Questions tagged [semantics]

Semantics is the study of meaning, used to understand expressions through language.

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3answers
140 views

Formalization and representation of semantic and pragmatic knowledge? [closed]

Are there efforts to formalize and formally represent (e.g. as semantic network, as some kind of logic) of semantic of pragmatic knowledge. It is known, that every speaker/listener has two types of ...
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3answers
710 views

To what extent does this image accurately express the modularity of linguistic units?

This is a popular image floating around the internet, but like many things floating there, it seems like a gross simplification and just plain inaccurate. However, I’m more of an armchair linguist ...
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125 views

Languages Without “To” And “From”

I've been trying to construct sentences using only Semantic Primes (i.e., from the Natural Semantic Metalanguage). However, I'm having a difficult time figuring out how to do so without "to" and "from"...
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Are there any languages that either effectively don't have verbs or that somehow get around using a “standard” verb system?

By this, I'm asking whether there are languages (natural or constructed) which somehow function without verbs, relying instead upon other types of words like prepositions or something like that. ...
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Determining formative list of -ian and -ism

I'm new to Distributive Morphology and cannot find any resources of how to construct formative lists for morphemes. I know they're meant to be the feature bundles of the morphemes, but I don't really ...
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Terminology for a phrase that changes meaning over time within a closed community

I am looking for the linguistic terminology for the phenomenon of semantic change in a discourse within a closed community. This closed community could be a couple, a company etc. For example, ...
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3answers
5k views

Sentence/Utterance/Proposition

I'm very new to this field and I'm now studying semantics. I got a question on the difference between Sentence/Utterance/Proposition. Could someone clarify the following example to me? 1: I have a ...
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1answer
283 views

What is the etymology of Sicilian “vanedda”?

This question arises from my research on Si maritau Rosa, a Sicilian song, where I found what seems to be a clear diminutive of vanedda, that is vanidduzza. Nowhere do I find that word directly, so I ...
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Improve intent classification and slot filling with question-answering

I am building a neural network to do intent detection and slot filling. The results I am getting are somewhat poor. Hence, I am looking for an approach to improve my results. My idea is to use multi-...
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2answers
131 views

What is the best/state-of-the-art logic for representing English language?

I know people have used lambda terms which "compile into" first-order logic, but based on what I have seen that is not particularly great for representing complex sentences with causal or temporal ...
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1answer
288 views

Truth-conditions of predicate-logic formulas for donkey sentences

I'm current learning about compositional semantics, quantifier raising and scope ambiguity in my semantics class and I'm having trouble answering some questions. I've attempted to answer the questions ...
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Text classification of semantic relations within text

I am already familiar with some text (document) classification algorithms after processing into a Bag-of-words & tf-idf representation. Classification algorithms such as Multionmial Naive Bayes, ...
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1answer
350 views

Is there a language that's purely fluid-s?

By fluid-s I mean a stative-active language that relies on semantics for its morphosyntactic alignment, using things such as volition, empathy, animacy.
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1answer
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Vocabulary list

I'm looking for a list of the most common words used in either English or Spanish preferably organised by semantic fields. Can any of you point me in the right direction? Thanks a lot.
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2answers
283 views

Difference in translating Sanskrit words कोप​ [kopa] and क्रोध [krodha]

Translationg the terms makes a semantic rendering important. The English resourse translates क्रोध [krodha] as 'anger' wrath, passion, etc.' with the same definition for कोप​ [kopa] plus defining it ...
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1answer
130 views

What are the historical origins for the naming of the word 'function' in its mathematical context? [closed]

I tried to look at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Function_(mathematics) but couldn't see anything. The reason why I was curious to ask is because this word just doesn't make any sense for what it ...
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106 views

New Scientist Article on Spoken Language? [closed]

I wondered if anyone had seen this article on Relational Frame Theory in the most recent edition of the New Scientist? It reports an active laboratory based research programme: https://www....
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1answer
157 views

How to define tangible? E.g. is war/party/meeting tangible or not?

I am doing some crowdsourcing trying to create simple semantic markup for my native language (Russian). At the moment I am trying to classify the world by the tangibility feature. Some items are ...
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3answers
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How did *h₁l̥h₁onbʰos shift from “deer” to “lamb”?

Browsing the Wiktionary randomly, I bumped into this PIE word, *h₁l̥h₁onbʰos, meaning "deer". Interestingly enough, it evolved into words for "deer" or similar in several languages, but in PG it gave ...
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109 views

Languages where smells are heard

In Russian, one can use the verb слышать ([ˈslɨʂətʲ], "hear") with both sounds and smells, though it's more common to use чувствовать ([ˈt͡ɕustvəvətʲ], "feel") for smells. Example from Wiktionary: ...
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1answer
477 views

Are Latin “virīlis”, Punjabi “vīr”, Old Irish “fer” , Wels “gwr” and Hindi “var” related?

Are all the words above from the same root (PIE)? Or are these a bunch of false cognates like behtar (Farsi) better (English).
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1answer
156 views

What is the thematic role of “to the party” in this sentence?

Helen drove to the party I find in a book that it is a location, but I am thinking it is a goal, because there is no actual place called "party". In the other hand, the definition of the Goal is : ...
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1answer
112 views

What is it called when a word is used based on an extant definition which no longer actually applies? e.g. “dial” with phones

It was difficult to phrase what I mean in an accurate and precise way here. This is similar to a fossil word, but fossil words are words which have fallen out of general use except where they are ...
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1answer
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What is the meaning of the word “antiquarian” in this context? [closed]

"Although some Humanists were clubbish snobs-an intellectual elite with narrow, antiquarian interests-others preached a civic Humanism..."
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Constructions like the double accusative outside of the Ancient Greek word “διδασκειν”

I'm looking for examples of having 2 or more nouns in the same case but with the different semantic roles given by the differing referents of the nouns, not entirely by one of morphological case, ...
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1answer
66 views

Where can I find a semantic or syntactic analysis of a Swedish verb?

Are there any books which will talk about the specific semantic or syntactic properties of a specific word (in my case, a verb in the Swedish language). I know there are many general reference books ...
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1answer
1k views

What does linguistic under-determinacy mean?

What does linguistic under-determinacy mean? and why are irony, metaphor, metonymy, hyperbole, simile, understatment and indirect answer cases of of under-determinacy?
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125 views

Introductory linguistic theory books [duplicate]

I'm wondering where a good place (or good places) to start learning about linguistic (grammar, syntactic and semantic) theories would be. I'm essentially a complete novice in this domain. Any sort ...
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1answer
246 views

Semantic/linguistic relation in “All jacuzzis are hot tubs”

What is the name of this type of relation between elements? All jacuzzis are hot tubs, but not all hot tubs are jacuzzis. All words are morphemes, but not all morphemes are words.
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218 views

How many words can be considered “core words”?

First of all I apologize but my English skills are by far below the complexity of the question I need to ask. I am not a specialist and my question is not related to a single language. I would like to ...
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0answers
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Where can I find a comprehensive list of priming connections?

Is there a website or a study I could find a detailed list or net of priming connections between words? Here's how I imagine it:
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2answers
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Representing constructive and non-constructive claims in formal semantics

I came across Montague's treatment of "John seeks a unicorn". He distinguishes de re and de dicto interpretations of it on the basis that the de dicto meaning does not entail the existence of any ...
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1answer
108 views

NLP text classification approach for smart devices

As a project, I have been trying to understand the low-level heuristic approach from the perspective of a device attempting to behave smart, like Alexa and the likes Generally speaking, it starts ...
2
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1answer
347 views

Can we build semantic mappings for CFG same as we do in CCG?

In CFG we "simply" have production rules. Whereas in Combinatory Categorial Grammar (CCG) on the other hand, we have both composition rules over categories, and a mapping from syntax to semantics (...
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3answers
4k views

Truth conditional semantics and wffs

How specifically does truth conditional semantics separate syntactically well formed sentences (wffs) with semantic meaning from syntactically well formed sentences without semantic meaning? An ...
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1answer
501 views

C&C/Boxer Source Code

I’ve been trying to find C&C tools and Boxer online and found this link in many places (http://svn.ask.it.usyd.edu.au/trac/candc) but the link does not work for me. Is there another place to find ...
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1answer
104 views

Origin of “hold from” as an idiom meaning “love, like, respect” in European languages

Several European languages known to me have a verbal phrase idiom literally translatable as "hold from", expressing various kinds of positive attitude: Dutch houden van "love" Finnish pitää -stA "...
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1k views

What is the minimal set of words that make a language “complete”?

In programming languages, there is a concept of turing completeness - whenever a system reaches "turing completeness", it is capable of emulating any programming language and, thus, as expressive as ...
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Do puns necessarily involve referring to two (or more) extant words?

What exactly constitutes a pun? Do the words in the pun have to both be extant, or can one be a nonce/nonsense word? — Over the years, I've heard numerous usages of "puns" where one word in the ...
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2answers
2k views

What is the purpose of Subject-Verb agreement?

An important rule in English grammar is "subject-verb agreement". It basically states that a verb must conform to the form of the noun (i.e. Singular/Plural). My question is: What is the purpose of ...
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83 views

Is there a name for the process of triviliazation of a word's meaning?

What is the name for the process by which a word's meaning is trivialized or diminished in importance from its original meaning? For example, the standard English word throne means a toilet in English ...
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1answer
86 views

Is there a term that refers to eliminating a word from a text being translated in order to achieve dynamic equivalence?

It is often necessary to provide a translation that conveys the meaning and intent of the original while sacrificing certain details in order to sound natural in the target language. I don't mean ...
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2answers
203 views

What is the meaning difference between have+V versus bare V?

In some dialects of English, there seems to be a clear(er) difference between past tense verbs with the auxiliary have as in “I have eaten the pie”, and those without, as in “I ate the pie”. The only ...
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3answers
136 views

Semantics Intermediate Language for processing concepts and/or semantics

I am a computational linguistics student, and I was thinking about defining a new framework, or a standard for translating or converting sentences into a conceptual or semantical intermediate language....
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2answers
196 views

Can an indefinite article trigger a presupposition?

One presupposition trigger is the definite article. Can an indefinite article trigger a presupposition?
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1answer
105 views

Difference between semantic selection and WSD?

I was reading about semantic selection and came to know about the difference between semantic selection and word sense disambiguation. The difference is that its aim is to find the most adequate ...
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50 views

Term for universally-used quote with additional, non-compositional meaning

There exist certain fixed expressions which people use to convey quite specific meanings and (at least to me) always invoke a famous saying which is assumed to be common knowledge, such as I am not a ...
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1answer
86 views

Formal Semantics - Set theory/Proofing (Not sure how to go around it)

I've got to do a proof to explain for any s, [[former president with long hair]]s = {x: there is an s’ before s such that x is a president with long hair in s’} when the structure is [former ...
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2answers
140 views

Usage of pluperfect in English to talk about metaphysical possibility in the present

I hope that this is the right SE site to ask my question (as opposed to philosophy.SE and english.SE). I am interested in and know some logic, so I talk often with philosopher of language, even ...
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2answers
91 views

Phrases such as “Jackie stole John's heart” [closed]

What is the linguistic term to describe such phrases as "Jackie stole John's heart."? All things being equal, such pronouncements are rarely literal, and even with an emotional understanding in no ...

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