Is DŽ actually ĎŽ?

I am from the Czech Republic, and one thing that has always bothered me is that a lot of English (and other) loanwords were written in Czech with "dž" in place of the English J, e.g. "...
Detheroc's user avatar
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6 votes
1 answer
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Why do nouns typically have their main stress on the penultimate while verbs on the ultimate (according to theories other than that of Hayes)?

I'm working on English stress acquisition by non-native speakers for my Master's Thesis. According to the theories of Hayes (1981) and, subsequently, Halle & Vergnaud (1987), extrametricality (i.e....
ludovikbt's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
206 views

Phonetic/acoustic difference between /ˈæb.sə.luːt/ and /ˈæp.sə.luːt/

My understanding is that "b" in "absolute" can be pronounced either as /b/ or /p/. In both cases, the plosive is usually not released (or has an inaudible release). Clipping occurs ...
Tran Khanh's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
21 views

Investigating the role of Functional Load in Speech Recognition

I am currently delving into the application of Stokes and Surendran’s Functional Load (FL) in the context of Dutch CVC (Consonant-Vowel-Consonant) words. Stokes and Surendran (2005) propose FL as a ...
corvusMidnight's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
175 views

Pronunciation of ‘hₐ’ in PIE

I have tried to find the sound hₐ-, for example "hₐeust(e)ro" engl. 'east', or hₐel, 'burn' , but also example hₐner, 'man' pronunciation, but I can't find it anywhere on the internet, ...
Eliel's user avatar
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-1 votes
1 answer
130 views

About similarity of sounds in Swedish and Danish

In all sources I have found the symbol /ð/ is used for Danish 'd', indicating something between the English /ð/ and /l/ with the tongue moved a bit back, touching the teeth a bit. So, actually, I am ...
Denis D. Bavrin's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
40 views

What is the difference between double articulations and secondary articulators?

I need to know the examples that makes secondary articulators and double articulations different.
Tobi's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
153 views

How many beats is a syllable?

I’ve read some sources that say a syllable is “one beat” but I don’t understand that. Wouldn’t it depend on the tempo of the pulse. I.e, if a tempo is 60bpm can’t you fit different numbers of ...
Lecifer's user avatar
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7 votes
2 answers
466 views

Looking for examples of natural languages with affricates but no corresponding fricatives/plosives

I was thinking about how Spanish has a /t̠ʃ/ but (in most dialects) no /ʃ/, and how many native Spanish speakers have trouble producing the sound ʃ by itself. I don't see why this couldn't apply to ...
pigi5's user avatar
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7 votes
2 answers
411 views

Why is binarity emphasized so much in linguistics?

I'm an aspiring linguistics student, not a professional, so my thinking may be misguided or elementary. In my personal research about linguistics, I have discovered many important theories and ...
Graham H.'s user avatar
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-1 votes
1 answer
120 views

Why are some phonemic sounds not included in their language’s phonemic inventory?

Sorry for the weird wording and the beginner question, I’m trying to ask why, as an example in Finnish, do we not put the long vowels in the vowel chart while Māori’s long vowels are represented in ...
vef4's user avatar
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5 votes
1 answer
614 views

Why is vowel length not considered phonemic in Turkish?

Excuse me if this is a very novice question, but there are pairs in Turkish like "yağma" /ja:ma/ (plunder) and "yama" /jama/ (patch), or "olan" /olan/ (one that's there) ...
vef4's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
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what does +cont mean in phonological rules

One of the solutions in my practice questions for a phonological rule was listed as: C[+cont, α place] -> [+plosive] / N [α place] ___ to represent a situation where voiced consonants are realised ...
Amy's user avatar
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2 votes
2 answers
300 views

Phonemes vs. Distinctive Feature Theories

I'm a high school student who will be going to college to study linguistics next fall. I'm already knowledgeable about some areas, but I'm currently trying to expand my knowledge in phonology. I have ...
Graham H.'s user avatar
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2 votes
3 answers
218 views

Is there any sound change that can result in /ɞ/?

I am making a conlang where one of the distinctive sounds is /ɞ/. It is a rare vowel sound, and I searched Index Diachronica but couldn't find a sound change that results in it. The sound also does ...
Neil Iyer's user avatar
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1 vote
2 answers
119 views

How to analyze nasal vowels next to nasal consonants

Let's say a language uses two vowels /A/ and /B/ which differ only by one relevant phonological feature [+/- X] such that /A/ is [- X] and /B/ is [+ X]. Now let's say there's a consonant phoneme /C/ ...
Graham H.'s user avatar
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-2 votes
1 answer
91 views

Phonological rules

If I were to write a rule dictating that /l/ becomes [r] before a front vowel would it be: /l/ -> [r] / [V, +front], /l/ -> [r] / [+front] or /l/ -> [r] / V [+nasal]
Amy's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
224 views

Determining the number of phonemes from set of phones

For this exercise, I'm to determine the number of phonemes from a set of phones and then write their allophonic rules for each phoneme phones: [b], [ɣ], [β], [l], [t], [d], [g] However, I think I'm ...
Amy's user avatar
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