Questions tagged [phonology]

The study of the abstract aspect of the sounds or *phonemes* in a given language.

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3answers
99 views

Is there any real phonemic distinction between semivowels and their vocalic counterparts?

So my understanding is that semivowels are phonetically identical (or nearly identical) to their vocalic equivalents, and that the distinction between the two is primarily based on how they behave ...
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5answers
564 views

Word meaning as function of the composition of its phonemes

tl;dr Linguists like to claim that the mapping from sounds to word meanings is mostly arbitrary. Can you point out research that supports this claim? Specificllay I am looking for hard evidience in ...
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What are the stress-distinguished minimal pairs in English?

I already know of two non-homograph ones: insight and billow. Insight /ˈɪnsʌɪt/ is phonemically identical to incite /ɪn'sʌɪt/ except for where the stress falls (first syllable in insight, second ...
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Do a classification of words with two or more stressed syllables exist?

In phonology, words can be classified according to the position of the stressed syllable: An oxytone word is a word stressed in the last syllable. A paroxytone word is a word stressed in the second ...
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How to exactly pronounce IPA

I'm a native Korean speaker, and I somtimes have trouble pronuncing some of the sounds which is not used or not distinguished in Korean. For example, ɛ and e are equivalent to Korean phoneme ㅐ and ㅔ. ...
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Are there languages without the /j/ sound as in English "yellow"?

There are many languages without the /w/ sound as in English world, as in French oiseau, as in Spanish fuego, and as in Mandarin wang (the last three respectively mean bird, fire, and king). Some ...
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2answers
48 views

what is a "non-derived" environment?

what is the meaning of derived and non-derived environments in phonology? for example, non derived environment blocking, that does it mean? I've looked everywhere but I could not find the actual ...
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247 views

Phonological Development from PIE to Greek

I found the following phonological development (from PIE to Greek) patterns very interesting. *kw>t / __ {e, i} (e.g., *penkwe- > πέντε) *gw>d / __ e (*gwelbhu- > δελψύς) *gwh>th / ...
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82 views

Epenthesis using SPE-notation

Suppose in some language the following happens: when the stem ends in front vowels (i, e), then adding a certain suffix X requires j insertion (so it looks like [.. i j X] or [... e j X] instead of [....
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Is the Romanian verb "pișca" etymologically related to Spanish "pellizcar" ( to pinch )?

From wiktioanry: "pellizcar (Spain) /peʝiθˈkaɾ/, [pe.ʝiθˈkaɾ] (Latin America) /peʝisˈkaɾ/, [pe.ʝisˈkaɾ]- From Vulgar Latin *vellicicāre, from Latin vellicāre, most likely ultimately from vellus (...
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What does 'anterodorsal' mean?

In the context of places of articulation of consonants, what does "anterodorsal" mean? I came across it in the 2008 paper by Wai-Sum Lee: The Articulation of the Coronal Sounds in the Peking ...
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Korean tense/lax vs. English tense/lax

Looking at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/English_phonology and https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Korean_phonology, English has "tense" sounds: "p", "t", "ch", and &...
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Where do the "îs" and "îi" forms of "a fi" ( "to be" ) originate in dialectal Romanian?

perhaps the Latin first person singular indicative "sum" with an "î" of uncertain origin? Im not sure about "îi". I guess from the short "e" /je/ form of "...
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German contraction "wara" - morphology or phonology?

The regular form War er ... 'was he ...' would, in certain positions of sentence in my idiomatic sociolect, sound approximately as * wara /vaːʁɐ/. I can not imagine at the moment how this came ...
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How did latin "de post" become Romanian "după"?

Wouldn't the expected result be: "dopă"? I understand that the short "e" was assimilated by the long "o" from the next word, and then /o/ -> /ə/, but why o -> u ? ...
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Do Diphthongs occur in Georgian?

I'm asking this question because of this study https://www.cambridge.org/core/services/aop-cambridge-core/content/view/A7DCF9606BA856FCA5CC25918ADB37EF/S0025100306002659a.pdf/standard-georgian.pdf ...
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2answers
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What would be the hypothetical phonological range of canines based on their physiology?

There are all kinds of videos showcasing "talking" dogs like huskies jabbering away, but I'm curious: In theory (in a world where dogs could have human brains) what would they physiologically be ...
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what is tonal crowding in intonation literature

What is tonal crowding, especially under Autosegmental-Metrical Framework? Is it simply a collection of different intonation tones associated with one segment?
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Why do we spell 'aaaah' with an 'h' at the end?

In English, we generally spell 'Ah', 'Aah', or 'Aaaaaah' (as it seems, any number of a's is possible) with an 'h' at the end. Someone just asked me why and I have been searching all over the internet ...
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1answer
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Why is IPA Transcriptions of Georgian so inconsistent?

for example why do some sources transcribe ღ and ხ as /ɣ x/ while others transcribe it as /ʁ χ/ also ა is transcribed as /a/ by some while others transcribe it as /ɑ/ can anyone explain to me what's ...
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What is the name of the property of what part of the tongue produces the sound?

For consonants, IPA describes 'place of articulation': the part of the mouth the tongue makes contact with, and 'manner of articulation': how the sound is produced there. Speakers may use the blades ...
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Are alveolo-palatal consonants more likely to be followed by high vowels, whereas retroflex consonants are more likely followed by low vowels?

It seems to me that high voles like i would more naturally follow alveolo-palatal consonants because the need to "spread the lips" (in the popular description of the latter) seem to more ...
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Is there a distinctive feature that separates alveolo-palatals from palatals?

Specifically, what distinguishes the voiceless palatal fricative /ç/ from the voiceless alveolo-palatal fricative /ɕ/? (Likewise their voiced counterparts, /ʝ/ and /ʑ/.) The IPA doesn't have alveolo-...
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Is there an example of ʔɓ/ʔɗ sounds in contrast to ʔb/ʔd in Vietnamese?

I'm unable to distinguish between the preglottalized implosives ɓ/ɗ and the preglottalized explosives b/d in Vietnamese. Is there any audio sample of these sounds that would allow me to make out the ...
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1answer
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What is the consensus on Sumerian auslauts?

(Or Auslaute if you want to be pretentious, I suppose.) In Sumerian, there seems to be uncertainty about the status of final consonants in CVC signs. For example, the unmarked form of "heart"...
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What is Proto-Semitic *x̣?

In his Akkadian grammar (specifically the appendix on phonology), Huehnergard lists the following Proto-Semitic consonants: Most of this looks familiar to me. However, *x̣ caught me by surprise; I'm ...
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What's the difference between phonetics and phonology?

Having practiced armchair linguistics for some years I should be able to sum up the difference off the top of my head, yet often I don't know which term to use. And looking them up on Wikipedia doesn'...
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133 views

If mora are potentially sufficient to describe language, then what do syllables add, in theory?

Following the answer to the recent Question, Why is/was Gokana claimed to lack syllables?, I don't really understand the difference. I have heard of moras in the context of poetry before and didn't ...
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1answer
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What is the phonetic realization of /ɣ/ and /x/ in Georgian? are they velar? or are they actually uvular?

I'm confused as to which symbol should I be using when transcribing Georgian with IPA. as native speaker of Georgian myself, I feel my /ɣ/ and /x/ sound more like uvular than velar. I could be wrong ...
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1answer
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Are there any detailed studies on Phonology of Georgian language?

As a native speaker of Georgian, I'm interested in learning more about Phonology of my native language.
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51 views

Evidence for segmental phonology in the acoustic speech signal

What evidence for segmental phonology could be found in the acoustic speech signal? I think the parameters of acoustic speech signals include f0, amplitude, duration, wave form, etc., which are ...
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1answer
178 views

Claim that the american r sound is actually [ʁ] out west

This quora answer by Kit di Pomi (and if you browse his other answers he uses a similar uvular transcription) claims that: [ʀ] isn’t used anywhere off-stage as far as I know, typically American ...
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162 views

What are the core differences between generative phonology and metrical phonology?

What core features distinguish generative phonology from metrical phonology?
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How to read sound change transcriptions? [closed]

https://chridd.nfshost.com/diachronica/ I don't understand what most of these transcriptions mean. I only know what #, #, and _x mean.
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Autodidact here reading phonology

I am Studying phonological processes on my own now. Need help with some basic stuff: What do the bold parts mean? 1- Cvoiceless →voiced 2- /u/→[ʊ] / __Cɪ for (1) __VCvoiceless = does this mean when ...
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1answer
114 views

Consonant clusters in English - how many exist exactly?

I am really struggling to find a complete list of all consonant clusters that are possible in the English language. Can anyone point me in the direction of one? I have spent hours looking online with ...
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1answer
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Did Dutch ever have a G like in Garden sound?

In Modern Dutch I do not see or hear any hard G sound. Garden would be pronounced like Harden.. how did that happen?
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Is there an easy way to type IPA?

I'm currently using the virtual IPA keyboard on TypeIt, but it takes forever. Is there an easy way to type IPA? I've found this list of Unicode keyboards on SIL.org but I'm not too sure how to ...
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1answer
87 views

What acoustic similarities are there between phonetically similar consonants?

I really want to know what exactly the similarity between consonants depends on. For me, the core might be the place of articulation, manner of articulation and voiced vs. voiceless. For example, b/p/...
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Is there use of a trilled "L" sound in any language? Is a trilled "L" even possible?

I've seen nothing on a trilled "L" sound anywhere. I've tried producing the trilled "L" sound and I can get something that seems similar. Is it possible to trill an "L" and if so are there any ...
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Differences between phonemic and phonetic transcriptions

As far as I know, there are three main differences between phonemic and phonetic transcriptions: Phonetic transcriptions deal with phones or sounds, which can occur across different languages and ...
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Are there any tonal languages with syllable-final consonants that are not unreleased, or even aspirated?

All the tonal languages I have some familiarity with, Mandarin, Thai, Lao, Vietnamese, and Cantonese either lack stop consonants in syllable-final position, or allow only "unreleased" stop ...
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Is "dzeru" : "ceru" a minimal pair in Latvian?

I'm finding it a bit hard to determine the prosody of these words. I'm basically asking if "dzeru" and "ceru" are prosodically identical. If "dzeru" : "ceru" ...
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116 views

Is there any articulatory difference between these two IPA symbols?

Is there an articulatory difference between the voiced palatal nasal [ɲ] sound and the nasalized voiced palatal approximant [j̃] sound? If there is a diference, what is it? I ask that because in ...
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How did Latin "aqua" became sardinian "abba" and romanian "apă"?

The way I believe it happened was by the change of "w" into "v" and the fall of the velar "k". Furthermore, betacism caused the change of "v" to "b" ...
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138 views

Is there a rule which accounts for a d in PIE becoming a b in Latin?

According to Wikitionary, the Latin word verb is derived from the Proto-Indo-European word *werdʰh₁om which is the etonym of the English word word and the German wort. I am familiar with Grimm's Law ...
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91 views

Do Polish 'rz' /ž š/ and rhotic English have something in common? [closed]

This is a bit of a silly question that will need an explanation of the background that motivates this question. Background. I met a man named Andrzej. He was called approximately An-jay /dʒ/, or ...
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1answer
124 views

Why is/was Gokana claimed to lack syllables?

Wikipedia says that Gokana has been argued to lack syllables, a radical claim because syllables are traditionally considered to be universal, offers no details, but points out that later the claim has ...
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1answer
255 views

Writing a phonological rule

Could you please help me revise the phonological rule in Turkish below? It means that "/e/ becomes [ɛ] when followed by a non-dorsal sonorant in the same syllable and if /e/ occurs at the beginning ...
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What are the differences of word stress, lexical stress and metrical stress?

It is said lexical stress is word stress, but I don't understand why they named it differently.

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