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Questions tagged [reference-request]

Questions seeking books, websites, articles, papers, research, or downloadable content on any linguistic topic.

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Agglutination in Proto-Indo-European

Based on numerous sources, it seems clear that Proto-Indo-European was Productively agglutinative with non-root morphemes (and perhaps some specific roots that are also able to act like bound ...
Justin Olbrantz's user avatar
6 votes
0 answers
156 views

What historical change(s) shortened vowels in Old and Middle English?

In a 1968 paper by Kiparsky ("Linguistic universals and linguistic change"), a historical-change argument is made for the brace notation of SPE, based on the history of vowel shortening. The premise ...
user6726's user avatar
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5 votes
0 answers
65 views

Where can I find more about inked cuneiform?

A recent question asked about cuneiform painted or drawn on a surface instead of being inscribed or engraved, and it seems there are three tablets from the Library of Ashurbanipal that had colophons ...
Draconis's user avatar
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5 votes
0 answers
222 views

How does syntax of our language affect our thoughts?

Our language affects the way we perceive the world. I know it is not only because the words that don’t exist in one of the languages may exist in the other ones, but also because of the grammar. We ...
O.Ceren's user avatar
  • 51
5 votes
0 answers
129 views

Is there evidence that English speakers associate black with bad and/or white with good

Prompted by the recent move towards replacing the terms "blacklist" and "whitelist", I wonder if there is research around the topic of how people feel about the words "black&...
Matt Ellen's user avatar
5 votes
0 answers
143 views

Research on development of language of modality in children 8-12?

Let me quickly introduce myself to provide a context for my questions. My PhD research focuses on ways that we can teach primary school children (9-12) ways of handling complex, contradictory and ...
Tilia's user avatar
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5 votes
0 answers
60 views

What to reference for grammatical features being more reliable than lexical features for diachronic research?

I often hear people mention in passing that grammatical features are more reliable than lexical features in diachronic research, specifically when detecting pseudepigraphs, because it is relatively ...
Keelan's user avatar
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5 votes
0 answers
459 views

OCR program for IPA?

Is there a program that can convert a scan/image of IPA into any digital encoding? UTF-8 Unicode preferred, and low-cost preferred (open source would be especially nice).
WGroleau's user avatar
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4 votes
0 answers
47 views

Dataset for distribution of different systems for 'yes' and 'no' cross-linguistically?

The Wikipedia article for 'Yes and no' lists various distinct, common, systems for expressing the affirmative and the negative, ranging from no explicit terms (instead relying on echo responses) to ...
Geza Kerecsenyi's user avatar
4 votes
0 answers
128 views

Formal, mathematically-minded introduction to generative grammar?

I'm looking for a formal, mathematically-minded introduction to contemporary generative grammar theory, where all the concepts, such as dominance, c-command, government, etc. are defined formally in ...
Evan Aad's user avatar
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4 votes
0 answers
128 views

When did speakers of Semitic languages reach northern Levant and Syria?

Is there an approximate date when speakers of semitic languages reached northern Levant and Syria? I understand that from the linguistic material this can be difficult, but I look for litterature (if ...
Midas's user avatar
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4 votes
0 answers
501 views

What percentage of African Americans speak identifiable African American Vernacular English?

I'm looking for (reasonably) scientific statistics on the percentage of African Americans whose speech is sufficiently inflected with AAVE that their speech is identifiable as such. (It would be ...
Joshua Frank's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
43 views

Speed listening

I have just heard that there are people out there (mostly blind people) using screen readers at overspeed, achieving speech rates twice as high as usual, and even higher. What I want to know is: Are ...
Sir Cornflakes's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
38 views

Syntax as error-correction-code

I vaguely recall from my academic studies that a professor mentioned that the syntax of sentence could be seen as error-correction-code in signal processing. In other words, from a pragmatic view - ...
Uri Goren's user avatar
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3 votes
0 answers
99 views

Is there a grammar of Middle Tamil?

I am studying the Thiruppavai, a Middle Tamil poem, as a linguist and I wondered if any of you by any chance know of resources pertaining the grammar of Middle Tamil. Overviews of the history of Tamil ...
eslukas's user avatar
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3 votes
0 answers
48 views

vocabulary and notation for syntactic changes

As a layman I have picked up the terminology and notation for changes in phonology. But I know very little about diachronic changes in syntax other than that they happen: things like shift from SOV ...
Anton Sherwood's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
131 views

How do children learn to identify different languages?

A child can be raised in a sufficiently bilingual context that they learn two languages simultaneously, e.g. English & Spanish, Norwegian and Saami. The end product is that they have two ...
user6726's user avatar
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3 votes
0 answers
271 views

Words per minute - language list?

I have an idea on how fast a Dutch speaker speaks: 130 wpm = medium 160 wpm = fast 100 wpm = slow I'd like to have that same knowledge about other languages. Is there a list somewhere that ...
Taapo's user avatar
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3 votes
0 answers
165 views

Are there written languages that commonly start direct speech without marking?

In English and many common languages nowadays, punctuation marks are used to introduce direct speech. This makes it possible to start direct speech without lexical clue, as in the second example here: ...
Keelan's user avatar
  • 4,223
3 votes
0 answers
222 views

Language where baby's first word is a swear word

I remember coming across an interesting language where the first sounds out of a baby's mouth were not considered to be "mother" and "father," but were instead considered to be a curse word. I want ...
Cort Ammon's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
57 views

Looking for a thorough comparison of French and Spanish

Either in English, Spanish or French. I haven't found a comparative grammar but I got pretty excited with this monograph: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparison_of_Portuguese_and_Spanish I'm ...
lorelay's user avatar
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3 votes
0 answers
95 views

Is there a phrasal verb corpus somewhere online?

I'm working on a project where I have syntactic frames in the form of something like "N.agent V PP.stimulus", where each PP consists of a P and a N. I have a set list of verbs, and a list of PPs for ...
kimcog's user avatar
  • 31
3 votes
0 answers
331 views

Any online recording of [ʀ̆]?

Strangely, the the Wikipedia page doesn't contain any recording for it (usually it has a recording for each consonant or vowel). Background: I'm a native Hebrew speaker who's interested in ...
David Haim's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
113 views

Copulas and the Split VP Hypothesis

Copulas are regarded as semantically vacuous auxiliaries merged in V, then raised to T. Lexical verbs are merged in V and are raised to v. I have not found any literature discussing the copula with ...
Morphosyntax's user avatar
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3 votes
0 answers
80 views

Need more examples/ sources, for Ceq Wong language animal prefixes

This is just one, I Googled but couldn't find much, any, in fact not even something else than this.
WiccanKarnak's user avatar
  • 1,251
3 votes
0 answers
181 views

Distribution of the set of meanings of a given word, in a corpus

I am looking to know about the distribution of word senses, of a particular word in a corpus. How often a word sense will occur out of all the occurrences of that word with any meaning. For example: ...
Frames Catherine White's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
107 views

Where can I find a list of English words that contain a rare combination of phonemes

I am looking for a wake up word for a digital product that would be easily detected with a voice recognition engine. This calls for a word that has a rare combination of phonemes so the product is ...
savonge's user avatar
  • 31
3 votes
0 answers
27 views

Publication venues focusing on reproducing results

Is there any publication venue for natural language processing focusing on reproducing results from other papers?
Franck Dernoncourt's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
313 views

How did West Germanic languages evolve?

I'm trying to make a comprehensive phylogenetic tree of Germanic languages, with dates of divergence, and I have been unable to find details on West Germanic languages and how they diverged. I have ...
Yram's user avatar
  • 31
3 votes
0 answers
60 views

How often can the words in a sentence be rearranged to form different but similarly likely setentence

I have a conjecture that given a particular (multi)set of words without knowledge of ordering, then one ordering is normally much more likely than any others. Its not always true, Show me flights ...
Frames Catherine White's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
150 views

Was a study published about some linguists who taught their children only a constructed language?

I heard a myth that group of linguists made an experiment with their own children and taught them only a artificial language (in that myth it was a loglan), but if it was true a scientific paper would ...
Scipio's user avatar
  • 41
3 votes
0 answers
156 views

What are the foundational papers in computational phonology?

I'm working on a paper on the history of computational phonology. As I understand it, Chomsky & Halle's SPE acted as a catalyst for research in the field, namely by laying the foundations for two-...
fenceop's user avatar
  • 320
3 votes
0 answers
72 views

Any NLP performance timeline?

I am looking for any plots, etc. that show performance metrics on various NLP tasks as a function of year. E.g. the following figure shows the evolution of performance of face recognition systems:
Franck Dernoncourt's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
233 views

Pseudo-possession or marginal possession

I'm looking for material on this topic but always seem to fail to find something, and that's probably because the terms, although kind of accepted, seem to be too vague. By these terms I refer to ...
Alenanno's user avatar
  • 9,408
3 votes
0 answers
93 views

Resources/papers on Portuguese nominal syntax and determiners?

I'm vaguely aware that the (definite) determiner has a much freer distribution in Portuguese than in other languages, e.g. it can come before personal names: A Maria lê um livro. The Maria reads a ...
alcas's user avatar
  • 487
2 votes
0 answers
72 views

What is the distribution of the French uvular trill vs uvular fricative?

In French, the most common realizations of the phoneme /r/ are [ʀ] (uvular trill) and [ʁ] (voiced uvular fricative). I am able to consistently distinguish them and produce either, and I'm interested ...
maritsm's user avatar
  • 163
2 votes
0 answers
25 views

Request for Texts Giving an Overview of the Evolution of the Indo-Iranian Laguages

Does anyone know of any good accounts of the evolution of the Modern Indo-Iranian languages? I'm especially interested in comparative overviews of either the entire family's historical phonology, or ...
Tristan's user avatar
  • 8,785
2 votes
0 answers
165 views

Is there any database with English verb argument structure?

To simplify -- different verbs require different number of nouns to be complete. Some of arguments may be implicit in the real usage of language. So, my question is there any database containing many ...
mkatkov's user avatar
  • 129
2 votes
0 answers
69 views

Syntactic models than span across multiple sentences

I hope this question is not too broad. I've been reading quite a lot about grammars, and it seem that all of the models I encountered focus on a single sentence level syntax. It seems pretty obvious ...
Uri Goren's user avatar
  • 171
2 votes
0 answers
41 views

Terminology/resources for descriptions like "...the other one..."

Suppose, e.g., that there are two brothers, Bob and Bill, that must do two things but it doesn't much matter which brother does which task. I am interested in constructions like the following: One ...
Dennis's user avatar
  • 482
2 votes
0 answers
205 views

Is language "necessarily underspecified"?

I've read an exam question given in a class on Semantics, that was asking Why is language necessarily underspecified I did not find much about this at the time, which is surprising because it ...
vectory's user avatar
  • 1,412
2 votes
0 answers
89 views

Is there any resource about "exceptional" examples of false cognates available?

As an amateur I lack information about specialized resources for linguists. What I’m looking for is a list of stunning examples of false cognates in any discipline, that can be either exact matches, ...
betelgeuse's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
38 views

Any good, up-to-date advanced textbooks/handbooks in statistical parsing?

I was wondering if there are any good, up-to-date advanced textbooks in parsing, after having finished the preliminary treatments in Jurafsky & Martin and Manning & Schütze. Either ...
WavesWashSands's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
1k views

What exactly does the ding-dong theory of the origin of language state, according to Max Müller?

Max Müller is mentioned as one of the pioneers of the study of the origins of language, as he created a typology for the earlier origin of language theories based on the channel they draw the ...
Probably's user avatar
  • 597
2 votes
0 answers
64 views

Where can I find a comprehensive list of priming connections?

Is there a website or a study I could find a detailed list or net of priming connections between words? Here's how I imagine it:
Probably's user avatar
  • 597
2 votes
0 answers
55 views

Where can I find the mentioned More than one Method article?

Chomsky mentions an article that I have never taken a look at in his talk at the University of Arizona "What is Special About Language?". I've seen "Without Social Context?" but I've never seen the ...
Nick Reardon's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
109 views

What is the modern conception of the syntactic structure of a possessive?

I'm trying to find modern work (more modern than Abney 1987) on the structure of a genitive phrase. Abney has a possessive phrase, like my dog, headed by a D head which assigns genitive case to "my," ...
user14850's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
106 views

Are there any freely available tools for English Native Language Identification?

I know that native language identification is a current research topic in natural language processing. I have an English text whose author clearly is not a native English speaker (I am not, either), ...
bers's user avatar
  • 121
2 votes
0 answers
37 views

Research on SLA for "Reading Only"

Is there research in SLA by graduate students and others who "acquire" a rudimentary understanding of a language primarily for the purpose of reading original academic research and sources in that ...
Jamie Banks's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
70 views

Where does the reported number of native speakers in Ethnologue come from?

According to Ethnologue's page regarding "Chinese, Mandarin", the population of speakers of Standard Chinese is 889,000,000 in China (2013), increasing. 70% of Chinese language users speak a ...
Rhymoid's user avatar
  • 121