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3 votes
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What is the difference between 'denotation' and 'reference' in linguistics?

I am trying to determine why in mathematical expressions we can have a variable x which does not ‘refer’ to a specific number but can still 'denote' an unspecified object. In linguistic theory, is it ...
Confused's user avatar
  • 283
0 votes
2 answers

How to cite an edited book [closed]

I want to cite some articles directly in Semantics, Volume 2 by de Gruyter (2011). I wonder if each article in it is a journal or conference paper that can be cited directly. Otherwise, I should cite ...
E Zhang's user avatar
  • 314
12 votes
2 answers

Pronoun introduced before its antecedent

I was speaking to a college-educated American woman in her 80s, born and raised in the metropolitan east coast of the United States. We were on a new topic, and without any preceding context, she ...
SlowMagic's user avatar
  • 291
1 vote
1 answer

What statistical test is appropriate in a corpus analysis of pronoun resolution preferences?

I have extracted data from a corpus that collected sentences with an antecedent and a next sentence with a pronoun or a stressed pronoun in subject position. Now, the anaphora can either refer back to ...
Paul Kremershof's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers

data sources and/or softwares to get morphological derivation of words

What data sources and/or softwares can generate a list of morphological derivatives for a given English word?
Meng Lu's user avatar
  • 111
3 votes
1 answer

By what can an anaphor be realized?

According to the definition I read on anaphors, it is an expression, which refers back to a word. As examples what this anaphoras can be I was given a pronoun and adverb: Anaphor realized by a ...
Abdul Al Hazred's user avatar
4 votes
2 answers

Reference and modality - T. Givon (2001), Syntax

First, I quote Givon (2001, Chapter, p.303) directly for my question : The reference test for modality One of the most sensitive cross-linguistic tests for modality involves ...
user2870222's user avatar
0 votes
2 answers

"I should have bought a present. Susie did": is this an example of anaphora?

I am attending a class on English Linguistics and right now we are discussing the cohesion device of reference, which means that one item in text points to another element for its interpretation. ...
E.V.'s user avatar
  • 189
0 votes
1 answer

Is there any english version [online, PDF] of the following?

Is there any english version [online, PDF] of the following?: Mayhofer, Etymologisches Wörterbuch des Altindoarischen. I had downloaded one but unfortunately it was in German language which is ...
Gopal's user avatar
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3 votes
3 answers

Book suggestions for linguistics for Computer Science people [closed]

I am asked to do some NLP tasks on a language which is agglutinative. I am finding these terms difficult to understand since my background is different. I am looking for some nice books that give a ...
user5507's user avatar
  • 159
1 vote
1 answer

Why does this pronomial not refer?

Consider the following interlocution, Maria: "A man fell off the cliff!" Tabish: "He didn't fall, he was pushed." My professor concluded, This shows that pronouns cannot be the ...
Hal's user avatar
  • 295
0 votes
0 answers

Recent material (papers, books, etc) about Developmental Orthography

I have made a quick search on the internet about Developmental Orthography, but the papers and research projects I found are not very recent, some almost 20 years old. Apart from that almost all of ...
richardtk_1's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer

What is the truth value of propostions that have failed in Presupposition?

According to formal sementics propositions (semantic term for "sentences", "clauses") have truth value. The truth value shows whether sentence is true or false and it is denoted as 1 or 0. What about ...
Dariya's user avatar
  • 507
11 votes
1 answer

The power of trigram language models (2nd order Markov models)

Many people in computational linguistics seem to mention the unexpected power of trigram (or 2nd order Markov) models for language modeling. For instance, it has been stated (verbally) to me on ...
Julie's user avatar
  • 377