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Questions tagged [proto-indo-european]

Proto-Indo-European (PIE), the reconstructed proto-language for the Indo-European language family

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Does the pre-Laryngeal Brugmannian synthesis of PIE fully explain attested non-Anatolian data?

Was there a speech community that had lost most of the Laryngeals and spoke a language represented by Brugmann's reconstruction of PIE?
S K's user avatar
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Which PIE reconstruction is currently considered to best account for the attested data?

In particular is Pyysalo's reconstruction considered to be an improvement over older reconstructions like Brugmann's? https://helda.helsinki.fi/items/1a4d765d-2158-4ad8-8d5e-b2b32356a188
S K's user avatar
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How to pronounce Proto-Indo-European words?

I want to know how do I get to know how to pronounce proto-Indo-European words from how they are spelled currently? I do understand that the exact pronunciation is not certain for many words, but it ...
Ishan Kashyap Hazarika's user avatar
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Hypothetical ancestry and evolution of PGmc *auziwandliaz

This is cross-posted from r/asklinguistics, with influence from Wiktionary's Tea Room. So I'm bundling up three questions regarding the PGmc. proper noun *Auziwandilaz. First: The /w/ in the ...
user45141's user avatar
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Numbers appearing in PIE transcription e.g. in *méh₂tēr "mother" [duplicate]

Can someone please explain the 2 in PIE expressions e.g. in *méh₂tēr "mother". Is it related to *ph₂tḗr "father"?
Veronica Evanega's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
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What is the term for PIE *eu > Proto-Balto-Slavic jau?

What is the term for PIE *eu > Proto-Balto-Slavic jau? Raising? Vowel breaking?
HungarianMan's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
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Etymology of Persian suffix 'ـش-' (-eš)?

This suffix equivalent to English '-tion' or '-ment' occurs in many Persian words such as ستایش (setâyeš, "glory"), etc. But its ultimate etymology cannot be found anywhere. Wiktionary stops ...
AehkGuu's user avatar
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Could Proto-Slavic -ъ be from *-ós

Lithuanian has -as from PIE *-os draugas and -us from PIE *-ós draugus, Proto-Slavic has only -ъ. Could Proto-Slavic -ъ be from *-ós with analogical restitution? Lithuanian has -ias from PIE *yos and -...
HungarianMan's user avatar
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62 views

What is the term for PIE a, o > PGmc a merging?

PIE a, o > Proto-Slavic o has a name "Квантитативное выравнивание" ?quantity alignment? Does PIE a, o > PGmc a have a special term?
HungarianMan's user avatar
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1 answer
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Why does PIE *sneygʷʰ- ("snow") give L. nix, Gk. νίφα (acc.)?

What happens to internal /e/ and semivowel /y/ in *snéygʷʰm̥ to yield L. nix? I have no clue how that vowel change works.
fruitcheesy's user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
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Why does PIE *ǵn̥h₁tós yield Latin nātus?

I'm an undergraduate classicist doing a PIE paper! It's absolutely fascinating, but I'm still getting there with my understanding, so apologies if my questions are a bit silly! I have been looking at ...
fruitcheesy's user avatar
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Is the Hungarian word "pirít" (to burn) a borrowing from Indo-European word for fire (*peh2wr)?

I am wondering, is it possible that the Hungarian word pirít ‘to burn’ is a relatively-recent borrowing from an Indo-European language, from *peh₂wr- ‘fire’? Obviously, it would have to happen after ...
FlatAssembler's user avatar
38 votes
1 answer
9k views

Is there any evidence that the modern word for "bear" is an euphemism which replaced the original taboo word?

I have read and heard many times the old linguistic story about the modern word for "bear": Slavic: medvěd, niedźwiedź, ведмідь, ... "honey-eater" Germanic: bär, bear, björn, ... &...
Honza Zidek's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
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What is Double Zero Grade?

The double zero grade *ǵʰi-m- is preserved in the compounds with numerals. (de Vaan, Etymological Dictionary of Latin 2013: hiems) E.g. *dwi-ǵʰim-os “two years old”, literally “of two winters” (en....
vectory's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
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Pronunciation of ‘hₐ’ in PIE

I have tried to find the sound hₐ-, for example "hₐeust(e)ro" engl. 'east', or hₐel, 'burn' , but also example hₐner, 'man' pronunciation, but I can't find it anywhere on the internet, ...
Eliel's user avatar
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1 answer
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Was Old Church Slavonic more Greek/Thracian then actually Slavic and can Proto-Slavic be considered a languge from Indo-European family?

First of all, thank you for reading this question. While checking some proposed restorations of Indo-European words, I noticed that for Slavic words the Old Church Slavonic is used. I've searched some ...
Paul V's user avatar
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What recent (since 2014) work is there on the origin of the Indo-European 1st person singular nominative ego (etc.)?

I have an article by Hamp from 2011 and one by Blažek from 2014, but need to know if there is anything more recent, so I can cite it in an article that needs to be finished yesterday.
Attila the Pun's user avatar
1 vote
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List of PIE words for occupations

What are the known reconstructions of PIE words for occupations? I composed some, but want a greater list: *h₃rḗǵ-s - king *dúk-s - military leader, commander *u̯iḱ-pót-i-s - village leader *pr̥h₂-wó-...
Anixx's user avatar
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1 vote
4 answers
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Have there been attempts in making artificial alphabets for the Indo-European languages?

As far as I know linguists came to conclusion that most of the modern alphabets initially derived from the Phoenician Alphabet, which belongs to the Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic family of ...
Ilya Lakhin's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
67 views

Phonotactic Parallels to Pyysalo's Laryngeal and Schwa

Jouna Pyysalo has a rather unique reconstruction of Proto-Indo-European, that he calls System PIE (documented here, amongst other places) and describes as a new form of monolaryngealism. This ...
Tristan's user avatar
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1 answer
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In PIE, what was the function of the suffix *-(ō)l?

For example, in the word: *H₃nóbʰ-ōl / *H₃ómbʰ-l̥ "navel" (Wiktionary: Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/h₃nóbʰōl)
Corn Boy's user avatar
-4 votes
1 answer
273 views

Could it be that the pronoun *eǵh₂om ("I") in PIE is not an innovation?

I think, it is generally believed that the word for "I" in PIE was an innovation and in more ancient branches the 1st person singular pronoun was similar to the plural one, "min/men&...
Anixx's user avatar
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-3 votes
1 answer
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Words for tongue in Tungusic

In Tungusic there are attested the following words for tongue: Manchu: ilenggu Nanai: siŋmu Evenki: inni, čoli Wikitionary postulates that the words ilenggu, siŋmu and inni are related and gives ...
Anixx's user avatar
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-1 votes
1 answer
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How can a language-learner determine the root, prefix, and suffix of a word in English, if they know its language of origin?

Many English vocabulary-building books (for example, Merriam-Webster Vocabulary Builder, Word Power Made Easy) break the meaning of words down into three pieces: prefix + root + suffix. On the website ...
Tim's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
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Questions about clusters of two dental stops in PIE

Beekes says a sibilant was inserted between two dental stops in PIE, therefore *-tt-, *-dt- > *-tst- and *-d(h)d(h)- > *-d(h)zd(h)- and the cluster is "retained as such in Hittite." ...
i's's user avatar
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2 answers
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Did Proto-Sino-Tibetan and Proto-Indo-European languages have the same origin?

Did Proto-Sino-Tibetan and Proto-Indo-European languages have the same origin? Did human develop a common language before migrated from Africa, and were most if not all the modern languages ...
Tim's user avatar
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-6 votes
1 answer
63 views

Are PIE *bal and *welH- related?

Has anyone compared eg. Bhumibol - title of Thailand's monarch, derived from Sanskrit - and oblast - a Slavic noun related to rule and governance, vb. *voldati "to rule, to reign, to govern"?...
vectory's user avatar
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-2 votes
2 answers
179 views

Can these similarities between PIE and Burushaski be explained?

We have: English PIE Burushaski brown bʰerH-om baard-um tongue dn̥ǵʰwéh₂s juŋus warm gʷʰer-om gar-um pair kʷeth₂ kaat fire péh₂wr̥ pʰu ...
Anixx's user avatar
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1 vote
2 answers
217 views

Simplicity of the verb in Germanic languages

English and German have only two tenses (the present and the past) that are formed by inflection, all the others are formed using helping verbs, as is the conditional mood. In the Romance languages ...
Neandertal's user avatar
6 votes
2 answers
532 views

If the Armenian word for "foot", "otn", really comes from PIE *podm, why did the 'p' disappear?

If the Armenian word for "foot", "otn", really comes from PIE *podm, why did the 'p' disappear? Why didn't it change into 'h', like in "hing" (five, from *penkwe) or &...
FlatAssembler's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
108 views

Besides Indo-Pacific and Australian languages does anywhere "firewood" semantically develop to "fire"?

It is known that in Australian languages the word for "tree" developed into "firewood" and then to "fire". I wonder if this development typical? Particularly, could PIE *...
Anixx's user avatar
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3 votes
1 answer
377 views

Proto-Indo-European transcription: <u̯, i̯> vs. <w, j> & <k̑> vs. <ḱ>, etc

I’m working through a language book that uses an idiosyncratic (& confusing) transcription, so as I go I’m making my own copy with more standard symbols. I’ve just got to a section referencing PIE ...
Moilleadóir's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
272 views

How Did the Palatovelar /*ḱ/ Consonant in PIE Become a Sibilant in Satem Languages?

In Indo-Iranian and Balto-Slavic languages (which are conveniently all Satem languages), there is a sibilant or affricate sound in places where Centum languages usually have a velar consonant. It ...
Топор Перуна's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
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What happened to Aham and its derivatives in Marathi?

The Sanskrit first person pronoun अहम् (Romanized: Aham) can be found in Maharashtri Prakrit as 𑀅𑀳𑀁 (ahaṃ), 𑀅𑀳𑀅𑀁 (ahaaṃ), 𑀳𑀁 (haṃ). It is even present in some languages derivative of ...
Mr Jangoon's user avatar
0 votes
2 answers
167 views

proto-Indo-European root for the modern 'comma' and for 'hatchet'

I am told the proto-Indo-European root for the modern 'comma' is 'kop', and that is the root for 'hatchet' or 'axe' as well. True?
The ClearVoice's user avatar
-2 votes
1 answer
283 views

Why is Ural-Altaic controversial, but Indo-European isn't?

There is no direct record of Proto-Indo-European and there's barely any non-hypothetical evidence of Proto-Indo-Europeans. Why is Indo-European considered a language family while Ural-Altaic isn't, ...
Backstauber's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
157 views

Is PIE weyh₁ (to hunt, persecute) somehow related to PIE weyk (to separate, to select for sacrifice)

I am amateurishly passionate about etymologies (especially of my native Romanian) but more seriously interested in the anthropological theories of René Girard and Walter Burkert, which both ...
cipricus's user avatar
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2 votes
0 answers
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Common origin of PIE feminine and collective plural and semantic implications

It is generally believed that the neuter nominative-accusative plural and feminine singular in PIE both originate in a common *-h2 suffix which originally marked collective, although recent works tend ...
Erithacus Rubecula's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
90 views

Can you provide a cheat-sheet for turning Proto-Indo-European dictionaries from the older style into laryngeal notation?

Much of the resources I have for Proto-Indo-European itself (not etymological dictionaries for other languages) either use Laryngeal notation but are limited in scope (like Wiktionary) or are written ...
Oron61's user avatar
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0 answers
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Have I actually found something or is this just a 100+ coincidence cognates? indo-european, sino-tibetan, austroneisian, japanese, korean

I like comparing languages on my free time and found that Eurasian languages have a lot in common and I couldn't quite place my finger on it but the languages just seemed similar. One time I compared ...
that touhou nerd's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
292 views

Why does Proto-Indo-Aryan *ẓ seem to have different outcomes despite sharing the same phonological context?

It is well known that Proto-Indo-Aryan *s had an allophone *z in voiced contexts. Due to some phonetic changes (i.e. RUKI law and the shift *śt > ṣṭ), they both could undergo retroflexion, thus ...
Tochtli's user avatar
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2 answers
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Apparent sound crespondences between Eurasian, Trans-New-Guinean, Pama-Nyungan and Burushaski

It seems to me that there can be regular sound correspondences between Eurasian, Trans-New-Guinean, Pama-Nyungan and Burushaski. I would call the hypthetical proto-language of these "proto-mitian&...
Anixx's user avatar
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0 votes
3 answers
663 views

If Hebrew is not related to Slavic, why are there apparent sound correspondences?

We have Hebrew: šeš; Russian: šestʹ; Ukrainian: šistʹ; Latin: six; English: six; Hebrew: yeš; Russian: yestʹ; Ukrainian: ye, isnuye; Latin: est; English: is; Hebrew: ze; Russian: se; Ukrainian: сe [...
Anixx's user avatar
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15 votes
2 answers
2k views

Derivation of the Indo-European lemma *bʰréh₂tēr ‘brother’

According to Wiktionary, the word “brother” is traced back to the reconstructed Indo-European lemma *bʰréh₂tēr with the same meaning. It seems to be structurally similar to other kinship terms, such ...
Lypyrhythm's user avatar
7 votes
1 answer
345 views

Limits of historical linguistic reconstruction

It is a well-known and widely repeated fact that the linguistic reconstruction associated with the comparative method is no longer effective for large temporal depths (informally estimated to be ...
Davius's user avatar
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0 votes
1 answer
91 views

Why does PIE *weydtos give PGmc wīsaz not wīssaz?

Why does PIE *weydtos give PGmc wīsaz not wīssaz? compare Pgmc *stassiz, *gawissiz, *kwissiz
John's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
119 views

Why does Proto-Slavic first-person singular present form have nasalized o-sound?

Why does Proto-Slavic first-person singular present form have nasalized o-sound (ǫ) while PIE have longed o-sound?
John's user avatar
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-3 votes
1 answer
188 views

Which PIE participle corresponds to PGmc past participle?

Which PIE participle (active/middle/passive voice) corresponds to PGmc past participle?
John's user avatar
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0 votes
1 answer
218 views

Are "brat" and "frater" cognates?

Both the Slavic brat (Брат) and the Latin frater mean brother. Are they cognates? Or is their phonetic "proximity" a red herring? Related: How were “bratrъ/bratъ” and “sestra” formed in ...
Rodrigo de Azevedo's user avatar
-5 votes
1 answer
83 views

Are "comma" names in IE languages somehow related with yarn?

The Russian name of "comma" is "запятая zapjatája" which is cognate to english "to spin"(a yarn) The Russian name of "full stop" is "точка tóčka" ...
Peter's user avatar
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