Questions tagged [phonology]

The study of the abstract aspect of the sounds or *phonemes* in a given language.

Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
0
votes
0answers
27 views

Terminology about elongating a monothong or a diphthong by duration and tone

Which terminology is applicable when a monothong or diphthong is elongated in duration and with a slightly higher pitch? Would it be vowel breaking or fracturing or something else? Example 1 (...
0
votes
1answer
49 views

How to write these rules in features?

I was wondering how do you write these rules in features using the minimum number of features to describe the segment(s) targeted by the rule in the input. I am still super new to linguistics! Thank ...
1
vote
1answer
75 views

Number of tones in Cantonese vs. Mandarin and final stops

The emergence of tones in Chinese languages (and actually most tonal languages) is, roughly speaking, due to the loss of final consonnants of syllables at an earlier stage of the language. In ...
2
votes
1answer
104 views

Is there a phonological division in Slavic languages as important as the La Spezia-Rimini line? If not, is there a most important partition anyway?

All divisions of Slavic languages based on phonological criteria that I have seen so far are rather minor and/or localized (e.g. spirantization (Czech, Ukrainian) or not (Russian, Polish) of g). Is ...
5
votes
3answers
933 views

What is the name of this sound change, and do we have it in English?

I'm a Persian, I'm from Iran, and I speak Farsi. Here, we have a very strange rule that we turn آ into و in informal conversations. For example: خانه = house (formal) /kh a ne/ خونه = house (informal) ...
0
votes
1answer
72 views

What part of speech is a phoneme?

I wanted to know what part of speech a phoneme might be or I wanted to know if a phoneme might be a part of speech and I wanted to know if a phoneme can be an affix. I also wanted to know what a ...
2
votes
2answers
355 views

Voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate in english?

The "officially" voiceless alveolar-palatine affricate does not exist in English. But I can clearly hear it in the sentence "Ouch that hurt" (when the computer reads this sentence ...
1
vote
1answer
36 views

Looking for contrastive feature hierarchies for Irish, Manx and/or Scottish Gaelic

Where might I find ready-made contrastive feature hierarchy trees for these languages? In the case that they aren’t available anywhere online, I may need to make my own, in which case I’m looking for ...
6
votes
2answers
924 views

Evidence that ø and œ are separate phonemes in French?

Are there any minimal pairs between ø and œ or other evidence that these are separate phonemes? I have been studying French, and so far it seems like ø is found in open syllables and œ is found in ...
0
votes
1answer
68 views

How to make a sonority curve for a word where a 'syllabic consonant' is followed by a vowel or vice versa

I've learnt that the number of peaks of sonority in a sonority curve determines the number of syllables in a word. The number of syllables depend on the pronunciation. It may also be true for other ...
0
votes
1answer
46 views

Phonological parallel of a Lexical Decision Task

Lexical Decision Tasks have been used in psycholinguistics for long. It basically asks the participant if the word shown is meaningful (e.g. GIRL) or not (e.g. GISL) (ref: link). But does a test like ...
2
votes
4answers
411 views

Sanskrit consonant clusters

I thought it'd be fairly easy to find a list of Sanskrit consonant clusters online, but the last hour or so has proved me wrong. There's information out there about how to write conjoined consonants ...
-1
votes
1answer
75 views

What does @ mean? [closed]

What does “@“ sign mean in phonology or historical linguistics? I saw “*@” in the context of restriction.
4
votes
1answer
105 views

Is there any reflex of initial *h₁?

It's commonly posited that all PIE roots consist of two groups of consonants, neither of which can be empty. For example, the root *h₁ed- has the groups *h₁ and *d. However, I'm not aware of any ...
2
votes
1answer
120 views

What does the double colon sign (::) mean in phonology?

What does the :: sign mean in phonology or historical linguistics? Here's an example I saw: yeri :: yatu
1
vote
2answers
149 views

What does the ◌͇ diacritic mean in the IPA?

I once saw [ʐ͇] and couldn't figure out what the diacritic meant. Any help is appreciated.
-4
votes
1answer
71 views

List of major languages that can and cannot have their pronunciation generated programmatically from the spelling [closed]

Which languages can you directly convert the spelling of the word into a "standard" pronunciation? From my understanding so far: Chinese (through pinyin) Hebrew (seem to have a rigid ...
4
votes
0answers
91 views

Stress bearing suffixes in Optimality Theory

Stress bearing suffixes in English words like Chinese, Japanese, cigarette, fifteen violate the non-finality constraint. Can anyone explain what other constraints outrank non-finality and allows the ...
2
votes
2answers
134 views

I have read that in Mishnaic Hebrew, some pronounced the 6th letter as waw/w and some as vav/v What is the evidence of this?

I have read that in Mishnaic Hebrew, some pronounced the 6th letter as waw/w and some as vav/v What is the evidence of this? I see it mentioned here https://forum.wordreference.com/threads/%D7%95-vav-...
5
votes
4answers
1k views

Can languages restrict their number of distinct syllables when written by syllabaries?

Disclaimer: I am not a linguist, please provide any corrections for terminology. From How languages compare with the number of different syllables from all words?, Yoon Mi Oh's thesis counted the ...
8
votes
2answers
759 views

How languages compare with the number of different syllables from all words?

Note: I am not a linguist, please provide any corrections for terminology. I would like to find some approximate data (if it exists) comparing several languages with the number of different syllables ...
0
votes
2answers
156 views

Why are there languages that distinguish between /j/ and /i/?

Both phonemes sound practically the same, so it's understandable that there are languages such as Spanish and Italian in which /j/ shares grapheme with /i/ in diphthongs. That is, in these and other ...
0
votes
1answer
46 views

What is a markedness constraint in Optimality Theory?

Here is my answer but I'm not sure whether it is correct or put in a formal way. Could you help me see this? Markedness constraints allow the markedness of a feature based on universal principles of ...
0
votes
1answer
73 views

Data analysis of æ (tense) and æ: (lax) (Lexical Phonology)

I am struggling with performing a phonological analysis (within the framework of Lexical Phonology) on the following data. In an unspecified English dialect, the distribution of the vowels æ (tense) ...
2
votes
2answers
70 views

Some questions about counterbleeding

Here are two words, "writing" and "riding". I know that there are two rules for them, as in the pictures. But in the first picture, can I say the /ai/ raising rule counterbleeds ...
2
votes
1answer
55 views

What are the phonological rules or constraints for these pairs of words?

Mongol-Mongolia Arab-Arabia Babylon-Babylonian Boston-Bostonian comedy-comedian colony-colonial I know that the vowel in the second syllable is lengthened, but what are the rules or constraints for ...
5
votes
1answer
100 views

Is there evidence for accentuation in Classical Arabic?

Wright's A grammar of the Arabic language lays out claims for where the stress should be in §§28-31. Most of the claims are connectable (in my experience) to contemporary renditions of Classical ...
1
vote
1answer
118 views

Does anyone actually use /æ/ as an emphatic article?

In the movie "Wayne's World" (1992), Mike Myers's character (the titular Wayne) says "I don't even own æ gun, let alone many guns that would necessitate an entire rack." To my ears ...
3
votes
2answers
193 views

A question about Optimality Theory

Here is a line, "The optimal output in OT need not be the ideal candidate in the sense of complying with all the constraints." (quoted from Roca and Johnson (1999:656). I really feel ...
0
votes
1answer
37 views

What are the similarities between rule-based phonological theory and Optimality Theory?

The only similarity is that they both involve the underlying form and surface form right?
6
votes
3answers
530 views

Is a final -u in Semitic languages known outside of Akkadian?

Consider Akkadian bētu vs. Hebrew bayit (בַּיִת) (meaning "house") and Akkadian daltu vs. Hebrew delet (דֶּלֶת) (meaning "door"). Are these endings known outside of Akkadian? If so, when did they ...
1
vote
1answer
92 views

Speakers of a foreign language in a nation sounding similar in 'mispronunciations'

For pronunciation of a foreign language, do foreign speakers from a certain country speak with the same accent because they learn in their country from someone with that accent, or their native ...
1
vote
0answers
103 views

Aspiration of p, t, k in English

I'm trying to figure out when exactly p, t, k should be aspirated in (American) English. Here's what I found here: Voiceless stops are aspirated at the beginning of a word, and at the beginning ...
0
votes
0answers
27 views

Resource for finding languages that contain certain phonemes [duplicate]

In particular /w~b/ or other sounds that could be transcribed as <w> or <b>. Background: A person gave his name variously as 'John Barosa' or 'John Warosa' in writing from which I figured ...
0
votes
0answers
43 views

According to the Elsewhere Principle, can a syntactic rule block a morphological one, or a morphological rule a phonological one?

I read up on the Elsewhere Principle. In the linked article two examples are given: The syntactic comparative "more + adjective" can be overruled by the morphological comparative "adjective+er" for (...
4
votes
0answers
113 views

The letter <u> in Provençal: when is it [y] and when is it [œ]?

In most dialects of Occitan, the letter <u> is pronounced [y] generally. However, in Provençal it appears to be pronounced [œ] by some speakers some of the time. This wikipedia article states (...
1
vote
2answers
74 views

Looking for references about the orthographic transparency

I need to have two tables as showing both grapheme-phoneme and phoneme-grapheme relationships in a couple of languages to be compared mathematically. In fact, I want to know how many phonemes stand ...
7
votes
3answers
2k views

Is there a name for when a 'c' becomes an [s] sound in words like rusticity, when originally it was a 'c' in rustiC?

I know it's a sound change, but is there a specific name for it? It's for an assignment I'm writing on the phonological transparency of the suffix -ity.
3
votes
1answer
90 views

What are cyclic and non-cyclic application in Phonology?

I'm still confused about the two abstract definitions. Can you give some examples to explain?
0
votes
2answers
122 views

Guttural pronunciation of {h} in American English

I'm not a native speaker. I've noticed that some Americans pronounce {h} as a guttural sound sometimes. Is this a documented feature of American English? Examples: https://youtu.be/j2I9LpDF708?t=7 (...
0
votes
1answer
23 views

What is “metrically free elements”?

According to the Free Element Condition, only metrically free elements may undergo metrical construction. But what is "metrically free elements"?
-2
votes
1answer
77 views

Pronouncing h as /x/? [closed]

I am curious about phonics and wonder if pronouncing the /h/ sound as /x/ would be distinguishable. This is basically turning a k into a fricative, and this is basically h fronting.
0
votes
1answer
34 views

What is the relation between sonority and stress?

Are there any relations between stress and sonority? Does stress denote high sonority?
1
vote
1answer
43 views

What is the difference between Minimal Onset Satisfaction and Onset Maximization Principle?

Since they both describe that onsets take priority over of codas, what is the difference between them?
2
votes
0answers
35 views

Is there a principled reason behind differing compound verb stress in English?

Is there a principled difference between compound verbs in English with stress on the first root and those with stress on the second root? First root stress compound verbs: Dropkick Spoonfeed ...
1
vote
1answer
137 views

what is the difference between [g] and [ɣ]?

Does [ɣ] appear in english anywhere? I've seen [ɣ] listed as occuring in the spanish word "amigo" but I don't notice any difference between it & [g]. The Arabic equivalent is [غ].
1
vote
1answer
760 views

Why do we pronounce the letter “A” as the “eɪ” in Stake, and as “æ” in Cabbage?

I wondered about the difference between those vowels. Is there a rule that decides what articulation fits the syllabe in each word and what is that rule. I tried phonogical analysis on those vowels in ...
1
vote
1answer
76 views

What is the dividing line between phonetics and phonology? [duplicate]

From my understanding, Phonetics is the study of physical aspect of sounds, including how sounds are produced (articulatory phonetics), how they are perceived (auditory phonetics) and the physics ...
0
votes
0answers
18 views

Do ongoing sound changes often impact L2 speech production?

I'm trying to find out whether L1 ongoing sound changes often impact speech productions in an L2. For instance, an ongoing sound change in Brazilian Portuguese (i.e. the arising of new consonant ...
1
vote
2answers
77 views

What is the difference between “ɪ”, “i”, “i:”? [duplicate]

What is the difference between “ɪ”, "i", “i:”? Is “ɪ” lax and short, "i" tense and short, "i:" tense and long?

1
2 3 4 5
16