Questions tagged [phonology]

The study of the abstract aspect of the sounds or *phonemes* in a given language.

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2answers
95 views

Some questions about counterbleeding

Here are two words, "writing" and "riding". I know that there are two rules for them, as in the pictures. But in the first picture, can I say the /ai/ raising rule counterbleeds ...
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1answer
57 views

What are the phonological rules or constraints for these pairs of words?

Mongol-Mongolia Arab-Arabia Babylon-Babylonian Boston-Bostonian comedy-comedian colony-colonial I know that the vowel in the second syllable is lengthened, but what are the rules or constraints for ...
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Dark L vs L Vocalisation

I am a bit confused about this. Question: Is this the main difference between L-vocalization and the Dark L? Vocalised L - The tip of the tongue DOES NOT touch the roof of the mouth. Dark L - The ...
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1answer
116 views

Is there evidence for accentuation in Classical Arabic?

Wright's A grammar of the Arabic language lays out claims for where the stress should be in §§28-31. Most of the claims are connectable (in my experience) to contemporary renditions of Classical ...
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1answer
128 views

Does anyone actually use /æ/ as an emphatic article?

In the movie "Wayne's World" (1992), Mike Myers's character (the titular Wayne) says "I don't even own æ gun, let alone many guns that would necessitate an entire rack." To my ears ...
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A question about Optimality Theory

Here is a line, "The optimal output in OT need not be the ideal candidate in the sense of complying with all the constraints." (quoted from Roca and Johnson (1999:656). I really feel ...
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1answer
61 views

What are the similarities between rule-based phonological theory and Optimality Theory?

The only similarity is that they both involve the underlying form and surface form right?
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578 views

Is a final -u in Semitic languages known outside of Akkadian?

Consider Akkadian bētu vs. Hebrew bayit (בַּיִת) (meaning "house") and Akkadian daltu vs. Hebrew delet (דֶּלֶת) (meaning "door"). Are these endings known outside of Akkadian? If so, when did they ...
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4answers
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What do these subscripts/superscripts mean in IPA?

Here is an example of a sentence from the Glossika course in Taiwanese Hokkien: The "Phonics" line is the IPA line. (The "Typing" line is the Tâi-lô romanization; I don't know where the "...
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Aspiration of p, t, k in English

I'm trying to figure out when exactly p, t, k should be aspirated in (American) English. Here's what I found here: Voiceless stops are aspirated at the beginning of a word, and at the beginning ...
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The letter <u> in Provençal: when is it [y] and when is it [œ]?

In most dialects of Occitan, the letter <u> is pronounced [y] generally. However, in Provençal it appears to be pronounced [œ] by some speakers some of the time. This wikipedia article states (...
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How to synthesize French vowels

I am trying to synthesize the French vowels [o] and [ɔ] for running a perception experiment. I have been using the Praat Vocal Toolkit and got pretty nice results with the following formant values: F1(...
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2answers
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How were glottal stops indicated in Akkadian cuneiform?

According to Huehnergard, Akkadian had a phonemic glottal stop. This makes sense, given the language's heritage. However, he doesn't seem to mention it anywhere in the chapters on orthography, and I ...
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Resource for finding languages that contain certain phonemes [duplicate]

In particular /w~b/ or other sounds that could be transcribed as <w> or <b>. Background: A person gave his name variously as 'John Barosa' or 'John Warosa' in writing from which I figured ...
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According to the Elsewhere Principle, can a syntactic rule block a morphological one, or a morphological rule a phonological one?

I read up on the Elsewhere Principle. In the linked article two examples are given: The syntactic comparative "more + adjective" can be overruled by the morphological comparative "adjective+er" for (...
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Looking for references about the orthographic transparency

I need to have two tables as showing both grapheme-phoneme and phoneme-grapheme relationships in a couple of languages to be compared mathematically. In fact, I want to know how many phonemes stand ...
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Is there a name for when a 'c' becomes an [s] sound in words like rusticity, when originally it was a 'c' in rustiC?

I know it's a sound change, but is there a specific name for it? It's for an assignment I'm writing on the phonological transparency of the suffix -ity.
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What are cyclic and non-cyclic application in Phonology?

I'm still confused about the two abstract definitions. Can you give some examples to explain?
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146 views

Guttural pronunciation of {h} in American English

I'm not a native speaker. I've noticed that some Americans pronounce {h} as a guttural sound sometimes. Is this a documented feature of American English? Examples: https://youtu.be/j2I9LpDF708?t=7 (...
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What about the sound change initial n -> initial l?

While learning (a little) Cantonese, I was annoyed by the fact that every initial [n] was converted to [l], so that the word "you", written néih hóu in guidebooks is universally pronounced léih ...
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1answer
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What is "metrically free elements"?

According to the Free Element Condition, only metrically free elements may undergo metrical construction. But what is "metrically free elements"?
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Pronouncing h as /x/? [closed]

I am curious about phonics and wonder if pronouncing the /h/ sound as /x/ would be distinguishable. This is basically turning a k into a fricative, and this is basically h fronting.
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40 views

What is the relation between sonority and stress?

Are there any relations between stress and sonority? Does stress denote high sonority?
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1answer
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What is the difference between Minimal Onset Satisfaction and Onset Maximization Principle?

Since they both describe that onsets take priority over of codas, what is the difference between them?
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Is there a principled reason behind differing compound verb stress in English?

Is there a principled difference between compound verbs in English with stress on the first root and those with stress on the second root? First root stress compound verbs: Dropkick Spoonfeed ...
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1answer
400 views

what is the difference between [g] and [ɣ]?

Does [ɣ] appear in english anywhere? I've seen [ɣ] listed as occuring in the spanish word "amigo" but I don't notice any difference between it & [g]. The Arabic equivalent is [غ].
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803 views

Why do we pronounce the letter "A" as the "eɪ" in Stake, and as "æ" in Cabbage?

I wondered about the difference between those vowels. Is there a rule that decides what articulation fits the syllabe in each word and what is that rule. I tried phonogical analysis on those vowels in ...
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8answers
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American English : are [ə] and [ʌ] different phonemes? (schwa vs. chevron)

What case can be made for considering whether [ə] and [ʌ] are different phonemes or not in American English? Please note the focus is on standard American English. EDIT: i.e.: on General American. ...
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1answer
164 views

What is the dividing line between phonetics and phonology? [duplicate]

From my understanding, Phonetics is the study of physical aspect of sounds, including how sounds are produced (articulatory phonetics), how they are perceived (auditory phonetics) and the physics ...
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156 views

What is Proto-Semitic *x̣?

In his Akkadian grammar (specifically the appendix on phonology), Huehnergard lists the following Proto-Semitic consonants: Most of this looks familiar to me. However, *x̣ caught me by surprise; I'm ...
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The "writer / rider" distinction

In some dialects of English (for example: General American), “writer” is said to be pronounced differently from “rider” due to the following two phonological rules (done in this order): Vowels are ...
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2answers
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What is the difference between “ɪ”, "i", “i:”? [duplicate]

What is the difference between “ɪ”, "i", “i:”? Is “ɪ” lax and short, "i" tense and short, "i:" tense and long?
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1answer
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What is the difference between tense vowel and vowel with diacritic ":"?

I'm learning the vowel part of phonology. It says the cardinal vowel "i" is tense. But what is the difference between this cardinal "i" and "i:"? They are both tense, right?
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4answers
557 views

How dissimilar must case endings be to each other?

I'm asking this question for a conlang. I know that's normally too subjective for this forum, but honestly, I think this may be an exception. I tend to try to keep things as terse as possible. Often ...
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2answers
54 views

How many morae would an affricate in the position of a coda have?

Would it have two, because it's technically two phonemes, or one?
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1answer
94 views

Phonemes with complementing allophones

Assume the following example: In its phoneme set, language X has the vowel /e/ which corresponds to the phone [e], except when followed by /r/, in which case it is realized as the phone [æ]. At the ...
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2answers
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Is there any way to draw a pitch track, sound wave, and annotation in Praat?

I can draw a combination of a Sound and a TextGrid, and the combination of a Pitch and a TextGrid, but I cannot draw the combination of all three, like it appears in the editor window. Is this a ...
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1answer
150 views

Strange Vocal Trills (L, Th, and Q)

I’m currently spending my quarantine working on the language for my novel. The language is alien-like, so I wanted to make it extremely difficult in it’s phonology. There are several trills. The ...
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Catalan assimilation of 's' /s/ → [ʃ] after palatal consonants 'ny' /ɲ/ and 'll' /ʎ/

Question I've noticed a phenomenon in (Central) Catalan speech that I had seen no mention of when studying the language. In words with a final -nys or -lls, the s is assimilated and becomes palatal [ʃ]...
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1answer
83 views

What might explain this change in place of articulation? [closed]

I'd like to know if there's anything about /patitʰin/ that suggests itself as a reason why it might sometimes be pronounced [patikʰin]. I don't know what other words to look at to see if there's a ...
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2answers
141 views

Distinguishing between [s] and [ʪ] in spectrogram

Is there is a way to differentiate between [s] and [ʪ] using spectral analysis (Pratt or spectrum view or any other software)? Is there is any particular pattern that only appears with the [ʪ]? [ʪ] ...
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1answer
168 views

Critics and arguments against the generative syntax theories?

The Generative approach on syntax is very elegant, useful and very complete as far as I can see. I think that, as all theories have, there must have some critics on it. But I don't know where to find ...
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52 views

What is phonological mechanism?

Does it mean phonological rule? Or can we say phonological mechanism refers to the phonological rules in our mind?
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1answer
114 views

Labialised /r/ in RP

Is /r/ in RP labialised in all positions? For example: In words like real, free, proud, tree, brother, borrow, dream, throw etc. Is it labialised in all positions (like intervocalic, post-...
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0answers
68 views

When do we use strong /biː/ instead of weak /bi/ in english?

I am wondering in which context people stress the be in English grammar. Both Wiktionary and Wordrefence have a weak and a strong form in their dictionary : https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/be#English ...
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3answers
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What is the difference between /iə/ and /ɪə/ in /məˈtɪəriəl/ "material" (RP)?

I don't understand what's the difference between /iə/ and /ɪə/. https://www.wordreference.com/es/translation.asp?tranword=material Can somebody explain ? Best Regards.
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2answers
128 views

How to analyze these data with Optimality Theory?

I'm a graduate student from Korea. As a novice in the field of phonology, I've been confused about analysis using Optimality Theory for a long time. Could you guys help me with this question? In fast ...
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1answer
232 views

What should the phonological rules be for this alternation?

I'm a graduate student from Korea. :) May I ask you guys a question about phonology? In the data, divinity and divine, what are the phonological rule and phonological mechanisms for the alternation ...
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2answers
703 views

What caused some IE languages to have consonant inventory sizes different from PIE?

The WALS chapter on consonant inventories shows that the distribution of inventory sizes across languages follows a normal curve, with average size inventories (22 ± 3 consonants) being the most ...
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1answer
91 views

Do stressed (in e.g. English) or pitched (in e.g. Japanese) phones contribute to different phonemes?

In proper tonal languages such as cantonese or mandarin, the phones a phoneme comprises of share the same tone. In other words, mā (in pinyin) and má are clearly different phonemes. If I were to look ...

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