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Questions tagged [slavic-languages]

Subgroup of the Indo-European languages, spoken in Eastern and Central Europe, the Balkans, and the Northern part of Asia.

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Feudali“zmie” or feudali“źmie”?

I have a problem. I have always used such pronunciation that if a word ends with the sound “zm” (like “feudalizm”), when declining it to the locative case “zm” turns into “źm”, i.e.: Feudalizm -> ...
Jakub Chromiak's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
40 views

What is the term for PIE *eu > Proto-Balto-Slavic jau?

What is the term for PIE *eu > Proto-Balto-Slavic jau? Raising? Vowel breaking?
HungarianMan's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
56 views

Could Proto-Slavic -ъ be from *-ós

Lithuanian has -as from PIE *-os draugas and -us from PIE *-ós draugus, Proto-Slavic has only -ъ. Could Proto-Slavic -ъ be from *-ós with analogical restitution? Lithuanian has -ias from PIE *yos and -...
HungarianMan's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
83 views

What is the term for PIE yo > Gothic ji / Proto-Slavic jь?

What is the term for PIE *yos > Gothic ji? PIE *kóryos > Gothic harjis What is the term for PIE *yos > Proto-Slavi jь? PIE *gʷoyh₃-o-s > Proto-Slavic *gojь
HungarianMan's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
83 views

What were the sound changes in Old Novgorod?

I'm into conlanging and got the idea of recreating a Novgorod language. I tried Wikipedia in both Russian and English, but I still don't understand the various sound changes as there isn't a lot of ...
Beathan Mann's user avatar
6 votes
1 answer
1k views

Why is Bulgarian classified as an "analytical" language when it's really a fusional inflecting language?

I also don't really understand where or how the consensus of Bulgarian having "no inflections like English" comes from. If we take a look at the definitions between analytical and synthetic ...
user142830's user avatar
4 votes
0 answers
209 views

Did Proto-Slavic allow four syllables with yers to be consecutive?

On another forum, we were discussing my proposal (presented in a paper I published in Valpovački Godišnjak and Regionalne Studije in 2022) that the river name Karašica comes from Illyrian *...
FlatAssembler's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
341 views

Was Old Church Slavonic more Greek/Thracian then actually Slavic and can Proto-Slavic be considered a languge from Indo-European family?

First of all, thank you for reading this question. While checking some proposed restorations of Indo-European words, I noticed that for Slavic words the Old Church Slavonic is used. I've searched some ...
Paul V's user avatar
  • 19
2 votes
2 answers
282 views

Why is "knife" in Ukrainian different from other Slavic languages?

I saw this image on reddit, and it made me wonder why the way Ukrainians say "knife" is different from all other Slavic languages? Is this part of a more general trend ("i" ...
MWB's user avatar
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1 vote
2 answers
142 views

Did Russian Peasant dialect(s) significantly differ from the "mainstream" Russian?

Richard Pipes in The Russian Revolution remarks: The peasantry was hardly affected by the westernization which had transformed Russia's elite into Europeans, and in its culture remained loyal to ...
Roger V.'s user avatar
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2 votes
0 answers
78 views

čьrnъ > czarny, čьrvenъ > czervony (Polish)

According to Wiktionary, Polish czarny is from PSl *čьrnъ, and czervony is from *čьrvenъ. At least prima facie the soft yers appears to have become different vowels in Polish. I'm aware of the ...
Pteromys's user avatar
  • 183
2 votes
1 answer
248 views

What sound does the character 'u' in the Proto-Slavic word *bura (storm) represent?

Derksen reconstructs the Proto-Slavic word for "storm" as *bura: Which sound does 'u' represent here? As far as I know, Proto-Slavic /u:/ (known as "jeri" in Croatian literature, &...
FlatAssembler's user avatar
9 votes
3 answers
2k views

Is Russian the most diverged Slavic language? [closed]

Does the Russian language have more innovations and divergent development from other languages in the Slavic branch? I am asking, because I always had the feeling, that the tense and pronunciation in ...
Zlar Vixen's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
93 views

Is there a Slavic equivalent of the Greek and Latin semantic transfer from "chest/vault" to "treasure", like θησαυρός/thesaurus?

I was looking at the etymology of the Romanian word comoară ("treasure", "hoard", "pile of precious things") and it seems based on the widespread Slavic form komora, ...
cipricus's user avatar
  • 725
3 votes
1 answer
489 views

At some point, was г/Г pronounced in Russian like it still is in Ukrainian (somewhat akin to h/H in hotel, i.e. /h/)? Or is it purely regional?

Recently, with a few colleagues moving into our office from Russia, we have a new resident colleague with the first name Герман. Now, being German native speaker, my assumption was that the name ...
0xC0000022L's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
83 views

Perfective-imperfective aspectual system

I'm reading Dahl's article on aspect where it says that some of the major aspectual types are 1) progressive 2) habitual 3) completive 4) imperfective - perfective. I'm wondering if there's a language ...
Shpekard's user avatar
  • 183
1 vote
1 answer
158 views

Is PIE weyh₁ (to hunt, persecute) somehow related to PIE weyk (to separate, to select for sacrifice)

I am amateurishly passionate about etymologies (especially of my native Romanian) but more seriously interested in the anthropological theories of René Girard and Walter Burkert, which both ...
cipricus's user avatar
  • 725
0 votes
3 answers
349 views

Can it be that the etymology of the Balkan root for "tickle" stretches as far as Korean?

Some context first: I am interested in the etymology of the Romanian word gâdila/gîdila ("to tickle; the â/î variation is only graphical: it's /ɨ/, the close central unrounded vowel which in ...
cipricus's user avatar
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5 votes
1 answer
269 views

From Russian/Slavonic diglossia to modern Russian (via French/Russian?)

Article Learning Russian via Latin in the 17th Century suggests that in the 17th century Russian existed in a state of diglossia, where the vernacular Russian significantly differed from the written ...
Roger V.'s user avatar
  • 980
2 votes
1 answer
375 views

In which Slavic languages are [h] and [x] contrastive? [closed]

Starting from this question, I have a "prequel" question. In which Slavic languages are [h] and [x] contrastive? As far as I know, there is no [h] in Russian, but only [x], but there is ...
virolino's user avatar
  • 127
2 votes
3 answers
134 views

Etymological relationship between picture/image and education/formation

There are German words Bild (picture/image) and Bildung (education/formation). In Russian, education is образова́ние [obrazovaniye], whilst obraz in many Slavic languages means either directly picture/...
Honza Zidek's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
107 views

Epenthesis of /u/ before the syllabic sonorant "l"

Why does Old Russian have epenthesis of /u/ only before the syllabic sonorant "l"? (before the syllabic sonorants "r,m,n" the epenthesis is /i/)? I thought earlier that only Proto-...
Добрыня Простов's user avatar
0 votes
3 answers
674 views

If Hebrew is not related to Slavic, why are there apparent sound correspondences?

We have Hebrew: šeš; Russian: šestʹ; Ukrainian: šistʹ; Latin: six; English: six; Hebrew: yeš; Russian: yestʹ; Ukrainian: ye, isnuye; Latin: est; English: is; Hebrew: ze; Russian: se; Ukrainian: сe [...
Anixx's user avatar
  • 6,685
4 votes
1 answer
105 views

Pronunciation of г in Old Novgorodian

Pskov dialects are transitional between Belarusian and Russian, so this makes me think that <г> was pronounced as /ɣ/, but I have also read that Old Novgorodian has had an impact on Northern ...
William Dudarov's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
113 views

Is the Proto-Slavic root *term (dwelling) related to the Proto-Ugric root *tärɜ „open space, room”?

I am curious about the obscure etymology of the Romanian word tărâm (realm, domain, world, geographical space -- usually a poetic word, like in the plural form alte tarâmuri = "other (foreign) ...
cipricus's user avatar
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3 votes
1 answer
410 views

Relation between Russian "пока" and Czech "zatím"

I have noticed that the Russian word пока means the same as zatím in Czech in both meanings. The first is as a conjunction and the second use means goodbye. I am aware that in Czech the equivalent ...
skywalker's user avatar
  • 141
1 vote
1 answer
132 views

Are Proto-Slavic present passive participle forms from first-person singular present forms?

Are Proto-Slavic present passive participle forms (e.g., *beromъ) from first-person singular present forms (e.g., *berǫ)?
John's user avatar
  • 53
0 votes
1 answer
223 views

Are "brat" and "frater" cognates?

Both the Slavic brat (Брат) and the Latin frater mean brother. Are they cognates? Or is their phonetic "proximity" a red herring? Related: How were “bratrъ/bratъ” and “sestra” formed in ...
Rodrigo de Azevedo's user avatar
10 votes
2 answers
2k views

Do the Belarusians understand the Ukrainian language better than Russians do?

Here is an interview on a opposition Belarussian TV channel with an Ukrainian officer. One host is speaking Russian, the other speaks Belarussian and the guest ...
Anixx's user avatar
  • 6,685
2 votes
1 answer
88 views

Why is there a Second Palatalization in personal nouns but not in non-personal nouns in Nominative Plural in Slavic languages

Using Polish as an example, why in personal nouns like "robotnik>robotnicy" or "włoch>włosi" Second Palatalization takes place in the nominative plural, but in non-personal ...
Gensch's user avatar
  • 23
1 vote
1 answer
1k views

Were Iranian languages originally separated and more related to Slavic?

Iranian languages and Slavic languages have some similarities, such as the merger of aspirated sounds into unaspirated sounds, and the development of the consonant /z/. Historically, the settlements ...
Fatyanovo2022's user avatar
6 votes
2 answers
761 views

What language branch of PIE does Kartvelian belong to? (Georgian language)

I know little about language, so I would like to preface that this question may appear disjointed. I have been listening to some wonderful Georgian folk music and have been trying to relate it to any ...
tab_philomath's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
133 views

Why is the Croatian word "pjena" (foam) spelt with "je" as if it were from Slavic yat, rather than "i", as it is from Slavic "y"?

Why is the Croatian word "pjena" (foam) spelt with "je" as if it were from Slavic yat, rather than "i", as it is from Slavic "y"? We know it is from Slavic &...
FlatAssembler's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
128 views

Are Latin causative verb ending -eō and Old Slavic -ити from verbs eō and ити ("to go")?

Are Latin causative verb ending -eō and Old Slavic -ити from verbs eō and ити ("to go")?
Кузнецов Анатолий's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
108 views

How were “bratrъ/bratъ” and “sestra” formed in PSl?

The PIE r-stem words seem to have lost the final -r in PSl: OCS mati, dъšti, and how some words which had -r (and -l) in final position preserve this consonant in the middle of words in slavic?
i's's user avatar
  • 79
1 vote
1 answer
176 views

Havlík's law, 3, & 4 in Czech

According to Wiktionary, the words for 3 and 4 in Proto-Slavic are *trьmi and *četyrьmi, respectively, in the instrumental case. In (current) Czech, they evolved into třemi and čtyřmi. But if you ...
Pteromys's user avatar
  • 183
4 votes
1 answer
446 views

Historical explanations for soft/hard declensions in Czech

Declension patterns in Czech is traditionally categorized into hard and soft ones based on the final consonant of the stem. Materials for learners, e.g., Lída's Czech Step by Step or Michael's ...
Pteromys's user avatar
  • 183
2 votes
1 answer
168 views

The easiest model for mapping Hindi oblique case onto Slavic languages' case systems

How can Hindi Oblique case be mapped into Slavic cases of languages such as Polish or Russian? My intuition is that Oblique case stands for all the Polish cases, except the nominative. That is, for ...
GA1's user avatar
  • 1,189
0 votes
1 answer
94 views

Is Proto-Balto-Slavic zero-grade from long zero-grade i? [closed]

Is Proto-Balto-Slavic zero-grade from long zero-grade i pílˀnas wilkás źírˀna śírˀnāˀ Is Proto-Germanic zero-grade from long zero-grade u fullaz wulfaz kurną hurną
fedor's user avatar
  • 341
1 vote
0 answers
140 views

What is the type of ablaut?

PS *kysnǫti / *kvasъ PIE ū / wā (wō) PS *xytiti / *xvatati PIE ū / wā (wō) PS *xyrěti / *хvоrati ū / wo ? PS *ty / *tvоjь ū / wo Is it somehow related to kʷetwóres rule? modern Russian spelling ...
fedor's user avatar
  • 341
5 votes
1 answer
596 views

Using Polish-inspired z Digraphs for Czech, Slovak

Is it ever okay, i.e. where technical circumstances restrict the available character set (e.g. slugified URLs), to systematically substitute cz, dz, lz, nz, rz, sz, tz and zz for Czech and Slovak ...
Crissov's user avatar
  • 561
7 votes
2 answers
217 views

Why did the softness of the L in the OCS word "велми" reflect so unpredictably into today's languages?

The OCS word "велми", meaning "very" and surviving in several Slavic languages today, is quite a conundrum to me in terms of how it has reflected into the living languages of today....
Adam Kamil Gola's user avatar
-1 votes
1 answer
314 views

When did Old Slavic ЪI become Ы? [closed]

When did Old Slavic ЪI become Ы?
fedor's user avatar
  • 341
1 vote
1 answer
194 views

What is the difference between Slavic little yus and little iotified yus?

What is the difference between Old Slavic little yus ѧ and little iotified yus ѩ, and what does "iotation" mean in this context? Relating to the difference between ѧ and ѩ, is the earliest ...
fedor's user avatar
  • 341
-1 votes
1 answer
112 views

Why are PIE oi changes to ī in Latin and Proto-Slavic?

Why are PIE oe changes to ī in Latin and Old Slavic? English PIE Latin Old Slavic wolves *wĺ̥kʷoes lupi vlĭci Is it a result of short u singular ending in place of PIE o? English PIE Latin Old ...
fedor's user avatar
  • 341
2 votes
2 answers
448 views

Why are Proto-Slavic nasal vowels reconstructed as ę and ǫ?

Why are Proto-Slavic nasal vowels reconstructed as ę and ǫ? But not "i with a little tail" and "u with a little tail"?
fedor's user avatar
  • 341
2 votes
2 answers
2k views

Are Germanic languages closer to Italo-Celtic languages or Balto-Slavic languages?

I ask because in some recent classifications, Italo-Celtic languages (like French, Spanish, Italian, Irish, and Breton), Balto-Slavic languages (like Lithuanian, Russian, Polish, and Serbo-Croat), and ...
mammifereviolet4694's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
158 views

Proto-Slavic ablaut type

PS решти rešti (to speak) full e-grade / рѣчь rěčĭ (a speech) lengthened ē-grade PS ĭ PIE i may also be lengthened to PS i PIE ey But what type of ablaut is бьрати bĭrati (to gather) / берѫ berǫ (I ...
fedor's user avatar
  • 341
0 votes
1 answer
209 views

Slavic second palatalization

Why is the Slavic second palatalization took place before PIE *aj (Proto-Slavic *ě), but врагъ (vragŭ, enemy) / враѕи (vradzi, enemies), where vradzi is a PIE *ey (Proto-Slavic *i)?
fedor's user avatar
  • 341
1 vote
1 answer
179 views

Examples of ě₁ palatalization

"The distinction between *ě₁ and *ě₂ is based on etymology and have different effects on a preceding consonant: *ě₁ triggers the first palatalization and then becomes *a, while *ě₂ triggers the ...
fedor's user avatar
  • 341