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The study of the abstract aspect of the sounds or *phonemes* in a given language.

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58 views

Phonological rule for realizations of Italian /s/

It seems that realization of Italian /s/ is not fully systematic and there are some exceptions. Is there any phonological rule for possible realizations of Italian /s/
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1answer
26 views

Dental and labiodental fricatives with different relative positions of the articulators

Are there distinct phonemes for labiodental fricatives articulated with the upper teeth touching the lower lip from the inside (like in English /f/) and ones that are articulated with the tip of the ...
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1answer
131 views

Why do I speak more accurately in English rather than my native language?

I have a diction/vocal issue from birth so I can not speak on the "right rhythm" of my tongue. My speech seems always slow and boring at my native language so that I have a huge difficult to verbally ...
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2answers
38 views

/l/ environments in English and Introductory Phonology by Bruce Hayes

Note: I am on my phone, so linguistic symbols are not intuitive to type, so I typed out phone names in prose Hello, apologies if this is a dumb question, but I'm reading through Bruce Hayes' "...
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2answers
67 views

How does optimality theory handle opacity?

Optimality theory is a theory of phonology that drops Chomskyan replacement rules in favor of a set of ranked constraints. It can lead to much more elegant analyses in some cases. However, I don't ...
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3answers
80 views

Looking for minimal pairs showing lenis/fortis distinction (preferably for German pronunciation)

I have read many descriptions of the lenis/fortis distinction, but they don't make any sense to me. I have searched in vain for minimal pairs (preferably with audio/vidoe) illustrating the difference ...
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2answers
531 views

Trying to make sense of “…but voiced obstruents are not always voiced”

I came across the following phrase in a description of German pronunciation: The basic rule is that voiceless obstruents are always voiceless, but voiced obstruents are not always voiced. ...which ...
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1answer
29 views

Difference between sounds and segments

I have always wondered whether there is a clear distinction between (speech) sounds and segments. The two words appear to be used interchangeably in some places while in others they are considered to ...
3
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1answer
48 views

What’s a good example a language phenomena in which f0 is NOT correlated to pitch?

It’s standard doctrine that “pitch is perceived f0”, and that f0 is phonetic and corresponds to pitch which is phonological ... no problem there. (Even if this is a simplification) But I wonder if ...
5
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1answer
57 views

What are the features that distinguish a velar /k/ from an uvular /q/ in a spectrogram?

I am trying to annotate a recording of a language that has both velar k and uvular q. It’s tricky because I can’t always distinguish the two phonemes by ear. What features may I see in a spectrogram ...
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2answers
62 views

Are there languages that ban t+S (esh) sequences but have a č phoneme?

I’m not expert in typology, but I wonder if it’s possible for a language to ban t+S sequences but have a phoneme č. Does anyone know of an example of one such language?
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2answers
201 views

Does syntactic stress exist?

From what I know, stress can only be assigned at the level of the word (as in English) or the level of the sentence (as in French). Can any natural language assign it syntactically, e.g., "the first ...
2
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1answer
98 views

French - when is 'r' pronounced as /x/ and when is it pronounced /ʁ/?

I'm a Hebrew speaker, and in Modern Hebrew, there is a distinction between /ʁ ~ ɣ/ and /x/. When I hear French, I recognize that 'r' isn't always pronounced as /ʁ/ but in many times, as /x/. I tried ...
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2answers
82 views

Arabic /R/ - correct pronunciation in Modern Standard Arabic

Arabic has many dialects, but in general the /R/ in Modern Standard Arabic is an alveolar trill (or is it not?) - like the Spanish perro - according to Wikipedia and it is also what I have heard from ...
5
votes
3answers
150 views

Sounds that are treated as phonetically equivalent

I suspect that I will not use the right terminology here. Apologies in advance. Is there a word for the phenomenon in which speakers of a language treat two different sounds as equivalent, even ...
6
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1answer
162 views

What was the function of the Lycian spelling m̃m and ñn

I am trying to understand the function of double (?) nasals in Lycian. Usually an /ñ/ is followed by /n/ and so does /m̃/ which is followed by an /m/. What was the function of this spelling in Lycian? ...
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1answer
44 views

tones in autosegmental phonology

I'm reading up on the basics of segmental phonology and can't seem to wrap my head around it. So the normal association line indicated the connection between the tonal tier on top, and the segmental ...
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0answers
57 views

Andrea Bocelli Aspiration

I have been listen to Andrea Bocelli's songs lately. A noticeable feature of his pronunciation while singing Spanish songs is that he constantly pronounces the plosives (especially at word-initial ...
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2answers
119 views

Why does Laam sometimes get pronounced as the next letter in Arabic words? [duplicate]

I'm trying to learn how to read Arabic and I noticed that sometimes the letter Laam (ل) is either silent or takes the pronunciation of the following letter, as in this text from Wikipedia: As-...
0
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2answers
79 views

How to write phonological rules this words?

so my teacher asked us to make the phonological rules like this: *pinta → winta 'arm' answer : in rules expressing sound changes: p > w / #_ (initial [p] becomes [w]) but I still confused with ...
6
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1answer
115 views

Online tool for IPA pronunciation synthesis

I've already found this tool from 0n0e.com but the problem is that it pronounces the words too quickly. Is there any other phoneme synthesis online which speaks a bit slower?
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2answers
202 views

Is the choice of /eɪ/ over /æ/ in 'flaky' arbitrary?

I'm a non-native speaker who started using English about a decade ago. The problem is sometimes when I first encounter a new word, I fail to predict its correct prononciation. So, I check the ...
3
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1answer
95 views

Why does saying the word “fuck” help vent frustration?

I have observed a good number of people muttering "fuckfuckfuck" under their breath when nervous. It somehow seems to vent the frustration out, and calm the person down. Why does this happen? I found ...
10
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1answer
127 views

Why is [la] widely used as a substitution for singing? Is it a worldwide phenomenon?

When people sing without knowing or using the text, they often sing as lalalala...
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1answer
66 views

Why are phonemes called “mental” objects

I understand the distinction between phonemes and allophones, but why are phonemes considered as mental objects and not psychological objects? Isn’t everything mental also, in a sense, necessarily ...
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2answers
534 views

Are there any minimal pairs for German lax/tense vowels?

As we know, most German vowels have a 'tense' (or long) pronunciation and a 'lax' (or short) pronunciation. Most of the time, which pronunciation should be used can be determined by the context that ...
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1answer
62 views

Is the voiceless alveolar affricate, [t͡s], phonetically present in General American?

I've run into a lot of sources that indicate [t͡s] is not in GA. While this might be true phonemically, I don't entire believe this to be true for the actual phonetics. By the definition of an ...
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1answer
95 views

When does the “dark l” sound in English date back to?

There is no "dark l" sound in Proto-Germanic language and Proto-Indo-European language.
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1answer
63 views

How to differentiate [æ] and [a] in feature theory?

I'm doing an exercise where I'm trying to formulate the phonological rules for adapting English words into Japanese ones using feature theory. I came across a problem early on where En. /æ/ turns into ...
2
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1answer
59 views

What are the best books to study Phonology at an introductory level?

I'm looking for a good introduction to phonology book with good examples of diverse languages.
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1answer
88 views

Early Middle English diphthongs

Wikipedia has a helpful page on Middle English phonology: but there are two diphthongs in its table which I cannot identify: the close-mid diphthongs “/oi/, developing into /ui/” and “/ei/, developing ...
0
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1answer
76 views

What were the Proto-Bantu -ATR vowels?

It seems to be widely accepted that Proto-Niger-Congo had ten vowels, with ATR harmony: /i-ɪ e-ɛ ə-a o-ɔ u-ʊ/. Similarly, it seems widely accepted that Proto-Bantu lost three of these vowels and ...
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3answers
139 views

Distribution of Tonal and Click Languages

Tonal languages seem to be limited to southern China and southeast Asia, equatorial Africa, and equatorial South America. Click languages don't seem to exist outside southern Africa. Why do these ...
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2answers
58 views

Deducing a rule out of set of examples

Consider the following Spanish words, written in IPA (with their English translation): And the same question for middle position and final position My answer is: Initial position: Looking at the ...
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2answers
144 views

Are there languages featuring “reversed affricates” as phonological segments?

This question is inspired by the comments to my answer on this question. Are there reversed affricates, i.e., fricatives ending in a homorganic stop, attested in any language of the world? What is ...
5
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1answer
154 views

What is this phonetic alphabet called?

There is a feature in the macOS speech synthesizer (which takes written text and reads it aloud) for developers which lets you instead enter text and outputs the phonemes that it would read aloud in ...
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2answers
1k views

Why do Americans and Canadians pronounce “t” with flap [ɾ] in unstressed syllables in English?

Most Americans and Canadians pronounce "t" with flap [ɾ] in unstressed syllables. Why?
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1answer
129 views

Why does so many languages have both an alveolar “light L” [l] and a velarized “dark L” [ɫ] allophone?

Various dialects in all three of English, Portuguese, and Dutch have accents that contain velarized L allophones, which are sometimes known as “dark L’s”, at the syllable coda. Why is this? There ...
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0answers
32 views

(How) Can one create a language in a classroom setting?

My wife questioned me if there's a subject that I cannot teach effectively (per my standards of making the students salivate for more). I mentioned my weakness at teaching languages, English for ...
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1answer
51 views

Explanation of Element Theory? [closed]

Can anyone please provide a simple explanation of element theory for someone who knows nothing about it? If you could help me answer the following: What is element theory? What are elements? How ...
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2answers
146 views

Do languages generally tend to avoid palindromic syllables?

E.g. /knank stjajts smoms/ even they do follow the Sonority Sequencing Principle
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0answers
46 views

Do we have an Intonation “etymology”?

Recently I was thinking about a language I'm currently learning and its similarities with my own native language. While I assume grammar to change considerably depending on language it came to mind ...
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2answers
104 views

there is no relation between phonetic sounds and letters. explain? [closed]

So I got this question in my midterm exam and it was out of nowhere. All what I could think about that time is that letters are written and sounds are spoken, the letters are made from a vowel and a ...
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3answers
161 views

How do people deal with loanwords with highly alien phonemes?

I've been thinking about how a people who speak a language without rhotics would perceive a rhotic sound. Obviously of course, this would depend on exactly which rhotic we're talking about. I thought ...
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2answers
146 views

How do ideophones and onomatopoeia work in English?

I was reading about ideophones on Wikipedia, and the way it was described seemed like it was describing onomatopoeia. Apparently the claim is that onomatopoeia is a sub-class of ideophone. In the main ...
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1answer
91 views

Is the “r” in “universe” syllabic?

Good morning, Is the "r" is the word "Universe" syllabic? I learned how to identify the syllabic letters, but still find it hard to do so.
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2answers
117 views

Can two phonemic symbols represent the same sound?

Can you please clarify whether the phonemic symbols /ɪ/ and /i/ can be used interchangeably to represent the sound at the end of such words as coffee, taxi, happy, easy, ready?
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1answer
71 views

Catalan assimilation of 's' /s/ → [ʃ] after palatal consonants 'ny' /ɲ/ and 'll' /ʎ/

Question I've noticed a phenomenon in (Central) Catalan speech that I had seen no mention of when studying the language. In words with a final -nys or -lls, the s is assimilated and becomes palatal [...
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3answers
69 views

Why are ㅔ and ㅐ referred to as diphthongs?

Why are ㅔ and ㅐ referred to as diphthongs in some Korean teaching materials even though the equivalent sounds (/e/, /ɛ/) do not constitute a change from one sound to another? I understand the ...
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1answer
24 views

What are LPC coefficients?

In John Coleman's (2003) paper "Discovering the acoustic correlates of contrast", he mentions using "15 autoregressive filter coefficients (a1 - a15)" as an acoustic variable in measuring the ...